The Tsilhqot'in are a North American Tribal government of the Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group that live in British Columbia, Canada. They are the most southern of the Athabaskan-speaking aboriginal peoples in British Columbia; the Tŝilhqot'in Nation before contact with Europeans was a strong warrior nation with political influence from the Similkameen region in the south, the Pacific coast in the west, the Rocky Mountains in the east. They were part of an extensive trade network centred around control and distribution of obsidian, the material of choice for arrowheads and other stone tools; the Tsilhqot’in first encountered European trading goods in the 1780s and 1790s when British and American ships arrived along the northwest coast seeking sea otter pelts. By 1808, a fur-trading company out of Montreal called the North West Company had established posts in the Carrier territory just north of the Tsilhqot’in, they began trading directly and through Carrier intermediaries. In 1821 what was the Hudson’s Bay Company established a fur trade post at Fort Alexandria on the Fraser River, at the eastern limit of Tsilhqot’in territory.
This became the tribal people's major source for European goods. Contact with Europeans and First Nations intermediaries led to the introduction of Eurasian diseases, which were endemic among the Europeans; as they had long been exposed, some had developed acquired immunity, but the First Nations peoples were devastated by epidemics of these new diseases. Infectious diseases with high fatalities for Tsilhqot'in populations: Whooping cough 1845 Measles 1850 Smallpox 1855 Smallpox 1862–1863 Spanish flu 1919 – this epidemic affected European Canadians as well as First Nations, millions of people died internationallyThe isolated position of the Tsilhqot’in may have protected them from the first of the smallpox epidemics, which spread up from Mexico in the 1770s, they may have been spared the measles of the 1840s. Furniss in The Burden of History states that "there is no direct evidence that these smallpox epidemics reached the central interior of British Columbia or the Secwepemc, Carrier, or Tsilhqot'in".
However, in the epidemic of 1836–38, the disease spread to Ootsa Lake and killed an entire Carrier band. Oral history of the bands has continued to recount the effects of the many deaths in these epidemics. By the 1860s, miners panned along the Fraser and Horesefly rivers and their tributaries. Various business operators and merchants followed. Farmers and ranchers developed land to provision the mining towns that developed around the merchants; this led to competition for resources between the Chilcotin and Europeans, leading to a stream of events known as the Chilcotin War. Governor James Douglas supported a system of reserves and indoctrination to "civilized" practices such as subsistence agriculture up until his retirement in 1864. Joseph Trutch, the chief commissioner of lands and works, abandoned the reserve policy, set Indian policy as their having no rights to the land. By 1866, BC colonial rule required natives to request permission from the Governor to use lands. Newspapers supported the preempting of native lands, seeing settlers ploughing native burial grounds.
Natives who requested redress from a Justice of the Peace were refused leave. In the 1870s, the loss of hunting territories, crashes of the Salmon runs placed more dependence on agricultural produce such as grains and vegetables. Activities migrated to cutting hay, constructing irrigation ditches, practicing animal husbandry. Settlers however assumed water rights, making agriculture more fragile. Natives were huddled in on small acreages, such as with 20 acres for 150 natives. Starvation became a threat. In contrast to the 160 to 640 acres per family set aside in other treaties at the time in the Prairies, the Federal Government opted for 80 acres per native family to be set aside in reserve, while the provincial government was keen on 10 acres per family. Catholic Missionaries were sent to convert First Nations children to Christianity. By 1891, the first group of students were sent to receive a so-called "formal" education; the program continued for the next six decades until a point when Native children were allowed into the public school system.
Ninety years after the start of the Residential School program, the mission school closed circa 1981. Throughout that period, Indian agents were empowered to remove children from homes to attend St. Joseph's Mission school in 150 Mile House; this led some to attempt to hide their children by sneaking out to hunting fields. Children fled the schools, within the first 30 years, three investigations on the physical abuse and malnutrition were conducted. Voting rights in Canadian Federal Elections were denied until 1960, in Provincial Elections until 1949. Tl'esqox Yuneŝit'in Tl’etinqox Tŝi Deldel Xeni Gwet'in ʔEsdilagh Ulkatcho at Anahim Lake Tagwedisdzan There are two other notable Non-Reserve communities in the region: Alexis Creek and Anahim Lake. Despite its small population and isolation, the region has produced an impressive collection of literature mixing naturalism with native and settler cultures; the area is accessed by
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
The reindeer known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra and mountainous regions of northern Europe and North America. This includes both migratory populations. Rangifer herd size varies in different geographic regions; the Taimyr herd of migrating Siberian tundra reindeer in Russia is the largest wild reindeer herd in the world, varying between 400,000 and 1,000,000. What was once the second largest herd is the migratory boreal woodland caribou George River herd in Canada, with former variations between 28,000 and 385,000; as of January 2018, there are fewer than 9,000 animals estimated to be left in the George River herd, as reported by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. The New York Times reported in April 2018 of the disappearance of the only herd of southern mountain caribou in the lower 48 states, with an expert calling it "functionally extinct" after the herd's size dwindled to a mere three animals.
Rangifer varies in size and colour from the smallest, the Svalbard reindeer, to the largest, the boreal woodland caribou. The North American range of caribou extends from Alaska through Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut into the boreal forest and south through the Canadian Rockies and the Columbia and Selkirk Mountains; the Barren-ground caribou, Porcupine caribou, Peary caribou live in the tundra, while the shy boreal woodland caribou prefer the boreal forest. The Porcupine caribou and the barren-ground caribou form large herds and undertake lengthy seasonal migrations from birthing grounds to summer and winter feeding grounds in the tundra and taiga; the migrations of Porcupine caribou herds are among the longest of any mammal. Barren-ground caribou are found in Kitaa in Greenland, but the larger herds are in Alaska, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut; some subspecies are rare and at least one has become extinct: the Queen Charlotte Islands caribou of Canada. The range of the sedentary boreal woodland caribou covered more than half of Canada and into the northern States in the U.
S. Woodland caribou have disappeared from most of their original southern range and were designated as threatened in 2002 by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Environment Canada reported in 2011 that there were 34,000 boreal woodland caribou in 51 ranges remaining in Canada.. Siberian tundra reindeer herds are in decline, Rangifer tarandus is considered to be vulnerable by the IUCN. Arctic peoples have depended on caribou for food and shelter, such as the Caribou Inuit, the inland-dwelling Inuit of the Kivalliq Region in northern Canada, the Caribou Clan in Yukon, the Inupiat, the Inuvialuit, the Hän, the Northern Tutchone, the Gwich'in. Hunting wild reindeer and herding of semi-domesticated reindeer are important to several Arctic and sub-Arctic peoples such as the Duhalar for meat, antlers and transportation; the Sami people have depended on reindeer herding and fishing for centuries. In Lapland, reindeer pull pulks. Male and female reindeer can grow antlers annually, although the proportion of females that grow antlers varies between population and season.
Antlers are larger on males. In traditional festive legend, Santa Claus's reindeer pull a sleigh through the night sky to help Santa Claus deliver gifts to good children on Christmas Eve. Carl Linnaeus chose the name Rangifer for the reindeer genus, which Albertus Magnus used in his De animalibus, fol. Liber 22, Cap. 268: "Dicitur Rangyfer quasi ramifer". This word may go back to the Saami word raingo. Linnaeus chose the word tarandus as the specific epithet, making reference to Ulisse Aldrovandi's Quadrupedum omnium bisulcorum historia fol. 859–863, Cap. 30: De Tarando. However and Konrad Gesner – thought that rangifer and tarandus were two separate animals. In any case, the tarandos name goes back to Theophrastus; the use of the terms Reindeer and caribou for the same animal can cause confusion, but the IUCN delineates the issue: "The world's Caribou and Reindeer are classified as a single species Rangifer tarandus. Reindeer is the European name for the species while in North America, the species is known as Caribou."
The word rein is of Norse origin. The word deer was broader in meaning, but became more specific over time. In Middle English, der meant a wild animal of any kind, in contrast to cattle; the word caribou comes through French, from the Mi'kmaq qalipu, meaning "snow shoveler", referring to its habit of pawing through the snow for food. Because of its importance to many cultures, Rangifer tarandus and some of its subspecies have names in many languages. Inuktitut is spoken in the eastern Arctic, the caribou is known by the name tuktu; the Gwich’in people have over two dozen distinct caribou-related words. The species' taxonomic name, Rangifer tarandus, was defined by Carl Linnaeus in 1758; the woodland caribou subspecies' taxonomic name Rangifer tarandus caribou was defined by Gmelin in 1788. Based on Banfield's often-cited A Revision of the Reindeer and Caribou, Genus Rangifer, R. t. caboti, R. t. osborni and R. t. terraenovae were considered invalid and included in R. t. caribou. Some recent authorities have considered them all valid suggesting that they are quite distinct.
In their book entitled Mammal Species of the World, American zoologist Don E. Wilson and DeeAnn Reeder agree with Valerius Geist, specialist on large North American mammals, that
The Ahtna are an Alaska Native Athabaskan people of the Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group. The people's homeland called Atna Nenn', is located in the Copper River area of southern Alaska, the name Ahtna derives from the local name for the Copper River; the total population of Ahtna is estimated at around 500. Their neighbors are other Na-Dené-speaking and Yupik peoples: Dena'ina, Lower Tanana, Upper Tanana, Southern Tutchone, Tlingit and Chugach Sugpiaq; the name Ahtena written as Ahtna and Atnatana, translates as "ice people." In some documentation the Ahtna have been called Copper Indians because of their ancestral homeland located in the basin of the Copper River and its tributaries in southeastern Alaska. The word for the Copper River in Ahtna is'Atna' tuu". Thus, "Ahtna" refers to the People of the'Atna' River; the named Yellowknife has been used in reference to the Ahtna's copper-colored knives. The Ahtna are an Athabaskan languages speaking tribe of the Subarctic cultural area, which classifies them as both Athabaskan and Subarctic Indians.
Depending on the communities location along the Copper River, dialectal differences may occur. The Lower Ahtna are near the river's mouth which opens into the Gulf of Alaska, the Middle Ahtna are upriver a distance, the Upper Ahtna live on the upper parts of the river; the Tanaina people of the west are their closest linguistic relatives. About 80 Ahtnas are believed to still speak the language. In 1990 a dictionary was published by university linguist James Kari, in order to preserve the language. Several years the Ahtna People themselves published a noun dictionary of their language. About 2,000 years ago the Ahtna people moved into the area of the Wrangell Mountains and the Chitina Valley. In 1781 the Russians made it to the mouth of the Copper River. Over the course of years, Russians would try to go up the river only to be pushed back by the Ahtna. In 1819 the Russians built a post at the confluence of the Copper and Chitina Rivers, destroyed; the United States purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867.
A US military expedition led by Henry Tureman Allen in 1885 explored the Copper River and surrounding area. To take advantage of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971, the Ahtna formed Ahtna, Incorporated; the organization is a for-profit entity that oversees the land obtained under ANCSA. 714,240 acres were allocated, consisting of eight villages: Traditionally, the Ahtna shared social structure traits similar to those Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast. Social stratification was represented in the governance of the community; each village was ruled by a tyone. Subchiefs, called skilles, served as council and helped to oversee the common people and servant class. Shamans had political power and oversaw potlatch celebrations. In the summertime the Ahtna used temporary rectangular dwellings cottonwood; these structures had skin-covered entrances to provide access. In the wintertime, families lived in large semi-underground homes; as large as 10 feet wide by 36 feet long, these dwellings were constructed from wood and covered with spruce bark.
Sometimes a second room was attached to be used for sweating rituals. When traveling by water, moose-hide boats were used. In the wintertime and load-bearing toboggans were used; when traveling by foot and carrying goods, people women, would use a tumpline. The tumpline was made of animal skin or cloth and was slung across the forehead or chest to support a heavy load on the back. Traditionally the Ahtna hunted many different types of animals such as the moose, mountain sheep, rabbits. Salmon was a staple, being streams. To support healthy prey populations, the Athna would monitor and reduce predator populations such as wolves and bears. For example, they would keep track of wolf dens by killing cubs. A central figure in their mythology, the Ahtna might prop up killed wolves and feed ceremonial meals to them; the Ahtna gathered berries and roots. The Ahtna were part of a trade network with other Athapascans, the Alutiiq, the Tlingit, they would barter furs and copper, manufactured European goods after encounters with the Europeans.
Trade meetings would take place three times a year Nuchek on the Prince William Sound. The Ahata operate Ahtna, Inc. an Alaska Native corporation founded in 1971. Ahata has provided services to U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement at the Port Isabel Detention Center since at least 2008; the contract will earn Ahtna Technical Services at least $800 million. Williams, Maria Sháa Tláa; the Alaska Native Reader: History, Politics. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-4480-7 List of Native American peoples in the United States Official website for the Ahtna Heritage Foundation Copper River Native Association Wrangell's 1839 Comparative Word-List of Alaskan languages PARADISEC archive collection of Ahtna recordings
Simon Fraser (explorer)
Simon Fraser was a fur trader and explorer of Scottish ancestry who charted much of what is now the Canadian province of British Columbia. He built the first European settlement in B. C.. Fraser was employed by the Montreal-based North West Company. By 1805, he had been put in charge of all the company's operations west of the Rocky Mountains, he was responsible for building that area's first trading posts, and, in 1808, he explored what is now known as the Fraser River, which bears his name. Simon Fraser's exploratory efforts were responsible for Canada's boundary being established at the 49th parallel, since he as a British subject was the first European to establish permanent settlements in the area. According to historian Alexander Begg, Fraser "was offered a knighthood but declined the title due to his limited wealth." Simon was born on 20 May 1776 in the village of Mapletown, New York. He was the eighth and youngest child of Captain Simon Fraser, of the 84th Highland Regiment, Isabella Grant, daughter of the Laird of Daldregan.
Captain Simon Fraser grew up at his family's seat, Guisachan, as the second son of William Fraser, 8th Laird of Guisachan and 3rd Laird of Culbokie, by his wife Catherine, daughter of John McDonell, 4th Laird of Ardnabie. The Frasers of Guisachan and Culbokie were descended from a younger brother of the 10th Chief of the Frasers of Lovat. Simon's father came with his regiment to North America in 1773 and died in prison after being captured during the Battle of Bennington. After the war ended, Simon's mother was assisted by her brother-in-law, Captain John Fraser, appointed Chief Justice of the Montreal district, was settled near present-day Cadillac, Quebec. At the age of 14, Fraser moved to Montreal for additional schooling, where two of his uncles were active in the fur trade, in which his kinsman, Simon McTavish, was the undisputed leading figure. In 1790, unsurprisingly, he was apprenticed to the North West Company. In 1789, the North West Company had commissioned Alexander Mackenzie to find a navigable river route to the Pacific Ocean.
The route he discovered in 1793 — ascending the West Road River and descending the Bella Coola River — opened up new sources of fur but proved to be too difficult to be practicable as a trading route to the Pacific. Fraser was thus given responsibility for extending operations to the country west of the Rockies in 1805. Mackenzie’s expeditions had been reconnaissance trips, while Fraser’s assignment, by contrast, reflected a definite decision to build trading posts and take possession of the country, as well as to explore travel routes. In the autumn of 1805, Fraser began ascending the Peace River, establishing the trading post of Rocky Mountain Portage House just east of the Peace River Canyon of the Rocky Mountains; that winter Fraser and his crew pushed through the mountains and ascended the Parsnip and Pack Rivers, establishing Trout Lake Fort at present-day McLeod Lake. This was the first permanent European settlement west of the Rockies in present-day Canada; the name given by Fraser to this territory was New Caledonia, in honour of his ancestral homeland of Scotland.
Further explorations by Fraser's assistant James McDougall resulted in the discovery of Carrier Lake, now known as Stuart Lake. In the heart of territory inhabited by the aboriginal Carrier or Dakelh nation, this area proved to be a lucrative locale for fur trading, so a post — Fort St. James — was built on its shore in 1806. From here, Fraser sent another assistant John Stuart west to Fraser Lake; the two men would build another post there, now known as Fort Fraser. Fraser had found out from the aboriginal people that the Fraser River, the route by which Mackenzie had ascended the West Road River, could be reached by descending the Stuart River, which drained Stuart Lake, descending the Nechako River to its confluence with the Fraser, it had been Fraser's plan to navigate the length of the river. Fraser and others believed that this was, in fact, the Columbia River, the mouth of, explored in 1792 by Robert Gray. Fraser's plan to begin the journey in 1806 had to be abandoned due to a lack of men and supplies as well as the occurrence of a local famine.
Fraser would not be resupplied until the autumn of 1807, meaning that his journey could not be undertaken until the following spring. In the interval Fraser contented himself with a journey to the confluence of the Nechako and Fraser Rivers. There he established a new post named Fort George, which would become the starting point for his trip downstream. From the outset, the aboriginal inhabitants warned Fraser that the river below was nearly impassable. A party of twenty-four left Fort George in four canoes on May 28, 1808, they passed the West Road River where Mackenzie had turned west and on the first of June ran the rapids of the Cottonwood Canyon where a canoe became stranded and had to be pulled out of the canyon with a rope. They procured horses from the Natives to help with the portages, but the carrying-places were scarcely safer than the rapids, they passed the mouth of the Chilcotin River on the 5th and entered a rapide couvert where the river was enclosed by cliffs. The next day the river was found to be impassable.
The canoes and superfluous goods were cached and on the 11th the party set out on foot, each man carrying about 80 pounds. On the 14th they reached a large village near Lillooet where they were able to trade for two canoes. On the 19th they reached a village at the mouth of the Thompson River, where they obtained cano
The beaver is a large nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent. Castor includes the North American beaver and Eurasian beaver. Beavers are known for building dams and lodges, they are the second-largest rodent in the world. Their colonies create one or more dams to provide still, deep water to protect against predators, to float food and building material; the North American beaver population as of 1988 was 6 -- 12 million. This population decline is the result of extensive hunting for fur, for glands used as medicine and perfume, because the beavers' harvesting of trees and flooding of waterways may interfere with other land uses. Beavers, along with pocket gophers and kangaroo rats, are castorimorph rodents, a suborder of rodents restricted to North America. Although just two related species exist today, beavers have a long fossil history in the Northern Hemisphere beginning in the Eocene, many species of giant beaver existed until quite such as Trogontherium in Europe, Castoroides in North America. Beavers are known for their natural trait of building dams on rivers and streams, building their homes in the resulting pond.
Beavers build canals to float building materials that are difficult to haul over land. They use powerful front teeth to cut trees and other plants that they use both for building and for food. In the absence of existing ponds, beavers must construct dams before building their lodges. First they place vertical poles fill between the poles with a crisscross of horizontally placed branches, they fill in the gaps between the branches with a combination of weeds and mud until the dam impounds sufficient water to surround the lodge. They are known for their alarm signal: when startled or frightened, a swimming beaver will dive while forcefully slapping the water with its broad tail, audible over great distances above and below water; this serves as a warning to beavers in the area. Once a beaver has sounded the alarm, nearby beavers may not reemerge for some time. Beavers are slow on land, but are good swimmers, can stay under water for as long as 15 minutes. Beavers do not hibernate; some of the pile is above water and accumulates snow in the winter.
This insulation of snow keeps the water from freezing in and around the food pile, providing a location where beavers can breathe when outside their lodge. Beavers have webbed hind-feet, a broad, scaly tail, they have poor eyesight, but keen senses of hearing and touch. A beaver's teeth grow continuously, their four incisors are composed of hard orange enamel on a softer dentin on the back. The chisel-like ends of incisors are maintained by their self-sharpening wear pattern; the enamel in a beaver's incisors contains iron and is more resistant to acid than enamel in the teeth of other mammals. Beavers continue to grow throughout their lives. Adult specimens weighing over 25 kg are not uncommon. Females are as large as or larger than males of the same age, uncommon among mammals. Beavers live up to 24 years of age in the wild; the English word "beaver" comes from the Old English word beofor or befer, which in turn sprang from the Proto-Germanic root *bebruz. Cognates in other Germanic languages include the Old Saxon bibar, the Old Norse bjorr, the Middle Dutch and Dutch bever, the Low German bever, the Old High German bibar and the Modern German Biber.
The Proto-Germanic word in turn came from the Proto-Indo-European word *bhebhrus, a reduplication of the PIE root *bher-, meaning "brown" or "bright", whose own descendants now include the Lithuanian bebras and the Czech bobr, as well as the Germanic forms. The North American and Eurasian beavers are the only extant members of the family Castoridae, contained in a single genus, Castor. Genetic research has shown the modern European and North American beaver populations to be distinct species and that hybridization is unlikely. Although superficially similar to each other, there are several important differences between the two species. Eurasian beavers tend to be larger, with larger, less rounded heads, narrower muzzles, thinner and lighter underfur, less oval-shaped tails and shorter shin bones, making them less capable of bipedal locomotion than the North American species. Eurasian beavers have longer nasal bones than their North American cousins, with the widest point being at the end of the snout for the former, in the middle for the latter.
The nasal opening for the Eurasian species is triangular, unlike that of the North American race, square. The foramen magnum is rounded in the Eurasian triangular in the North American; the anal glands of the Eurasian beaver are larger and thin-walled with a large internal volume compared to that of the North American species. The guard hairs of the Eurasian beaver have a longer hollow medulla at their tips. Fur colour is different. Overall, 66% of Eurasian beavers have pale brown or beige fur, 20% have reddish brown, nearly 8% are brown and only 4% have blackish coats. In North American beavers, 50% have pale brown fur, 25% are reddish brown, 20% are brown and 6% are blackish; the two species are not genetically compatible. North American beavers have 40 chromosomes, while Eurasian beavers have 48. More than 27 attempts were made in Russia to hybridize the two species, with one breeding between a male North American beaver and a female European resulting in a single stillborn kit. Thes
A lynx is any of the four species within the medium-sized wild cat genus Lynx. The name lynx originated in Middle English via Latin from the Greek word λύγξ, derived from the Indo-European root leuk- in reference to the luminescence of its reflective eyes. Two other cats that are sometimes called lynxes, the caracal and the jungle cat, are not members of the genus Lynx. Lynx have a short tail, characteristic tufts of black hair on the tips of their ears, padded paws for walking on snow and long whiskers on the face. Under their neck they have a ruff which has black bars resembling a bow tie, although this is not visible. Body colour varies from medium brown to goldish to beige-white, is marked with dark brown spots on the limbs. All species of lynx have white fur on their chests, bellies and on the insides of their legs, fur, an extension of the chest and belly fur; the lynx's colouring, fur length and paw size vary according to the climate in their range. In the Southwestern United States, they are short-haired, dark in colour and their paws are smaller and less padded.
As climates get colder and more northerly, lynx have progressively thicker fur, lighter colour, their paws are larger and more padded to adapt to the snow. Their paws may be larger than foot; the smallest species are the bobcat and the Canada lynx, while the largest is the Eurasian lynx, with considerable variations within species. The four living species of the genus Lynx are believed to have evolved from the "Issoire lynx", which lived in Europe and Africa during the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene; the Pliocene felid Felis rexroadensis from North America has been proposed as an earlier ancestor. Of the four lynx species, the Eurasian lynx is the largest in size, it is native to European, Central Asian, Siberian forests. While its conservation status has been classified as "least concern", populations of Eurasian lynx have been reduced or extirpated from Europe, where it is now being reintroduced; the Eurasian lynx is the third largest predator in Europe after the grey wolf. It is consuming about one or two kilograms of meat every day.
The Eurasian lynx is one of the widest-ranging. During the summer, the Eurasian lynx has a short, reddish or brown coat, replaced by a much thicker silver-grey to greyish-brown coat during winter; the lynx hunts by stalking and jumping on its prey, helped by the rugged, forested country in which it resides. A favorite prey for the lynx in its woodland habitat is roe deer, it will feed however on whatever animal appears easiest, as it is an opportunistic predator much like its cousins. The Canada lynx, or Canadian lynx, is a North American felid that ranges in forest and tundra regions across Canada and into Alaska, as well as some parts of the northern United States; the Canadian lynx ranged from Alaska across Canada and into many of the northern U. S. states. In the eastern states, it resided in the transition zone in which boreal coniferous forests yielded to deciduous forests. By 2010, after an 11-year effort, it had been reintroduced into Colorado, where it had become extirpated in the 1970s.
In 2000, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service designated the Canada lynx a threatened species in the lower 48 states; the Canada lynx is swimmer. It has a thick coat and broad paws, is twice as effective as the bobcat at supporting its weight on the snow; the Canada lynx feeds exclusively on snowshoe hares. It will hunt medium-sized mammals and birds if hare numbers fall; the Iberian lynx is an endangered species native to the Iberian Peninsula in Southern Europe. It was the most endangered cat species in the world, but conservation efforts have changed its status from critical to endangered. According to the Portuguese conservation group SOS Lynx, if this species dies out, it will be the first feline extinction since the Smilodon 10,000 years ago; the species used to be classified as a subspecies of the Eurasian lynx, but is now considered a separate species. Both species occurred together in central Europe in the Pleistocene epoch, being separated by habitat choice; the Iberian lynx is believed to have evolved from Lynx issiodorensis.
In 2004, a Spanish government survey showed just two isolated breeding populations of Iberian lynx in southern Spain, totaling about 100 lynx. An agreement signed in 2003 by the Spanish Environment Ministry and the Andalusian Environment Council seeks to breed the Iberian lynx in captivity. Three Iberian lynx cubs were born as part of the Spanish program in 2005, at the Centro El Acebuche facility in Doñana National Park; as a result of the Spanish government program and efforts by others, the Iberian lynx "has recovered from the brink of extinction". The IUCN reassessed the species from "critically endangered" to "endangered" in 2015. A 2014 census of the species showed 327 animals in Andalucia in the "reintroduction areas" of Sierra Morena and Montes de Toledo, the Matachel Valley, the Guadiana Valley; the bobcat is a North American wild cat. With 12 recognized subspecies, the bobcat is common throughout southern Canada, the continental United