Marylebone Cricket Club
Marylebone Cricket Club is a cricket club in London, founded in 1787. It owns, and is based at, Lords in St Johns Wood, MCC was formerly the governing body of cricket both in England and Wales as well as worldwide. In 1993 many of its functions were transferred to the International Cricket Council and its English governance passed to the Test. MCC revised the Laws of Cricket in 1788 and continues to reissue them, since its foundation, the club has raised its own teams which are essentially occasional and have never taken part in any formal competition. Depending on the quality of the opposition in any match, MCC teams have held important match status from 1787 to 1894. MCC has never played in a List A match, MCC teams play many matches against minor opposition and, on these occasions, they relinquish their first-class status. Traditionally, to mark the beginning of each English season in April, MCC plays the reigning County Champions at Lords, the exact date of MCCs foundation is lost but seems to have been sometime in the late spring or the summer of 1787.
Many of its members became dissatisfied with the surroundings and complained that the site was too public. They asked Thomas Lord, a bowler at the White Conduit, to secure a more private venue within easy distance of London. When Lord opened his new ground in May 1787, the White Conduit moved there, there was a match at Lords starting on 30 July 1787 titled Marylebone Cricket Club v White Conduit Club. The England touring team wore the red and yellow stripes of the Marylebone Cricket Club as their colours for the last time on the tour to New Zealand in 1996/97. The true provenance of MCCs colours is unknown, but its players often turned out sporting Sky Blue, until well into the 19th century. Another theory, which chimes with the origins, is that MCC borrowed its colours from the livery colours of a founding patron, Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond. Although MCC remains the framer and copyright holder of the Laws of Cricket, in recent times the ICC has begun instituting changes to match regulations without much consultation with MCC.
Also, in moving its location from Lords to Dubai, the ICC gave a signal of breaking with the past and from MCC, changes to the laws of cricket are still made by the MCC. Any changes to these require a resolution of the MCC committee. MCC has long had an involvement in coaching the game of cricket. As of 2013 the clubs head coach Mark Alleyne heads an operation involving the running of an indoor-cricket school
Cricket in Afghanistan
Cricket in Afghanistan is a sport growing in popularity, which is represented internationally by the Afghanistan national cricket team. Afghanistans proximity to the Test playing nation of Pakistan has helped the game to take root, Afghanistans playing season runs from May to September. There are 320 cricket clubs and 6 turf wickets in Afghanistan, in February 2017 the International Cricket Council awarded first-class status to Afghanistans four-day domestic competition. They granted List A status to their Twenty20 domestic competition, Cricket was first played in Afghanistan during the 19th century Anglo-Afghan Wars, with British troops reported to have played in Kabul in 1839. However, unlike many countries, no lasting legacy was left by the British. In the 1990s, cricket became popular amongst Afghan refugees in Pakistan, and they continued to play cricket on their return to their home country in late 2001. The Afghanistan national cricket teams 21-run win over Namibia in Krugersdorp earned them official One Day International status in April 2009, the team qualified for the 2012 ICC Under-19 Cricket World Cup.
Today cricket is the most popular sport in Afghanistan, and the Afghanistan team has made progress in the international arena. Afghanistan Cricket Board is the governing body of the sport of cricket in Afghanistan. Its current headquarters is in Kabul, the ACB is Afghanistans representative at the International Cricket Council and is an affiliate member and has been a member of that body since 2001. It is a member of the Asian Cricket Council, Afghanistans domestic structure originally consisted of a 25-over Inter-Provincial Tournament, which had the participation of 22 provinces in the tournament. The aim of the tournament was to spread the game across the country, a further aim of the tournament was to remove the perception that the game was played almost exclusively by members of the Pashto tribe in the East of the country. The best players from the tournament were selected players for Afghanistan-A and under-19 teams based on their performance, the top two teams from the 12-team first round advanced to the next round.
The top six from the tournament contested a 50 over tournament in Kabul, the 50 over tournament in May 2010 was won by Kabul Province. Starting in 2011, Afghanistans domestic cricket structure has grown, the expanded Inter-Provincial Tournament was reorganized into a 50 over tournament and divided into a Challenge Cup section and an Elite Cup section. In addition to the Inter-Provincial cricket the Afghanistan Cricket Board has divided the provinces of Afghanistan in to 5 Cricket Regions to enable the management of the game. The Regions are Amo in the north, Spin Ghar in the northeast bordering Pakistan, Band-e-Amir in the centre, all provinces except Daykundi and Farah have a representative team, while the ACB recognizes Afghan Refugees and Koochian as provincial teams. The three-day league competition was expanded into a league in 2014-15
Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan as well as its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country. According to a 2015 estimate, the population of the city was around 3,678,033 which includes all the ethnic groups. Rapid urbanization had made Kabul the worlds 64th largest city and the fifth fastest-growing city in the world, Kabul is said to be over 3,500 years old, mentioned since at least the time of the Achaemenid Empire. The city is at a location along the trade routes of South and Central Asia. It has been part of the Achaemenids, Mauryans, Kabul Shahis, Ghaznavids, Later, it was controlled by the Mughal Empire until finally becoming part of the Durrani Empire in 1747. The city is located high up in a valley between the Hindu Kush mountains. Kabul became the capital of Afghanistan during the reign of Timur Shah Durrani, in the early 19th century, the British occupied the city but were compelled to abandon it. Relations between Afghanistan and Great Britain were established, the city was occupied by the Soviets in 1979 but they too abandoned it after the 1988 Geneva Accords were signed.
A civil war in the 1990s between various rebel groups destroyed much of the city, resulting in many casualties, since the removal of the Taliban from power in late 2001, the city gradually began rebuilding itself with assistance by the international community. Despite the many terrorist attacks by elements, the city is growing and developing. The city is divided into about 18 districts, the Kabul International Airport is located in the Wazir Akbar Khan district a few miles from the foreign embassies. The Parliament of Afghanistan, built by India, is located in the Kārte Seh district, spelled Cabool, Kabol, or Cabul. The word Kubhā is mentioned in the Rigveda, one of the four sacred texts of Hinduism, and the Avesta. The Rigveda praises it as a city, a vision of paradise set in the mountains. The area in which the Kabul valley sits was ruled by the Medes before falling to the Achaemenids, there is a reference to a settlement called Kabura by the rulers of the Achaemenid Empire, It became a center of Zoroastrianism followed by Buddhism and Hinduism.
The region became part of the Seleucid Empire but was given to the Indian Maurya Empire. The Greco-Bactrians captured Kabul from the Mauryans in the early 2nd century BC, indo-Scythians expelled the Indo-Greeks by the mid 1st century BC, but lost the city to the Kushan Empire about 100 years later. Some historians ascribe Kabul the Sanskrit name of Kamboja and it is mentioned as Kophes or Kophene in some classical writings
Khost or Khowst, a city in eastern Afghanistan, lies on 7,139 hectares in a mountainous region near the Pakistani border. The urban population of 106,083, mainly from the Zadran, Zazi, Gurbaz, the town was besieged from July 1983 to November 1987, during the nine-year Soviet war in Afghanistan in the 1980s. Khost Airfield, with a 9, 000-foot runway, served as a base for Soviet military helicopter operations, American forces have used the Khost Airfield since as early as at least January 2007 during the war which commenced in October 2001. Khost is the home of Khost University, the inhabitants of area are Pashto-speaking ethnic Pashtuns. Khost Mosque serves as the mosque in the city. Khost is located about 150 kilometres south of Kabul and 100 kilometres southeast of Gardez, the city lies on a plateau of minimally 1,000 metres altitude that extends to the East for about 40 kilometres until the Bannu Pakistan border. 30 km to the North the peaks start up to 2,500 to 3,000 metres right next to the frontier, while 20 kilometres to the South, near the border, the average is around 1,800 m.
The valley of Khost is closed to the west with a mountain chain with peaks that go over 3,000 metres. Through this runs for about 90 kilometres the road to Gardez, so Taliban invaded Khost in 1995. The capital of Khost province is Matoon, Khost has the following 12 district units. Spera Dwa monda Nadershah koot Ismail khail va Mandozi Musa khail Qalander Tani Gurbaz Bak Zazi maidan Sabari Ali shir Khost has a semi-arid climate and it is located in the Khost Bowl, a valley with lower elevation than the surrounding highlands. Nonetheless, for a proportion of the year Khost remains hot and dry. During the Soviet war in Afghanistan, Khost was the object of a siege which lasted for more than eight years. Soon after the invasion of Afghanistan by Soviet troops, Afghan guerillas took control of the land route between Khost and Gardez, effectively putting a stop to the Soviet advance. Khost is a Provincial Center in eastern Afghanistan on the border with Pakistan, the eastern districts are characterized by forests and residential land while the western districts have more barren land with residential.
There are several waterways accounting for 5% of total land use, Khost has been in American control since the 2001 US led invasion of Afghanistan. Due to its location in eastern Afghanistan, it was a hotbed for insurgent activity attempting to dislodge the American forces there, like most other provinces, Khost is home to maneuver forces and a Provincial Reconstruction Team. Maneuver forces wage war against insurgents and assist the Afghan National Army, the FPFs brought a broader sense of security and prosperity to surrounding areas
The County Championship is the domestic first-class cricket competition in England and Wales. The competition consists of eighteen clubs named after, and originally representing, historic counties, seventeen from England, from 2016, the Championship will be sponsored by Specsavers, who replaced Liverpool Victoria after 14 years. In contrast, the term County Champions applies in common parlance to a team that has won the title since 1890. The most usual means of claiming the title was by popular or press acclaim. In the majority of cases, the claim or proclamation was retrospective, the unofficial title was not proclaimed in every season up to 1889 because in many cases there were not enough matches or there was simply no clear candidate. The concept of the title has been utilised ad hoc. The official County Championship was constituted in a meeting at Lords Cricket Ground on 10 December 1889 which was called to enable club secretaries to determine the 1890 fixtures. While this was going on, representatives of the eight leading county clubs held a meeting to discuss the method by which the county championship should in future be decided. A majority were in favour of ignoring drawn games altogether and settling the championship by wins, under this system defeats were subtracted from victories and the county with the highest total were champions.
The new competition, which had official sanction, began in the 1890 season and at first featured Gloucestershire, Lancashire, Nottinghamshire, Sussex and it is difficult to know when the concept of a county championship originated. While early matches were often between teams named after counties, they were not the teams the usage would imply today. That may be so re the actual terminology but closer examination of the sources indicate a much earlier expression of the idea. The earliest known inter-county match was in 1709 between Kent and Surrey but match results are unknown until the 1720s. The first time a source refers to the superiority of one county is in respect of a match between Edwin Steads XI and Sir William Gages XI at Penshurst Park in August 1728, Steads XI won by an unknown margin although Gages XI needed just 7 in their second innings. The source says that the game could be called Kent v Sussex as the players were reported as 11 of each county, Sir William Gage was a Sussex landowner and Edwin Stead was a resident of Maidstone in Kent.
Evidently Mr Steads Kent team won two games earlier that season against the Duke of Richmonds XI, the source states that was the third time this summer that the Kent men have been too expert for those of Sussex. This clearly implies that Kent was considered to be the county at that time. In 1729, Sir William Gages Sussex team defeated Kent on 5 September, The latter got in one hand and this may have been the earliest known innings victory
The Sunfoil Series is the main domestic first class cricket competition in South Africa, first contested in 1889-90. From 1990-91 it became known as the Castle Cup, from 1996-97 as the Supersport Series, the Highveld Lions have won the title the most times. Knights were known as the Eagles prior to the 2010-11 season, Cricket in South Africa was established by the British, and the first tour by a side from England took place in 1888-89. The following summer, the Currie Cup was established as a domestic competition, the trophy was donated by and named after Sir Donald Currie. An earlier competition, the Champion Bat Tournament, was established in 1876 and played on five occasions, only the final edition of the Champion Bat was accorded first-class status, contested by Eastern Province, Griqualand West, and Western Province during the 1890–91 season. The inaugural competition, in 1889–90, consisted of a match between Kimberley and Transvaal. In this match, Bernard Tancred, for Kimberley and Monty Bowden, for Transvaal, in the first innings of the same match, George Glover took 6/50 for Kimberley.
The following season saw a rematch between Kimberley and Transvaal, Charlie Finlason scored 154* for Kimberley, and John Piton took 13/204 for Transvaal in the match, each team won one of these initial two encounters. Between and the First World War, the competition expanded and Transvaal were joined by Western Province, Eastern Province and Orange Free State — although not all of these teams competed in every season after they were established. Rhodesia and South Western Districts competed on a basis in the 1904-05 season. The Currie Cup was not contested every year, and a total of fourteen seasons were contested between inception and the First World War, aside from a recess during the Boer War, typically seasons were not held when the English team was touring. First class cricket recommenced after the war in the 1920-21 season, the series continued to be held roughly two out of every three years, being cancelled during seasons which coincided with test tours. After the 1925-26, all seven provincial teams featured in every season and they were joined temporarily by Rhodesia, and permanently by North Eastern Transvaal in 1937-38, which was the final season before World War II.
In all, eleven seasons were played between the wars, after an eight-year hiatus, the Currie Cup restarted in 1946-47 with all eight provincial teams and Rhodesia, who would now feature permanently. In 1951-52, the adopted a two-tiered structure, which was retained in some format until 1999-2000. The top division consisted of four or five teams. During this time, the stronger provinces began to field a B team in the lower division, Transvaal B was the first to appear, followed by Natal B. These B-teams were not promoted to the top division when they won the lower competition, since the 1965-66 season, the Currie Cup has been contested every year, and was no longer suspended during international tours
The Logan Cup is the premier domestic first-class cricket competition in Zimbabwe. The current champions are the Mashonaland Eagles, the first recorded cricket match in what was known at the time as Rhodesia was played in August 1890 near Fort Victoria. Within the next ten years, matches were played with more regularity, the competition became first-class along with Zimbabwes elevation to Test status in 1992, and the first competition to hold first-class status was the 1993–94 Logan Cup, won by Mashonaland Under-24s. The competition was not played in the 2005–06 season, due to internal strife, upon the competitions return in 2006–07 it was relaunched with teams representing new areas, rather than the traditional provinces. Kenya were invited to compete in the competition during 2006–07, the competition was again relaunched for the 2009–10 season, with five franchises, Mashonaland Eagles, Matabeleland Tuskers, Mid West Rhinos and Southern Rocks. After the 2013-14 season Southern Rocks, consistently the weakest of the five teams, had their franchise suspended and this table lists all the champions of the Logan Cup during the competitions first-class era
The Ranji Trophy is a domestic first-class cricket championship played in India between teams representing regional cricket associations. The competition currently consists of 27 teams, with 21 of the 29 states in India and Delhi, the competition is named after first Indian cricketer who played international cricket, who was known as Ranji. He played for England and Sussex, gujarat is the current Ranji Trophy champion, having beaten Mumbai by 5 wickets in the final of the 2016–17 season held in Holkar Stadium, Indore. The competition was launched as The Cricket Championship of India following a meeting of the Board of Control for Cricket in India in July 1934, the trophy was donated by Maharaja Bhupinder Singh of Patiala. The first match of the competition was held on 4 November 1934 between Madras and Mysore at Chepauk, M. J. Gopalan of Madras bowled the first ball to N. Curtis. The first Ranji Trophy Championship was won by Bombay after they defeated North India in the final, Mumbai have won the tournament the most number of times with 41 wins including 15 back-to-back wins from 1958–59 to 1972–73.
State teams and cricket associations and clubs with first-class status are qualified to play in the Ranji Trophy, from the 1970–71 season, the knock-out stage was expanded to the top two teams from each zone, a total of ten qualifying teams. Each group had two sub-groups which played a round-robin, the top two from each Elite sub-group contested a four-team knock-out tournament to determine the winner of the Ranji Trophy. The team which finished last in each Elite sub-group was relegated, for the 2006–07 season, the divisions were re-labelled the Super League and Plate League respectively. In the 2008–09 season, this format was adjusted to give both Super League and Plate League teams an opportunity to contest the Ranji Trophy. The top two from each Plate sub-group contested semi-finals, the winners of two matches joined the top three from each Super League sub-group in an eight-team knock-out tournament. The winner of this knock-out tournament won the Ranji Trophy and relegation between Super League and Plate League continued as before.
In the 2010–11 season, Rajasthan won the Ranji Trophy after beginning the season in the Plate League, from the 2012–13 season, this format was adjusted slightly. The Super League and Plate League names were abandoned, but the system remained. The top tier expanded from fifteen teams to eighteen teams, in two sub-groups of nine, and the tier was reduced to nine teams in a single group. The top three teams from Groups A and B and the top two from Group C contest the knockout phase. The lowest placed team in each of Group A and Group B is relegated to Group C, round-robin matches are four days in length, knockout matches are played for five days. Throughout its history, if there is no result in a Ranji Trophy knock-out match
A round-robin tournament is a competition in which each contestant meets all other contestants in turn. It contrasts with an elimination tournament, the term round-robin is derived from the French term ruban, meaning ribbon. Over a long period of time, the term was corrupted and idiomized to robin, in a single round-robin schedule, each participant plays every other participant once. If each participant plays all others twice, this is called a double round-robin. The term is used when all participants play one another more than twice. In the United Kingdom, a tournament is often called an American tournament in sports such as tennis or billiards which usually have knockout tournaments. In Italian it is called girone allitaliana, in Serbian it is called the Berger system, after chess player Johann Berger. A round-robin tournament with four players is sometimes called quad or foursome, in sports with a large number of competitive matches for season, double round-robins are common. Most association football leagues in the world are organized on a double round-robin basis, in every team plays all others in its league once at home.
This system is used during qualification for major tournaments such as the FIFA World Cup. There are round-robin chess, draughts, go, the World Chess Championship decided in 2005 and in 2007 on an eight-player double round-robin tournament where each player faces every other player once as white and once as black. Group tournaments rankings usually go by number of matches won and drawn, pool stages within a wider tournament are conducted on a round-robin basis. In theory, a tournament is the fairest way to determine the champion among a known. Each participant, player or team, has equal chances against all other opposites, the element of luck is seen to be reduced as compared to a knockout system since bad performances need not cripple a competitors chance of ultimate victory. Final records of participants are, seen to be accurate as they represent the results over a longer period against equal competition. This can be used to determine which teams are the poorest performers and this is helpful to determine the final rank of all competitors from strongest to weakest for purposes of qualification for another stage or competition as well as for prize money.
In team sport the major league champions is generally regarded as the best team in the land, the top one, two, or occasionally three teams in these groups proceed to a straight knockout stage for the remainder of the tournament. The main disadvantage of a round robin tournament is the time needed to complete it, for instance, a tournament of 16 teams can be completed in just 4 rounds in a knockout format, a round-robin would require 15 rounds to finish