The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
Archaeology of Israel
The archaeology of Israel is the study of the archaeology of the present-day Israel, stretching from prehistory through three millennia of documented history. The ancient Land of Israel was a bridge between the political and cultural centers of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Despite the importance of the country to three major religions, serious archaeological research began in the 15th century. The first major work on the antiquities of Israel was Adrian Relands Palestina ex monumentis veteribus, edward Robinson, an American theologian who visited the country in 1838, published the first topographical studies. A Frenchman, Louis Felicien de Saucy, embarked on the first modern excavations in 1850, the Neolithic period appears to have begun when the peoples of the Natufian culture, which spread across present-day Syria and Lebanon, began to practice agriculture. This Neolithic Revolution has been linked to the period known as the Younger Dryas. This agriculture in the Levant is the earliest known to have been practiced, the Neolithic period in this region is dated 8500–4300 BCE and the Chalcolithic 4300–3300 BCE.
Natufian sites in Israel include Ain Mallaha, el-Wad, Ein Gev, Hayonim cave, Nahal Oren, the Bronze Age is the period 3300–1200 BCE when objects made of bronze were in use. Many writers have linked the history of the Levant from the Bronze Age onwards to events described in the Bible, the Bronze Age and Iron Age together are sometimes called the Biblical period. The Amarna Letters are an example of a period during the Late Bronze Age when the vassal kings of the Levant corresponded with their overlords in Egypt. The Iron Age in the Levant begins in about 1200 BCE when iron tools came into use and it is known as the Israelite period. The Israelite period is characterized by numbers of urban dwellings. The rich and diverse archaeological findings attest to strong international links, the abundance of writings found indicate a broad distribution of knowledge among common people of ancient Israel and not just scribes, a unique phenomenon in the ancient world. In this period both the evidence and the narrative evidence from the Bible become richer and much writing has attempted to make links between them.
Israel Finkelstein suggests that the empire of David and Solomon never existed, finklestein accepts the existence of King David and Solomon but doubts their chronology and influence as described in the Bible. Without claiming that everything in the Bible is historically accurate, some story elements appear to correspond with physical artifacts. Inscriptions such as the Tel Dan Stele and the Mesha Stele can be traced to a cultural origin. The Roman period covers the dates 63 BCE to 330 CE, the late Roman period is called the Yavne Period
They are composed mainly in Biblical Hebrew, with some passages in Biblical Aramaic. The term does not comment upon the naming, numbering or ordering of books, the term Hebrew Bible is an attempt to provide specificity with respect to contents but avoid allusion to any particular interpretative tradition or theological school of thought. Hebrew Bible refers to the Jewish biblical canon, in its Latin form, Biblia Hebraica, it traditionally serves as a title for printed editions of the Masoretic Text. Many biblical studies scholars advocate use of the term Hebrew Bible as a substitute to terms with religious connotations. Hebrew Bible Old Testament without prescribing the use of either, however, he accepts that there is no reason why non-Christians should feel obliged to refer to these books as the Old Testament, apart from custom of use. Modern Christian formulations of this tension include Supersessionism, Covenant Theology, New Covenant Theology, Dispensationalism, in terms of canon, Christian usage of Old Testament does not refer to a universally agreed upon set of books but, varies depending on denomination.
The Hebrew Bible includes small portions in Aramaic and printed in Aramaic square-script, the books that constitute the Hebrew Bible developed over roughly a millennium. The oldest texts seem to come from the 11th or 10th centuries BCE and they are edited works, being collections of various sources intricately and carefully woven together. Since the 19th century, most biblical scholars have agreed that the Pentateuch consists of four sources which have been woven together and these four sources are J, D, E and P sources. They were combined to form the Pentateuch sometime in the 6th century BCE and this theory is now known as the documentary hypothesis, and has been the dominant theory for the past two hundred years. The Deuteronomist credited with the Pentateuchs book of Deuteronomy is said to be the source of the books of Joshua, Samuel, several editions, all titled Biblia Hebraica, have been produced by various German publishers since 1906. Between 1906 and 1955, Rudolf Kittel published nine editions of it,1966, the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft published the renamed Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia in six editions until 1997.
Since 2004 the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft has published the Biblia Hebraica Quinta, other projects include, Hebrew University Bible Project Hebrew Bible, A Critical Edition Biblical canon Books of the Bible Non-canonical books referenced in the Bible Torah Brueggemann, Walter. An introduction to the Old Testament, the canon and Christian imagination, the People of Ancient Israel, an introduction to Old Testament Literature and Thought, Harper and Row,1974. Sinai and Zion, An Entry into the Jewish Bible, archived from the original on 14 March 2012. The Ancient Near East, Volume I, New Jersey, Princeton University Press. An abridgement of Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament Noth, how the Bible Became a Book. The Old Testament, A Literary History, hebrew-English Tanakh, the Jewish Bible Complete, fully vocalized, Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible, together with the classic English translation by the Jewish Publication Society
Canaan was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC. The name Canaan occurs commonly in the Hebrew Bible, in particular, the references in Genesis 10 and Numbers 34 define the Land of Canaan as extending from Lebanon southward to the Brook of Egypt and eastward to the Jordan River Valley. References to Canaan in the Bible are usually backward-looking, referring to a region that had something else. The term Canaanites serves as an ethnic catch-all term covering various indigenous populations—both settled, the Amarna Letters and other cuneiform documents use Kinaḫḫu, while other sources of the Egyptian New Kingdom mention numerous military campaigns conducted in Ka-na-na. Canaan had significant geopolitical importance in the Late Bronze Age Amarna period as the area where the spheres of interest of the Egyptian, Hittite and Assyrian Empires converged. Much of the knowledge about Canaan stems from archaeological excavation in this area at sites such as Tel Hazor, Tel Megiddo.
The English term Canaan comes from the Hebrew כנען, via Greek Χαναάν Khanaan and it appears as KUR ki-na-ah-na in the Amarna letters, and knʿn is found on coins from Phoenicia in the last half of the 1st millennium. It first occurs in Greek in the writings of Hecataeus as Khna, scholars connect the name Canaan with knʿn, the general Northwest Semitic name for this region. An early explanation derives the term from the Semitic root knʿ to be low, purple cloth became a renowned Canaanite export commodity which is mentioned in Exodus. The dyes may have named after their place of origin. The purple cloth of Tyre in Phoenicia was well known far, according to Robert Drews, Speisers proposal has generally been abandoned. The Late Bronze Age state of Ugarit is considered quintessentially Canaanite archaeologically, Jonathan Tubb states that the term ga-na-na may provide a third millennium reference to Canaanite while at the same time stating that the first certain reference is in the 18th century BC.
See Ebla-Biblical controversy for further details, Mari letters A letter from Mutu-bisir to Shamshi-Adad I of the Old Assyrian Empire has been translated, It is in Rahisum that the brigands and the Canaanites are situated. It was found in 1973 in the ruins of Mari, an Assyrian outpost at that time in Syria, additional unpublished references to Kinahnum in the Mari letters refer to the same episode. Alalakh texts A reference to Ammiya being in the land of Canaan is found on the Statue of Idrimi from Alalakh in modern Syria. After a popular uprising against his rule, Idrimi was forced into exile with his mothers relatives to seek refuge in the land of Canaan, the other references in the Alalakh texts are, AT154 AT181, A list of Apiru people with their origins. All are towns, except for Canaan AT188, A list of Muskenu people with their origins, the letters are written in the official and diplomatic East Semitic Akkadian language of Assyria and Babylonia, though Canaanitish words and idioms are in evidence.
May the king ask Yanhamu about these matters, may the king ask his commissioner, who is familiar with Canaan EA151, Letter from Abimilku to the Pharaoh, The king, my lord wrote to me, write to me what you have heard from Canaan
Battle of Gibeah
The Battle of Gibeah is an episode related in the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible. The battle was triggered by an incident in which the concubine of a man from the Tribe of Levi was raped by members of the Tribe of Benjamin, the Levite had offered his concubine to the mob in his place. In the morning he found the concubine unresponsive on the doorstep and he cut her body into twelve pieces, and sent the pieces throughout all the territories of the Israelite tribes. The outraged tribes of Israel sought justice, and asked for the miscreants to be delivered for judgement, the first king of Israel, was descended from these surviving men. Due to this war, the Tribe of Benjamin was subsequently referred to as the smallest of all the tribes, a Levite from the mountains of Ephraim had a concubine, who left him and returned to the house of her father in Bethlehem in Judah. Heidi M. Szpek observes that this serves to support the institution of monarchy. The Levite travelled to Bethlehem to retrieve her, and for five days her father managed to persuade him to delay their departure, on the fifth day, the Levite declined to postpone their journey any longer, and they set out late in the day.
As they approach Jebus, the servant suggested they stop for the night, but the Levite refused to stay in a Jebusite city, and they continued on to Gibeah. J. P. Fokkelman argues that Judges 19, 11–14 is a chiasm, in doing this, the narrator is hinting at the selfishness and rancid group egotism of the Levite. Yet, it is not the aliens of Jebus who commit a heinous crime and they arrive in Gibeah just at nightfall. The Levite and his party wait in the square. Eventually, an old man came in working in the field. He, too was from the mountains of Ephraim, but had lived among the Benjaminites for some time and he invited them to spend the night at his house rather than the open square. He brought him into his house, and gave fodder to the donkeys, they washed their feet, suddenly certain men of the city surrounded the house and beat on the door. They spoke to the master of the house, the old man, Bring out the man who came to your house, “To know” is probably a euphemism for sexual intercourse here, as in other biblical texts and as the NRSV translates it.
The Ephraimite host offers instead his own daughter and the Levites concubine. Ken Stone observes, Apparently the sexual violation of women was considered less shameful than that of men, such an attitude reflects both the social subordination of women and the fact that homosexual rape was viewed as a particularly severe attack on male honor. When the men would not be dissuaded, the Levite thrust the concubine out the door and they abused her all night, not letting her go until dawn, when she collapsed outside the door, where the Levite found her the next morning
Bethel was a border city described in the Hebrew Bible as being located between Benjamin and Ephraim and a location named by Jacob. Under Israelite rule, Bethel first belonged to the Tribe of Benjamin, Eusebius of Caesarea and Jerome describe Bethel in their time as a small village that lay 12 Roman miles north of Jerusalem, to the right or east of the road leading to Neapolis. Modern scholar Edward Robinson identified the village of Beitin in the West Bank with ancient Bethel in Biblical Researches in Palestine, ten years after the Six-Day War, the biblical name was applied to an Israeli settlement Beit El constructed adjacent to Beitin. In several countries—particularly in the US—the name has given to various locations. Bethel is mentioned several times in Genesis and it is first mentioned in Genesis 12 and 13, as a place near where Abram stayed and built an altar on his way to Egypt and on his return. It is said to be close to Hai and just to the west of it, another account, from Genesis 35 repeats the covenant with God and the naming of the place, and makes this the site of Jacobs own change of name to Israel.
Both versions state that the name of the place was Luz. Bethel is mentioned again in the book of Joshua 7,2,8,9 as being close to Ai and on the west side of it, in this episode Joshua sent men from Jericho to capture Ai. At Joshua 16,1 it is said to be next to Luz, near Jericho. In the book of Judges 1,22 ff the descendants of Joseph capture the city of Bethel, at Joshua 4,5 the prophetess Deborah is said to dwell at Bethel under the palm-tree of Deborah. Bethel is said in Judges 4,5 to be in Mt Ephraim and they make a second visit after losing the battle. Bethel was evidently already an important religious centre at this time, so important in fact that the Ark of the Covenant was kept there, at Judges 21,19, Bethel is said to be south of Shiloh. At the next mention of the Ark, in 1 Samuel 4,3, it is said to be kept at Shiloh. In the book I Samuel 7,16, it is said that the prophet Samuel and it appears that there was a Philistine garrison there at that time. Bethel is mentioned again in I Samuel 13,2 and 2 Samuel 30,27 and this was apparently to make it unnecessary for the people of Israel to have to go to Jerusalem to worship in the temple there.
It seems that this action provoked the hostility of the Judaeans, a story is told at 1 Kings 13,1 ff of how a man from Judah visited the shrine at Bethel and prophesied that it would eventually be destroyed by Josiah. At 2 Kings 2, 1ff the prophets Elijah and Elisha are said to have visited Bethel on a journey from Gilgal to Jericho shortly before Elijah was taken up to heaven without dying. Later, when Elisha returned alone to Bethel, he is said to have been taunted by some men as he climbed up to the shrine
Joshua /ˈdʒɒʃuə/ or Jehoshua is the central figure in the Hebrew Bibles Book of Joshua. According to the books of Exodus and Joshua, he was Moses assistant and his name was Hoshea the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, but Moses called him Yehoshua the name by which he is commonly known. The name is shortened to Yeshua in Nehemiah, according to the Bible he was born in Egypt prior to the Exodus. According to the Hebrew Bible, Joshua was one of the spies of Israel sent by Moses to explore the land of Canaan. In Numbers 13, 1–16, and after the death of Moses, he led the Israelite tribes in the conquest of Canaan, according to Biblical chronology, Joshua lived between 1355 and 1245 BCE, or sometime in the late Bronze Age. According to Joshua 24,29, Joshua died at the age of 110, Joshua holds a position of respect among Muslims. According to Islamic tradition, he was, along with Caleb, all Muslims see Joshua as the leader of the Israelites, following the death of Moses. Some Muslims believe Joshua to be the attendant of Moses mentioned in the Qurān, before Moses meets Khidr, the English name Joshua is a rendering of the Hebrew language Yehoshua, meaning Yahweh is salvation.
The vocalization of the second name component may be read as Hoshea—the name used in the Torah before Moses added the divine name, Jesus is the English of the Greek transliteration of Yehoshua via Latin. In the Septuagint, all instances of the word Yehoshua are rendered as Ἰησοῦς, thus, in Greek, Joshua is called Jesus son of Naue to differentiate him from Jesus Christ. This is true in the Slavic languages following the Eastern Orthodox tradition, Joshua was a major figure in the events of the Exodus. He was charged by Moses with selecting and commanding a group for their first battle after exiting Egypt, against the Amalekites in Rephidim. He accompanied Moses when he ascended biblical Mount Sinai to commune with God, visualize Gods plan for the Israelite tabernacle and receive the Ten Commandments. Joshua was with Moses when he descended from the mountain, heard the Israelites celebrations around the Golden Calf, and broke the tablets bearing the words of the commandments. However, when Moses returned to the mountain to re-create the tablets recording the Ten Commandments, Joshua was not present, according to Joshua 1, 1-9, God appointed Joshua to succeed Moses as leader of the Israelites along with giving him a blessing of invincibility during his lifetime.
The first part of the book of Joshua covers the period when he led the conquest of Canaan, at the Jordan River, the waters parted, as they had for Moses at the Red Sea. The first battle after the crossing of the Jordan was the Battle of Jericho, Joshua led the destruction of Jericho, moved on to Ai, a small neighboring city to the west. However, they were defeated with thirty-six Israelite deaths, the defeat was attributed to Achan taking an accursed thing from Jericho, and was followed by Achan and his family and animals being stoned to death to restore Gods favor
Achan (biblical figure)
His name is given as Achar in 1 Chronicles 2,7. The Book of Joshua claims that this act resulted in the Israelites being collectively punished by God, in that they failed in their first attempt to capture Ai, with about 36 Israelite lives lost. The Israelites used cleromancy to decide who was to blame, and having identified Achan, stoned him, as well as his sheep, other livestock and their remains were burnt by the Israelites, according to the text, and stones piled on top. Rashi, and many opinions in the Talmud, argue that the stoning was only carried out on the livestock and Achan himself, and that his children were merely brought forward to witness the Israelites. The Talmud writers do, admit the possibility of the children being stoned, arguing that since they had kept silent about their fathers actions, they were complicit in the crime. Other classical Rabbis portray Achan as guilty of more crimes, claiming that he had committed incest. In the narrative, before Achan is stoned to death, he first confesses his actions, the narrative states that the location for this punishment of Achan, which lies between Jericho and Ai, became known as the vale of Achor in memory of him.
This narrative is seen by some scholars as an etiological myth providing a folk etymology for Achor. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Isidore. New York, Funk & Wagnalls Company and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Matthew George
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
William F. Albright
William Foxwell Albright was an American archaeologist, biblical scholar and expert on ceramics. Albright was born in Coquimbo, the eldest of six children of American evangelical Methodist missionaries Wilbur Finley Albright, Albright was an alumnus of Upper Iowa University. He married Dr. Ruth Norton in 1921 and had four sons and he was the Director of the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem, 1922–1929, 1933–1936, and did important archaeological work at sites in Israel such as Gibeah and Tell Beit Mirsim. A prolific author, his works include Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan, The Archaeology of Palestine, From the Stone Age to Christianity. He edited the Anchor Bible volumes on Jeremiah, throughout his life Albright was honored with numerous awards, honorary doctorates, and medals, and was given the title Yakir Yerushalayim —the first time the award had been given to a non-Jew. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts, after his death, his legacy continued as a large number of scholars, inspired by his work, became specialists in the areas Albright had pioneered.
The American School of Oriental Research, Jerusalem, is now known as the Albright Institute of Archaeological Research, from the early twentieth century until his death, he was the dean of biblical archaeologists and the acknowledged founder of the Biblical archaeology movement. This area is widely contested among scholars. His student George Ernest Wright followed in his footsteps as the leader of the biblical archaeology movement, contributing work at Shechem. Albright inspired and worked with the first generation of world-class Israeli archaeologists, who have carried on his work, other students, notably Joseph Fitzmyer, S. J. Frank Moore Cross, Raymond E. Brown, and David Noel Freedman, became leaders in the study of the Bible. As editor of the Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research between 1931 and 1968, Albright influenced both biblical scholarship and Palestinian archaeology, in this Albrights American Evangelical upbringing was clearly apparent. He insisted, for example, that as a whole, the picture in Genesis is historical, similarly he claimed that archaeology had proved the essential historicity of the Book of Exodus, and the conquest of Canaan as described in the Book of Joshua and the Book of Judges.
In the years since his death, Albrights methods and conclusions have been increasingly questioned, the irony is that, in the long run, it will have been the newer secular archaeology that contributed the most to Biblical studies, not Biblical archaeology. The Archaeology of Palestine, From the Stone Age to Christianity Views of the Biblical World, International Publishing Company J-m Ltd,1959. Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan, An Historical Analysis of Two Contrasting Faiths The Biblical Period from Abraham to Ezra Albright, interesting finds in tumuli near Jerusalem. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, New Light from Egypt on the Chronology and History of Israel and Judah. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, Biblical archaeology List of artifacts significant to the Bible Views of the Biblical World Davis, Thomas W. Shifting Sands, the Rise and Fall of Biblical Archaeology
Edward Robinson (scholar)
Edward Robinson was an American biblical scholar. He studied in the United States and Germany, a center of biblical scholarship and he translated scriptural works from classical languages, as well as German translations. His Greek and English Lexicon of the New Testament became an authority in the United States. Robinson was born in Southington and raised on a farm and his father was a minister in the Congregational Church of the town for four decades. The younger Robinson taught at schools in East Haven and Farmington in 1810-11 to earn money for college and he attended Hamilton College, in Clinton, New York, where his maternal uncle, Seth Norton, was a professor. In 1821 he went to Andover, where he published his translation of books i-ix, there he aided Moses Stuart in the preparation of the second edition of the latters Hebrew Grammar. He translated into English Wahls Clavis Philologica Novi Testamenti, Robinson went to Europe to study ancient languages, largely in Halle and Berlin. While in Halle, in 1828 he married the German writer Therese Albertine Luise, after the couple returned to the United States, Robinson was appointed professor extraordinary of sacred literature at Andover Theological Seminary.
Robinson founded the Biblical Repository, which he edited for four years and he established the Bibliotheca Sacra, into which was merged the Biblical Repository. He spent three years in Boston working on a lexicon of scriptural Greek, illness caused him to move to New York City. He was appointed as professor of literature at Union Theological Seminary. In 1836 Robinson published both a translation of Wilhelm Gesenius Hebrew Lexicon and a Greek New Testament Lexicon, Robinson traveled to Palestine in 1838 in the company of Rev. He published Biblical Researches in Palestine in 1841, for which he was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society in 1842 and he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1847. Robinson, together with Smith, made scores of identifications of ancient places referred to the Bible and his work established his enduring reputation as a Founder of Biblical archeology, and influenced much of future archaeological field work. Examples of his finds in Jerusalem include the Siloam tunnel and Robinsons Arch in the Old City, the two men returned to Ottoman Palestine in 1852 for further investigations.
In 1856 the enlarged edition of Biblical Researches was published simultaneously in English and this work superseded his translation of Wahls work, becoming a standard authority in the United States. It was several times reprinted in Great Britain, physical Geography of the Holy Land. This is a supplement to his Biblical Researches, and was edited by Mrs. Robinson after his death, revised editions of the Greek and English Harmonies, edited by Matthew B