Qais Abdur Rashid
Qais Abdur Rashīd or Qais Abdul Rasheed is said to be, in post-Islamic lore, the legendary founding father of the ethnic Afghans known as Pashtun people. There are doubts about the historicity and existence of such a figure: as the Pashtun ethnicity began taking shape in the Bronze Age and Islam spread through Afghanistan over a period time as opposed to people changing faith in a single day, it is the conception of such a figure was promoted to bring harmony between religious identity and ethnic identity. Qais is said to have traveled to Medina in Arabia during the early days of Islam. According to the folk tale, Qais had three sons: Saṛban, Bēṭ, Gharghax̌t, his sons founded three tribal confederacies named after them: Sarbani and Gharghashti. Qais had an adopted son, Karlani Ormur Baraki, progenitor of the Karlani tribe. There are multiple versions of the legend, including several regional variants that mention only one, two, or three of the four legendary brothers; some Afghan genealogies list Qais as the 37th descendant of King Talut through Malik Afghana, a legendary grandson of Talut.
The British Indian administrator Muhammad Hayat Khan, in his book Hayāt-e Afghānī, writes that Qais was the 101st descendant of Saul through Saul's son Yehonatan. According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, the theory of Pashtun descent from the ancient Israelites is traced to Tārīkh-e Khān Jahānī wa Makhzan-e Afghānī, a history compiled by Nimat Allah al-Harawi during the reign of the Mughal emperor Jahangir in the 17th century; the Makhzan-e Afghānī's Israelite theory, has been dismissed by modern authorities due to numerous historical and linguistic inconsistencies. Legend has it. Upon hearing about the advent of Islam, his tribe sent him to Medina in the Arabian Peninsula, in present-day Saudi Arabia, he met the Prophet Muhammad and embraced Islam there, was given the name Abdur Rashīd by the Prophet. He returned to Ghor and introduced Islam to his tribe. According to Mountstuart Elphinstone, in legend the famous military leader and companion of Muhammad, Khalid ibn al-Walid, introduced Qais to the Prophet Muhammad.
The Afghan historians proceed to relate that the Jewish tribe, both in Ghor and in Arabia, preserved their knowledge of the unity of God and the purity of their religious belief, that on the appearance of the last prophet and messenger, Prophet Muhammad, the Afghans of Ghor listened to the invitation of their Arabian brethren, the chief of whom was Khalid ibn al-Waleed, so famous for his conquest of Syria, marched to the aid of the true faith, under the command of Kyse, afterwards surnamed "Abdul Rasheed". One legend has it that when Qais felt his time was near, he asked his sons to take him from Ghor to the Sulaiman Mountains and bury him at the spot where his ancestor Malik Afghana was buried, he was buried on top of Takht-e-Sulaiman called Da Kasī Ghar, located near the village of Darazinda in Frontier Region Dera Ismail Khan of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan, close to Frontier Region Dera Ismail Khan's borders with both South Waziristan and Zhob District, Balochistan.
Some people visit the place in the summer, since in winters the snowfall makes it difficult to climb, sacrifice an animal a sheep or a goat at the tomb of Qais. According to another legend, Qais settled in the Balkh region of present-day northern Afghanistan. From there, his different descendants migrated south and east. There is, however, no strong evidence to show any genealogical connection between the present-day Pashtuns and the ancient Semitic-speaking Israelites. DNA shows. Hence, Pashtuns have a significant affinity with their neighboring Indo-European speaking ethnic groups, Amir Kror Suri, a legendary 8th-century Pashtun prince from Ghor Amir Suri, a pagan Ghorid king in the 9th and 10th century, defeated in war with the Saffarid emir Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar Lech and Rus, three legendary brothers who are said to have founded the three modern Slavic nations of Poles and Rus' Fénius Farsaid, a legendary Scythian prince, said to have founded the modern Irish nation and invented the Ogham Irish alphabet Asena, a she-wolf in the mythical foundation of the Göktürks Hayk, legendary father of the Armenians
South Waziristan District is a district in Dera Ismail Khan Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the southern part of Waziristan, a mountainous region of northwest Pakistan, that covers some 11,585 km2. Waziristan comprises the area west and southwest of Peshawar between the Tochi River to the north and the Gomal River to the south; the region was an independent tribal territory from 1893, remaining outside of British-ruled empire and Afghanistan. Tribal raiding into British-ruled territory was a constant problem for the British, requiring frequent punitive expeditions between 1860 and 1945. Troops of the British Raj coined a name for this region "Hell's Door Knocker" in recognition of the fearsome reputation of the local fighters and inhospitable terrain; the capital city of South Waziristan is Wanna. South Waziristan is divided into the three administrative subdivisions of Ladha and Wanna; these three subdivisions are further divided into eight Tehsils: Ladha, Sararogha, Tiarza, Wanna and Toi Khwla.
Before 1894, Waziristan was under the government of the Afghan Empire, based in Kabul. The British entered Waziristan in 1894. After the British military operations in 1894–95, Waziristan was divided into two "agencies", North Waziristan and South Waziristan; the two parts have quite distinct characteristics, though both tribes are subgroups of the Waziri tribe, after whom the region is named, speak a common Waziristani dialect. They are known for their frequent blood feuds. Traditionally, feuding local Waziri religious leaders have enlisted outsiders in the Pakistani government, more U. S. forces hunting al-Qaeda fugitives—in attempts at score-settling. The tribes are divided into sub-tribes governed by male village elders, and religiously, Waziristan is an conservative area. Women are guarded, every household must be headed by a male figure. Tribal cohesiveness is strong through so-called Collective Responsibility Acts in the Frontier Crimes Regulation. In terms of area South Waziristan was the largest agency in FATA, being 6,619 km2.
It has been functioning since 1895. In 2018, it became a district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan with merger of FATA with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, it is bordered to the north by the North Waziristan District, to the north-east by Bannu and Lakki Marwat Districts, to the east by tribal areas adjoining the Tank and Dera Ismail Khan Districts, to the south by Zhob District of Balochistan Province and tribal areas adjoining Dera Ismail Khan District, to the west by Afghanistan. The Agency is a mass of rugged and complex hills and ridges. There are no regular mountain alignments; the land rises from south and east to north and west. The dominating range is the Preghal in the west along the border with Afghanistan, it is the highest peak, 3,515 metres high. Zarmelan, Shakki, Zalai and Tiarza are the main plains of the Agency. Direction of water courses, in general, is from west to south i.e. from the watersheds of Sulaiman Mountains to the Indus. There are two principal rivers in the Gomal of Luni and Tank Zam.
Some important rivulets are Khaisora, Siplatoi, Toi Khwla, Shuza and Shahur. The rest are mountain streams which can become dangerous and impassable during heavy rains which occur during the months of July and August; the Gomal River rises in two branches in the eastern slopes of the western Sulaiman range in the Barmal District of Afghanistan not far from the source of the Tochi River. The Tank Zam is formed by the junction of the Tauda China and the Baddar Toi, at Dwa Toi, south of Razmak. South Waziristan District is subdivided into eight tehsils. Birmil Tehsil Ladha Tehsil Makin Tehsil Sararogha Tehsil Serwekai Tehsil Tiarza Tehsil Toi Khulla Tehsil Wana Tehsil There is hardly significant mining to be mentioned. Coal mines have been discovered in the disputed area of Neeli Kach Tehsil Wanna. Copper is found in Spin Kamar. Chromite in area Sarah Khuara near Dre Nashter; the Agency has hot summers and cold winters. In winter, temperatures go below freezing point in places of high altitude; the summer season ends by September.
June is the warmest month when the mean maximum temperature rises over 30 degrees Celsius. The winter continues until April. December and February are the coldest months; the mean maximum and minimum temperatures for this period are 10 and −2 degrees Celsius, respectively. The Agency is outside the monsoon zone, yet at higher altitudes a fair amount of rainfall is received. South Waziristan Agency has an arid climate, receiving minimal precipitation; the western portion, bordering Afghanistan, receives more rainfall than the eastern portion touching Tank and D. I. Khan districts due to high altitude. Most of the Agency receives mean annual rainfall of 6 inches, while a small area in the southeastern corner receives less than 10 inches of rainfall annually. Located near the site of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization and Harappa, the region was annexed as part of a far flung satrapy by the old Persian Achaemenid Empire before 500 B. C; the Macedonians under Alexander the Great marched on the area around 330 B.
C. the Greco-Bactrians establishing an independent Indo-Greek Kingdom following a split with the Seleucid Empire to the west. Afterwards, it came under Mauryan rule; the Saka arrived around 97 B. C. before the Indo-Parthians of Arsacid affinity ruled under Gondophares to about A. D. 75. The following few centuries A. D. brought at least nominal Kushan, Ephthalite and Sassanian Persian rule, the last of which fell to
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam, followed by nearly 90% of the world's Muslims. Its name comes from the word sunnah; the differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims arose from a disagreement over the succession to Muhammad and subsequently acquired broader political significance, as well as theological and juridical dimensions. According to Sunni traditions, Muhammad did not designate a successor and the Muslim community acted according to his sunnah in electing his father-in-law Abu Bakr as the first caliph; this contrasts with the Shia view, which holds that Muhammad announced at the event of Ghadir Khumm his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor. Political tensions between Sunnis and Shias continued with varying intensity throughout Islamic history and they have been exacerbated in recent times by ethnic conflicts and the rise of Wahhabism; as of 2009, Sunni Muslims constituted 87–90% of the world's Muslim population. Sunni Islam is the world's largest religious denomination, followed by Catholicism.
Its adherents are referred to in Arabic as ahl as-sunnah wa ahl as-sunnah for short. In English, its doctrines and practices are sometimes called Sunnism, while adherents are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis and Ahlus Sunnah. Sunni Islam is sometimes referred to as "orthodox Islam". However, other scholars of Islam, such as John Burton believe that there is no such thing as "orthodox Islam"; the Quran, together with hadith and binding juristic consensus form the basis of all traditional jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. Sharia rulings are derived from these basic sources, in conjunction with analogical reasoning, consideration of public welfare and juristic discretion, using the principles of jurisprudence developed by the traditional legal schools. In matters of creed, the Sunni tradition upholds the six pillars of iman and comprises the Ash'ari and Maturidi schools of rationalistic theology as well as the textualist school known as traditionalist theology. Sunnī commonly referred to as Sunnīism, is a term derived from sunnah meaning "habit", "usual practice", "custom", "tradition".
The Muslim use of this term refers to living habits of the prophet Muhammad. In Arabic, this branch of Islam is referred to as ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah, "the people of the sunnah and the community", shortened to ahl as-sunnah. One common mistake is to assume that Sunni Islam represents a normative Islam that emerged during the period after Muhammad's death, that Sufism and Shi'ism developed out of Sunni Islam; this perception is due to the reliance on ideological sources that have been accepted as reliable historical works, because the vast majority of the population is Sunni. Both Sunnism and Shiaism are the end products of several centuries of competition between ideologies. Both sects used each other to further cement their own doctrines; the first four caliphs are known among Sunnis as the Rashidun or "Rightly-Guided Ones". Sunni recognition includes the aforementioned Abu Bakr as the first, Umar as the second, Uthman as the third, Ali as the fourth. Sunnis recognised different rulers as the caliph, though they did not include anyone in the list of the rightly guided ones or Rashidun after the murder of Ali, until the caliphate was constitutionally abolished in Turkey on 3 March 1924.
The seeds of metamorphosis of caliphate into kingship were sown, as the second caliph Umar had feared, as early as the regime of the third caliph Uthman, who appointed many of his kinsmen from his clan Banu Umayya, including Marwan and Walid bin Uqba on important government positions, becoming the main cause of turmoil resulting in his murder and the ensuing infighting during Ali's time and rebellion by Muawiya, another of Uthman's kinsman. This resulted in the establishment of firm dynastic rule of Banu Umayya after Husain, the younger son of Ali from Fatima, was killed at the Battle of Karbala; the rise to power of Banu Umayya, the Meccan tribe of elites who had vehemently opposed Muhammad under the leadership of Abu Sufyan, Muawiya's father, right up to the conquest of Mecca by Muhammad, as his successors with the accession of Uthman to caliphate, replaced the egalitarian society formed as a result of Muhammad's revolution to a society stratified between haves and have-nots as a result of nepotism, in the words of El-Hibri through "the use of religious charity revenues to subsidise family interests, which Uthman justified as "al-sila"."
Ali, during his rather brief regime after Uthman maintained austere life style and tried hard to bring back the egalitarian system and supremacy of law over the ruler idealised in Muhammad's message, but faced continued opposition, wars one after another by Aisha-Talhah-Zubair, by Muawiya and by the Kharjites. After he was murdered his followers elected Hasan ibn Ali his elder son from Fatima to succeed him. Hasan, shortly afterwards signed a treaty with Muawiaya relinquishing power in favour of the latter, with a condition inter alia, that one of the two who will outlive the other will be the caliph, that this caliph will not appoint a successor but will leave the matter of selection of the caliph to the public. Subsequently, Hasan was poisoned to death and Muawiya enjoyed unchallenged power. Not honouring his treaty with Hasan he however nominated his son Yazid to succeed him. Upon Muawiya's death, Yazid asked Husain the younger brother of Hasan, Ali's son and Muh
The Ghilji, Persian: غلزایی) called Khaljī, Khiljī, Ghilzai, or Gharzai, are the largest Pashtun tribal confederacy. The Ghilji at various times became rulers of present Afghanistan region and were the most dominant Pashtun confederacy from c. 1000 AD until 1747 AD, when power shifted to the Durranis. The Ghilji tribes are today scattered all over Afghanistan and some parts of Pakistan, but most are concentrated in the region from Zabul to Kabul province, with Ghazni and Paktika provinces in the center of their region; the Ghilji Lilizai tribes are settled in Balochistan' Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Hazara Division in Pakistan. Many of the migrating Kochi people of Afghanistan belong to the Ghilji confederacy. Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai, the current President of Afghanistan belongs to the Ghilji tribe. From 1709 to 1738, the Ghilji ruled the Hotak Empire based first in Kandahar and from 1722–1728, in Isfahan, Persia; the founder of the Hotak Empire was Mirwais Hotak. Another famous Ghilji from the 18th century was Azad Khan Afghan, who rose to power from 1752 to 1757 in western Iran.
Etymologically the word Ghilji is derived from ghar-zai, meaning "son of mountain". The most plausible theory suggests that the Ghilji descended from the Khalaj people, who early settled in the Siah-band range of the Ghor mountains, first rose into the notice in the time of Mahmud of Ghazni, whom they accompanied in his invasions of India; the German orientalist Bernard Dorn, in volume 2 of his book "The History of Afghans", based on Tārīkh-e Khān Jahānī wa Makhzan-e Afghānī of Nimat Allah al-Harawi, supports the Ghilji descent from Bibi Mato, daughter of Shaykh Beṭ Nīkə, in the following words: "To Ghilzye, who belongs to the Matis, God Almighty granted three sons, Ibrahim and Poor. Ibrahim had two sons Shabak. Haijub had thirteen sons, Alikhail, Karikhail, Paroki, Chani and Tanokhel Tanoli. Sahbak had two sons and Ismailkhail. Toor, Ghilzye's son, had three sons, Tarakai and Andar." In the beginning of the 18th century, the Ghilji revolted against their Persian rulers, established themselves under Mir Wais as independent rulers at Kandahar and overrun Persia.
When the Hotak tribe, under the leadership of Mirwais Hotak and Nasher Khan of the Ghaznavid revolted against the Safavids in 1709, the Ghilji came into conflicts with their western neighbors. Mir Wais, an influential Afghan tribal leader and founder of the Hotak dynasty, had visited the Persian court and studied their military weaknesses; the Afghan tribes rankled under the ruling Shia Safavids because of their continued attempts to convert the Pashtuns from Sunni to Shiaism Spawning Afghan nationalism, Mir Wais succeeded in expelling the Safavids from Kandahar. His eldest son, effected a successful invasion of Persia which culminated in the conquest of Isfahan and the deposition of the Safavid Shah Sultan Husayn. Mahmud was crowned Shah and ruled for a brief period before being deposed by his own clansmen, his cousin and successor reigned for nearly five years before being killed by Baloch tribes while fleeing towards Kandahar. Their rule ended after the Siege of Kandahar in 1738. Amb known as Tanawal was a princely state of the former British Indian Empire ruled over by chiefs of the Tanoli tribe from Ghilji Pashtun descent.
Following Pakistani independence in 1947, for some months afterwards,The nawabs of Amb remained unaligned. However, at the end of December 1947 he acceded to Pakistan, while retaining internal self-government. Amb continued as a Princely state of Pakistan until 1969, when it was incorporated into the North West Frontier Province. Phulra was a minor Muslim princely state in the days of British Raj and ruled by the Tanoli tribe of Pashtun Ghilji confederation, located in the region of the North West Frontier to the east of the nearby parent princely state of Amb. In Afghanistan the Ghilji are scattered all over the country but settled around the regions between Zabul and Kabul provinces; the Afghan province of Paktika is considered to be a heartland of the Ghilji tribe. Ghilji sub-tribes in Paktika include the Kharoti in the Sar Hawza and Urgon districts, the Andar and the largest single Ghilji sub-tribe, the Suleimankhel, who are the majority in northern and western areas of Paktika such as. After the great Ghilji rebellion in 1885–1886, led by Alam Khan Nasher, many members of the Ghilji tribe, such as.
Pashtun tribes Tanoli Lohani Povindah Ghiljo Bazar, a settlement in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan
Utmanzai (Wazir clan)
The Utmanzai or Utmanzai Wazir are a Sunni Muslim Pashtun tribe found in North Waziristan Agency, Pakistan. Their territory lies on the border with Afghanistan and they migrated between the hills during the summer and the valleys in the winter. Although a pastoral tribe and the related Mehsud tribe — with whom they have a historical antipathy — were described by Arnold Fletcher in 1965 as "perhaps the most powerful and aggressive of the border Pushtoons"; the Utmanzai form one of the two major branches of the Wazir tribe, with the other being the Ahmadzai of South Waziristan Agency. The Utmanzai branch is further subdivided, for example into tribes such as the Bakka Khel and Jani Khel; the common ancestor of the Ahmadzai and Utmanzai is the eponymous Wazir, ancestor to the Mehsuds who have since taken a distinct and divergent path. Through Wazir, the tribes trace their origins to Karlanri and thence to the founder of the Pashtun lineage, Qais Abdur Rashid; the North and South Waziristan agencies together form the region of Waziristan, which derives its name from this supra-tribe.
In December 2012, the government of North Waziristan Agency used its powers under the Frontier Crimes Regulations to remove privileges from the Utmanzai, such as honorariums given to tribal elders. The government ordered that the issue of official documentation, such as national identity cards and passports, to members of the tribe should cease; these measures were taken in an attempt to force members of the tribe to provide security for teams who were running a polio vaccination campaign in the area. The Shura Mujahideen, led by Hafiz Gul Bahadur — a member of the tribe and a militant leader associated with Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan — had issued an order in June 2012 that the campaign should be opposed until drone attacks by the United States ended. Tribal members believed that the US took advantage of vaccination campaigns for intelligence purposes and that it was a fake vaccination campaign in Abbotabad that had led to the tracing of the Al-Qaeda leader, Osama bin Laden; the restrictions were lifted temporarily in February 2013 to allow voter registration to be completed.
There is branch of Utmanzai in Poonch district of Kashmir rigion,Known as Sudhan or Sudhozai,according to Sudhans their ancestor of Sudhan tribe, Nawab Jassi Khan from Saad bin Utmam's family moved to the Poonch district of Kashmir region some centuries ago. Ahmed, Akbar S.. Resistance and Control in Pakistan. Routledge. ISBN 9781134273737. "North Waziristan Agency: Main Tribes: Wazir". Retrieved 24 November 2013
The Bettani spelled Baittani or Bhittani, is a Pashtun tribal confederacy located in Afghanistan and Pakistan with a small number dwelling in India. The Bettani are named after Shaykh Beṭ, their legendary ancestor, said to be the second son of Qais Abdur Rashid; the Bettani's are Sunni Muslims of Hanafi sect. The Bettani confederacy includes the supertribes of Lohani and Lodi, as well as the tribe of Shirani; the Betani are said to be named after their ancestor Betṭ Baba, who lived in the Altamur range, located between Logar and Zurmat and he was buried in Ghazni according to the legend. The Betani are known to have lived in the Logar and Ghazni area until the 15th century, but they came into conflict with the Ghilji and the Bettanis were expelled from the area towards the east; some lineages succeeded to take control of Gabarḡar, located between the Bannu Basin and Dēra, while other Bettani lineages migrated further northeastwards. The Ghilji reside in east-central Afghanistan, most concentrated in the region from Zabul to Kabul province.
The Bettani proper in Pakistan reside in Frontier Region Tank and Frontier Region Lakki Marwat, a territory, a buffer zone separating Tank and Lakki Marwat districts from the Mahsud tribe of central Waziristan in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Jandola is considered the capital of the Bettani tribes; the circumstances of its separation from the main body of the tribe are unknown. This was the former location of the tribe. In the early 1930s three villages in the Ghazni area were reported to be inhabited by Betani, in addition 100 nomadic Betani families migrated between eastern Afghanistan and the Derajat; the Bhittani claim descent from Shaikh Bet Baba, the third son of Qais Abdurisheed, the founder of Pashtun. Sheikh Bet is reported to have lived in the Altamur range, between Logar and Zormat, to have been buried at Ghazni, his descendants in the male line, the Betani, are known to have inhabited the same area up to the ninth/fifteenth century, when their Ghilji cousins expelled them.
Bhittani are referred to as Bitani, Battani and Bhittani. In eastern sources it is sometimes written Betani or Bittani, whereas in British sources it is habitually transcribed Bhittani; some of the Bettani tribes are residing in Hyderabad and United Arab Emirate from last 45 years. The area is inhabited by the Bhittanis who have three sub-sections namely Tatta,Waraspon and Dhanna; the Bhittanis, as evident from their name, claim descent from Baitan, the third son of Qais, the founder, according to one doctrine, of the Pukhtoon race. They inhabit F. R. D. I. Khan and F. R. Bannu the mountainous area on the borders of Tank and Bannu from the Gabbar mountain in the north to the Gomal valley in the south. According to traditions, they were first living in Koh-i-Sulaiman, but the Ghiljis drove them out of their homeland and they settled where they are now. During the reign of Pashtun Sultans of Delhi they enjoyed prestigious positions, a large number of them used to serve in the Sultanate's army. Bhittanis tribe is divided in three sections: Tattao- at Jandola and Siraghar in the Dera Ismail Khan and some adjoining areas.
R.. R. Dera Ismail Khan and some adjoining valleys. Frontier Region Lakki is inhabited by the Boba and Wargara clans of the Bhittanis. Most of Danni- inahibinting in F. R. Tank and some adjoining valleys; the Betani are said to be named after their ancestor Betṭ Baba, who lived in the Altamur range, located between Logar and Zurmant and he was buried in Ghazni according to the legend. The Betani are known to have lived in the Logar and Ghazni area until the 15th century, but they came into conflict with the Ghilji and the Bettanis were expelled from the area towards the east; some lineages succeeded to take control of Gabarḡar, located between the Bannu Basin and Dēra, while other Bettani lineages migrated further northeastwards. Sheikh Bett Nekah was considered Jad-e-Amjad of Pashtun families. Abul Fazal confirmed it in his book'Ayein-e-Akbari'. Naimatullah Harvi and Khan Jahan Khan Lodhi mentioned it in his book'Majmaul Ansab'. While Akhon Darvenza Nangarhari used same words for Sheikh Bett Bhittani.
In'Tazkarul Aulya' 612 hijri Suleman Mako wrote about Sheikh Bett Nikah that he was popular saint of his time. The analyst saying that'Bett Nikah was live in 300 hijri to 400 hijri', he was Pashtu poet. One of his popular poem mentioned by Suleman Mako in his book. Loya Khudaya Loya Khudaya, Sta Pa Meney Pa Har Zaya, Ghar Walar De Darnaway K, Tola Zhawi Pa Zari k, Dalta de da Ghru Lameny, Zamung Kegdai pakey plany, Da Waghari Dair kre Khudaya, Loya Khudaya Loya Khudaya The Bettani tribe has three sub-castes, which are called Tattha and Dhana; the Tattha is further subdivided into three clans: Aba Khel, Naimat Khel and Khaishi. The Dhana tribe is divided into Ali khail, Bobi and Dadi Khel subclans; the Wraspoon subdivides into Mazyani, Tari and Shakhi. The Betani have always been few in numbers: From 8-9,000 in about 1884 they are said to have increased to more than 43,000 by about 1960; the current numbers of Bettani tribe around 200,000 and 250,000 individuals according to an estimates. A large number of Bettani are living in Balochistan province in Quetta Cantt.
They have been ther
The Pashtuns known as ethnic Afghans and Pathans, are an Iranian ethnic group who live in Pakistan and Afghanistan in South-Central Asia. They speak the Pashto language and adhere to Pashtunwali, a traditional set of ethics guiding individual and communal conduct; the ethnogenesis of the Pashtun ethnic group is unclear but historians have come across references to various ancient peoples called Pakthas between the 2nd and the 1st millennium BC, who may be their early ancestors. Their history is spread amongst the present-day countries of Afghanistan and Pakistan, centred on their traditional seat of power in that region. Globally, the Pashtuns are estimated to number around 50 million, but an accurate count remains elusive due to the lack of an official census in Afghanistan since 1979; the majority of the Pashtuns live in the region regarded as Pashtunistan, split between the two countries since the Durand Line border was formed after the Second Anglo-Afghan War. There are significant Pashtun diaspora communities in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab in Pakistan, in particular in the cities of Karachi and Lahore.
A recent Pashtun diaspora has developed in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf in the United Arab Emirates. The Pashtuns are a significant minority group in Pakistan, where they constitute the second-largest ethnic group or about 15% of the population; as the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, Pashtuns have been the dominant ethno-linguistic group for over 300 years. During the Delhi Sultanate era, the 15th–16th century Lodi dynasty replaced the preexisting rulers in North India until Babur deposed the Lodi dynasty. Other Pashtuns fought the Safavids and Mughals before obtaining an independent state in the early 18th century, which began with a successful revolution by Mirwais Hotak followed by conquests of Ahmad Shah Durrani; the Barakzai dynasty played a vital role during the Great Game from the 19th century to the 20th century as they were caught between the imperialist designs of the British and Russian empires. The Pashtuns are the world's largest segmentary lineage ethnic group. Estimates of the number of Pashtun tribes and clans range from about 350 to over 400.
There have been many notable Pashtun people throughout history: Ahmad Shah Durrani is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan, while Bacha Khan was a Pashtun independence activist against the rule of the British Raj. Some others include Malala Yousafzai, Shah Rukh Khan, Zarine Khan, Imran Khan, Farhad Darya, Abdul Ahad Mohmand, Ahmad Zahir, Zakir Husain, Hamid Karzai, Ashraf Ghani, Mullah Mohammed Omar; the vast majority of the Pashtuns are found in the traditional Pashtun homeland, located in an area south of the Amu Darya in Afghanistan and west of the Indus River in Pakistan, which includes Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the northern part of Balochistan. Additional Pashtun communities are located in Western and Northern Afghanistan, the Gilgit–Baltistan and Kashmir regions and northwestern Punjab province, Pakistan. There are sizeable Muslim communities in India, which are of Pashtun ancestry. Throughout the Indian subcontinent, they are referred to as Pathans. Smaller Pashtun communities are found in the countries of the Middle East, such as in the Khorasan Province of Iran, the Arabian Peninsula, North America and Australia.
Important metropolitan centres of Pashtun culture include Peshawar, Quetta, Mardan and Jalalabad. In Pakistan, the city of Karachi in Sindh province has the largest Pashtun diaspora communities in the world, with as much as 7 million Pashtuns living in Karachi according to some estimates. Several cities in Pakistan's Punjab province have sizeable Pashtun populations, in particular Lahore. About 15% of Pakistan's nearly 200 million population is Pashtun. In Afghanistan, they are the largest ethnic group and make up between 42–60% of the 32.5 million population. The exact figure remains uncertain in Afghanistan, affected by the 1.3 million or more Afghan refugees that remain in Pakistan, a majority of which are Pashtuns. Another one million or more Afghans live in Iran. A cumulative population assessment suggests a total of around 49 million individuals all across the world. A prominent institution of the Pashtun people is the intricate system of tribes; the Pashtuns remain a predominantly tribal people, but the trend of urbanisation has begun to alter Pashtun society as cities such as Kandahar, Peshawar and Kabul have grown due to the influx of rural Pashtuns.
Despite this, many people still identify themselves with various clans. The tribal system has several levels of organisation: the tribe, tabar, is divided into kinship groups called khels, in turn divided into smaller groups, each consisting of several extended families called kahols. Pashtun tribes are divided into four'greater' tribal groups: the Sarbani, the Bettani, the Gharghashti, the Karlani. Excavations of prehistoric sites suggest that early humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago. Since the 2nd millennium BC, cities in the region now inhabited by Pashtuns have seen invasions and migrations, including by Ancient Indian peoples, Ancient Iranian peoples, the Medes and Ancient Macedonians in antiquity, Hephthalites, Turks and others. In recent times, people of the Western world have explored the area as well. Most historians acknowledge that the origin of the Pashtuns is some