Kuwait National Petroleum Company
The Kuwait National Petroleum Company is the national oil refining company of Kuwait. Established in October 1960, KNPC handles the responsibility of oil refining, gas liquefaction, established in October 1960 as a share-holding company owned by the Kuwait government and private sector, KNPC became fully government-owned in 1975. Since 1968 the company had been exporting products from its Shuaiba Refinery. In 1980, following the restructuring of the oil sector in Kuwait, KNPC was placed under the newly created Kuwait Petroleum Corporation, under this position, KNPC took control of distributing petroleum products within Kuwait, along with the ownership of the Mina Ahmadi and Mina Abdullah refineries. Mina Abdullah refinery, Built in 1958 by the American Independent Oil Company, Mina Abdullah was passed to the Kuwaiti state in 1975 and transferred to KNPC in 1978. Spanning 7,835,000 m², and located 46 km south of Kuwait City, Mina Al-Ahmadi refinery, Initially built in 1949, the refinery was handed over to KNPC in 1980.
Spanning 10,534,000 m², it is located 45 km south of Kuwait City with a capacity of 730,000 bbl/d. Shuaiba Refinery, Built in 1966, Shuaiba Refinery was the first refinery in the region to be built by a national company, the refinery spans 1,332,000 m² and is located 50 km south of Kuwait City within the Shuaiba Industrial Area. The refinery has a capacity of 200,000 bbl/d, al Zour Refinery, KNPC released plans to build a fourth refinery known as Al-Zour in July 2007. The refinery is expected to have a capacity of 615,000 bbl/d, the Contracts have now been revoked and the project being out on hold for lack of transparency in the awarding of the contracts to the companies mentioned above. Kuwait Oil Company Economy of Kuwait Official Kuwait National Petroleum Company website Projects Retrieved 7June 2008
Kuwait Oil Company
The Kuwait Oil Company is an oil company headquartered in Ahmadi, Kuwait. It is a subsidiary of the Kuwait Petroleum Corporation, a Government-owned holding company, Kuwait was worlds 10th largest petroleum and other liquids producer in 2013, and fifth-largest exporter in terms of volume of crude oil and condensates. The managing director of the company is Jamal Abdulaziz Jaafar, the Kuwait Oil Company was founded in 1934 by Anglo-Persian Oil Company and Gulf Oil as an equally owned partnership. The oil concession rights were awarded to the company on 23 December 1934, first oil was discovered in 1938 in Burgan field, followed by discoveries in Magwa in 1951, Ahmadi in 1952, Raudhatain in 1955, Sabriya in 1957, and Minagish in 1959. The initial development of the oil industry coincided with the end of the British Raj in India and many British, the oil town of Ahmadi was set up to house these workers, and was segregated on racial lines. Such segregation continued in the amenities and recreational facilities offered to company employees, race to a large extent dictated the status of employees and conditions of employment within the company.
When the Royal Navy converted their warships to oil burners instead of coal, figures such as Dame Violet Dickson who lived among the Kuwaitis for 40 years were influential in fostering an excellent relationship with the Kuwaitis. For the mean while, KwIDF is one of the most strategic projects the company participated in to support the oil, BP and Gulf were able to obtain the Kuwaiti oil at very favourable terms for sale via their downstream networks in Europe and adjoining areas. During this time, Gulf would claim that it had a relationship with Kuwait. However, all came to an end in 1975 when the KOC reverted to Kuwaiti ownership
Mangaf is a suburb of Kuwait City. It is a mix of old and new, the old is split into two areas and residential. Government housing from the 1980s formed the area with houses, while the rest was a collection of residential tower blocks. There is a concentration of shops in the area locally known as Al Azeeziya. A concentration of mobile shops and more. It has a branch of the Sultan Center chain, Mangaf now has many fast food chains such as KFC, Hardees along with other famous restaurants such as Minutes, Bustan Al Turkey Restaurant etc. The suburb has witnessed an expansion with the additional area being mainly residential. Works are nearing completion with some areas still missing basic infrastructure, the new split of blocks gives Mangaf a total of 5. Block five is the Hilton Resort Kuwait, with the blocks being made up of primarily two or three storey villas. Mangaf is now a living area for expats looking for good affordable living in Kuwait. Mangaf sits on the Persian Gulf and adjacent to the Hiltons private beach, there is a petrol station in Block 1.
Also the very famous Princess Rent A Car which includes all types of cars from sports to luxuries, the English School Fahaheel Kuwait is located in the area
Wafra is the southernmost area in Kuwait. It is part of Ahmadi Governorate and is known for its fertile soil. It is parallel with the Saudi border and Abdali in the North, are the only two cities in Kuwait known for farming and the animal sector. Wafra Farms are fed by the underground lakes, the farms have a very original cone-shaped mud dovecotes with hundreds of birds. People tend to visit the Wafra Market to buy fresh vegetables, honey Palm trees, grown in other cities and towns in Kuwait Dates Cucumbers Lettuces Tomatoes Green Peppers
Architecture of the United Kingdom
England has seen the most influential developments, though Ireland and Wales have each fostered unique styles and played leading roles in the international history of architecture. English Gothic architecture, which flourished between 1180 until around 1520, was imported from France, but quickly developed its own unique qualities. Beyond the United Kingdom, the influence of British architecture is particularly strong in India, the cities of Lahore, Kolkata and Chittagong have courts, administrative buildings and railway stations designed in British architectural styles. In the United Kingdom, a monument is a nationally important archaeological site or historic building. Within the United Kingdom are the ruins of structures and ancient neolithic settlements. The architecture of ancient Rome penetrated Roman Britain with elegant villas, carefully planned towns, Anglo-Saxons brought a sophisticated building style of their own to Britain, but little physical evidence survives because the principal building material was wood.
The Norman conquest of England, which began in 1066, marked the introduction of large-scale stone-block building techniques to Britain, the Norman penetration of the Scottish nobility resulted in Scoto-Norman and Romanesque architecture too, examples being Dunfermline Abbey, St. Margarets Chapel and St. Magnus Cathedral. Throughout Britain and Ireland and functionality prevailed in building styles, such as Alnwick Castle, Caernarfon Castle and Stirling Castle served military purpose and their battlements and turrets were practical solutions to medieval warfare. Under the feudal system that dominated Britain, fitness for purpose characterised domestic structures, for many, houses were dark, primitive structures of one or two rooms, usually with crude timber frames, low walls and thatched roofs. In the Kingdom of England, Perpendicular style gained preference for civic, kings College Chapel in Cambridge, which started in 1446 and was completed in 1515, marks the period of transition between Perpendicular and Tudor style architecture.
Between 1500 and 1660 Britain experienced a social and political change owing to the Union of the Crowns, although Britain became more unified and stable, it became more isolated from continental Europe. Catholic monasteries were closed, and their lands were redistributed, creating new rich, owing to troublesome relations with Catholic Europe, the free exchange of ideas was difficult meaning new Renaissance architecture was generally slow to arrive in Britain. Increasingly isolated from the continent, landowners relied on new books for inspiration. Medieval Gothic architectural forms were dropped, and mansions and other large domestic buildings became varied. For the majority of the people of Great Britain however, domestic buildings were of poor design and materials, most buildings remained tied to the locality, and local materials shaped buildings. Furthermore, the buildings of the 16th century were governed by fitness for purpose. However, more stable and sophisticated houses for those lower down the scale gradually appeared, replacing timber with stone and, later.
The arrival of Flemish people in the 16th and 17th centuries introduced Protestant craftsmen, the 18th century has been described as a great period in British Architecture
Not to be confused with Route number A numbered street is a street whose name is an ordinal number, as in Second Street or Tenth Avenue. Such forms are among the most common names in North America. Numbered streets were first used in Philadelphia and now exist in major cities. Grid-based naming systems usually start at 1, and proceed in numerical order, in the United States, seven out of the top ten most common street names are numbers, with the top three names being 2nd, 3rd, and 1st respectively. Some cities have lettered street names, for example, Washington, D. C. in addition to having numbered streets, has streets identified as a letter followed by Street, going as high as the letter W. New York City has avenues titled Avenue followed by the letter of the alphabet. The idea for such a system was developed by Pierre Charles L’Enfant, the numbered street system is criticized for taking away the individuality from a community that a named street would provide. The city of Baltimore, has numbered streets in the part of the city.
The numbered streets, which go as high as 43rd Street, unlike in Washington, where the numbered streets run north–south, Baltimores numbered streets run west–east. All begin their names with either West or East, depending on which side of Charles Street the block is located, some of Baltimores numbered streets are well known for various reasons. 28th and 29th streets, a pair, are the only numbered streets to have an interchange with I-83. They use the designations to the east of the expressway. East 33rd Street was the location of the now-demolished Memorial Stadium, home to the Baltimore Orioles for 38 years and the Baltimore Colts for 31. West 34th Street is the location of the annual Miracle on 34th Street, the City of Chicago is set on a grid with eight standard city blocks per mile. Some blocks are divided in half. A standard block has 100 address numbers, meaning there are 800 numbers per mile, Chicago address numbering begins downtown at State Street and Madison Street, State Street is 0 east and west, and Madison Street is 0 north and south.
Major streets a mile apart have address numbers that, for the most part, are multiples of 800, the south side of the city uses numbered east–west streets, although older streets that were already named retained their names, particularly in the Loop. As stated above, Chicago house numbers are assigned at the rate of 8 blocks to a mile
Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south. It is separated from Israel and Egypt by the Gulf of Aqaba and it is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast and most of its terrain consists of arid desert and mountains. The area of modern-day Saudi Arabia formerly consisted of four regions, Hejaz and parts of Eastern Arabia. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded in 1932 by Ibn Saud and he united the four regions into a single state through a series of conquests beginning in 1902 with the capture of Riyadh, the ancestral home of his family, the House of Saud. Saudi Arabia has since been a monarchy, effectively a hereditary dictatorship governed along Islamic lines. The ultraconservative Wahhabi religious movement within Sunni Islam has been called the predominant feature of Saudi culture, with its global spread largely financed by the oil and gas trade.
Saudi Arabia is sometimes called the Land of the Two Holy Mosques in reference to Al-Masjid al-Haram and Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, the state has a total population of 28.7 million, of which 20 million are Saudi nationals and 8 million are foreigners. The states official language is Arabic, petroleum was discovered on 3 March 1938 and followed up by several other finds in the Eastern Province. Saudi Arabia has since become the worlds largest oil producer and exporter, controlling the second largest oil reserves. The kingdom is categorized as a World Bank high-income economy with a high Human Development Index and is the only Arab country to be part of the G-20 major economies. However, the economy of Saudi Arabia is the least diversified in the Gulf Cooperation Council, the state has attracted criticism for its treatment of women and use of capital punishment. Saudi Arabia is an autocracy, has the fourth highest military expenditure in the world. Saudi Arabia is considered a regional and middle power, in addition to the GCC, it is an active member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and OPEC.
Following the unification of the Hejaz and Nejd kingdoms, the new state was named al-Mamlakah al-ʻArabīyah as-Suʻūdīyah by royal decree on 23 September 1932 by its founder, Abdulaziz Al Saud. Although this is translated as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in English it literally means the Saudi Arab kingdom. Its inclusion expresses the view that the country is the possession of the royal family. Al Saud is an Arabic name formed by adding the word Al, meaning family of or House of, in the case of the Al Saud, this is the father of the dynastys 18th century founder, Muhammad bin Saud. There is evidence that human habitation in the Arabian Peninsula dates back to about 125,000 years ago
The Persian Gulf is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia. The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean through the Strait of Hormuz, the Shatt al-Arab river delta forms the northwest shoreline. The Persian Gulf was a battlefield of the 1980–1988 Iran–Iraq War and it is the namesake of the 1991 Gulf War, the largely air- and land-based conflict that followed Iraqs invasion of Kuwait. The gulf has many fishing grounds, extensive coral reefs, and abundant pearl oysters, the body of water is historically and internationally known as the Persian Gulf. Some Arab governments refer to it as the Arabian Gulf or The Gulf, the name Gulf of Iran is used by the International Hydrographic Organization. The Persian Gulf is geologically young, having been formed around 15,000 years ago. Its length is 989 kilometres, with Iran covering most of the northern coast, the Persian Gulf is about 56 km wide at its narrowest, in the Strait of Hormuz. The waters are very shallow, with a maximum depth of 90 metres.
Various small islands lie within the Persian Gulf, some of which are the subject of territorial disputes between the states of the region. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the Persian Gulfs southern limit as The Northwestern limit of Gulf of Oman and this limit is defined as A line joining Ràs Limah on the coast of Arabia and Ràs al Kuh on the coast of Iran. The Persian Gulf and its areas are the worlds largest single source of crude oil. Safaniya Oil Field, the worlds largest offshore oilfield, is located in the Persian Gulf, large gas finds have been made, with Qatar and Iran sharing a giant field across the territorial median line. Using this gas, Qatar has built up a substantial liquefied natural gas, the oil-rich countries that have a coastline on the Persian Gulf are referred to as the Persian Gulf States. In 550 BC, the Achaemenid Empire established the first ancient empire in Persis, consequently, in the Greek sources, the body of water that bordered this province came to be known as the Persian Gulf.
In the travel account of Pythagoras, several chapters are related to description of his travels accompanied by the Achaemenid king Darius the Great, to Susa and Persepolis, and the area is described. This water channel separates the Iran Plateau from the Arabia Plate, has enjoyed an Iranian Identity since at least 2200 years ago. Before being given its present name, the Persian Gulf was called many different names, the classical Greek writers, like Herodotus, called it the Red Sea. In Babylonian texts, it was known as the sea above Akkad, the name of the gulf and internationally known as the Persian Gulf after the land of Persia, has been disputed by some Arab countries since the 1960s
Great Britain, known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, Great Britain is the largest European island, in 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the worlds third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan. The island of Ireland is situated to the west of it, the island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, the island is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, most of England and Wales are on the island. The term Great Britain often extends to surrounding islands that form part of England and Wales. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England, the archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years, the term British Isles derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group.
By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, the oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or possibly by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne. The name Britain descends from the Latin name for Britain, Britannia or Brittānia, Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne. The French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together. It is derived from the writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι. The peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Πρεττανοί, Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland.
The latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans, the Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. The name Albion appears to have out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a term only. It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself King of Great Brittaine, Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, politically to England and Wales in combination