Killaloe, County Clare
Killaloe is a large village in east County Clare, Ireland. The village lies on the River Shannon on the western bank of Lough Derg and is connected by Killaloe Bridge to the "twin town" of Ballina on the eastern bank of the lake; the surrounding area is popular for hill-walking. The Killaloe Electoral Area is one of six such areas in County Clare and returns four members to Clare County Council. Killaloe is at the center of the Killaloe Civil parish; the town owes its origin to a sixth-century monastic settlement founded by Saint Molua, or Lua, on an island in the Shannon 1 km below the present Killaloe Bridge which moved onto the mainland. In the tenth century it was base for Brian Boru as it controlled the strategic crossing of the Shannon above Limerick, where the Vikings were in control. Brian Boru had Kincora, on the high ground where the current Catholic church stands. Therefore, between 1002 and 1014, when he was the High King, Killaloe was the capital of all Ireland. 2 km north of the town, his fort, Beal Boruma, stood on the site of an Iron Age ring at the head of Lough Derg, where a ford crossed the river.
The word "Boruma" comes from the tribute paid by those crossing the river and is thought to be the origin of Brian Boru's name. St Flannan's Cathedral was built between 1185 and 1225, with an oratory for the same saint, the abbot of Killaloe in the seventh century; the cathedral was rebuilt in the fourteenth century. Of the original building, only a romanesque arch survives. In Elizabethan times, Ennis was chosen as the county town of Clare, the importance of Killaloe declined. In 1650, Cromwell spent 10 days on the opposite side of the Shannon at Ballina, exploring ways to cross the river, the defensive line of catholic and royalist forces before the Siege of Limerick. 40 years Patrick Sarsfield was the leader of the Jacobite forces here, harrying the Williamite forces advancing on Limerick. The earliest mention of a bridge across the river is in 1013; this was repaired and replaced by a 17 arch stone bridge in the early eighteenth century reduced to 13 arches. Most of the houses in the lower part of the town were built in the eighteenth century.
In the nineteenth century the Shannon Steam Navigation Company had its headquarters here and constructed a canal to bypass the rapids below the town. St. Lua's oratory, built between 1000 and 1150, was moved from Friar's island to the site of the Catholic Church when the hydroelectric scheme at Ardnacrusha was constructed in the 1920s. Killaloe parish is part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Killaloe. Parish churches are Sacred Heart & St Lua's in Garraunboy, St Flannan's in Killaloe and St Thomas' in Bridgetown. Killaloe is home to the public school St. Anne's Community College. Patricia Noonan was the first pupil through the school doors in September 1940; the University of Limerick has its outdoor pursuits centre near Killaloe on the shore of the lake. Killaloe was the birthplace of Brian Boru, he ruled from Kincora, believed to have been in modern-day Killaloe. American president Ronald Reagan's history has been traced back to Killaloe, to Brian Boru's father, Cennétig mac Lorcáin. Former Ireland rugby international captain Keith Wood the inaugural IRB International Player of the Year in 2001, is a Killaloe native and owner of the Wood & Bell Café and Restaurant.
Anthony Foley a rugby international, captain of Munster's 2005-06 Heineken Cup winning team, was a resident. Brendan Grace, an Irish comedian had a house and a pub called Brendan Grace's in Killaloe, it closed in 2013. A trap and transport scheme is in force on the Shannon as part of an eel management programme following the discovery of reducing populations within the River Shannon; this scheme ensures safe passage for young eels between the Shannon Estuary. Killaloe is the home town of Phineas Finn, the fictional hero of two of Anthony Trollope's Palliser novels, Phineas Finn and Phineas Redux. In Phineas Finn, Killaloe is presented as a lively, social centre. Phineas´s father, Dr Malachai Finn, is well known and respected ′in counties Clare, Limerick and Galway′. Dr Finn is a friend of the Roman Catholic Bishop, another prominent Killaloe resident, personal physician to the Earl of Tulla, who lives on his estate ′not more than ten miles from Killaloe′. Phineas returns to Killaloe for extended periods to spend time with his parents and with his five sisters and their friend, Miss Mary Flood Jones, who becomes his first wife.
The 1917 comic song Paddy McGinty's Goat mentions the village as the scene of the events it describes. The 2017 Gaelic Storm song "Damn Near Died in Killaloe" from the album Go Climb a Tree is set in the town and mentions it repeatedly. See Annals of Inisfallen AI991.5 Repose of Scandlán son of Tadc, erenagh of Cell Dá Lua. AI1027.7 Tadc son of Eochu, abbots of Cell Dá Lua, rested. AI1031.2 Ua Taidc, coarb of Flann, son of Fairchellach, was killed. List of towns and villages in Ireland
Brian Boru was an Irish king who ended the domination of the High Kingship of Ireland by the Uí Néill. Building on the achievements of his father, Cennétig mac Lorcain, his elder brother, Brian first made himself King of Munster subjugated Leinster becoming High King of Ireland, he was the founder of the O'Brien dynasty. With a population of under 500,000 people, Ireland had over 150 kings, with greater or lesser domains; the Uí Néill king Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill, abandoned by his northern kinsmen of the Cenél nEógain and Cenél Conaill, acknowledged Brian as High King at Athlone in 1002. In the decade that followed, Brian campaigned against the northern Uí Néill, who refused to accept his claims, against Leinster, where resistance was frequent, against the Norse-Gaelic Kingdom of Dublin. Brian's hard-won authority was challenged in 1013 when his ally Máel Sechnaill was attacked by the Cenél nEógain king Flaithbertach Ua Néill, with the Ulstermen as his allies; this was followed by further attacks on Máel Sechnaill by the Dubliners under their king Sihtric Silkbeard and the Leinstermen led by Máel Mórda mac Murchada.
Brian campaigned against these enemies in 1013. In 1014, Brian's armies confronted the armies of Leinster and Dublin, with Norsemen fighting on both sides, at Clontarf near Dublin on Good Friday; the resulting Battle of Clontarf was a bloody affair, with Brian, his son Murchad, Máel Mórda among those killed. The list of the noble dead in the Annals of Ulster includes Irish kings, Norse Gaels and Scandinavians; the immediate beneficiary of the slaughter was Máel Sechnaill. The Norse-Gaels and Scandinavians produced works mentioning Brian, including Njal's Saga, the Orkneyinga Saga, the now-lost Brian's Saga. Brian's war against Máel Mórda and Sihtric was to be inextricably connected with his complicated marital relations, in particular his marriage to Gormlaith, Máel Mórda's sister and Sihtric's mother, in turn the wife of Amlaíb Cuarán, king of Dublin and York of Máel Sechnaill, of Brian, he was one of the 12 sons of Cennétig mac Lorcáin, king of Dál gCais and king of Tuadmumu, modern County Clare a sub-kingdom in the north of Munster.
Cennétig was described as rígdamna Caisil, meaning that he was either heir or candidate to the kingship of Cashel or Munster, although this might be a interpolation. Brian's mother was Bé Binn inion Urchadh, daughter of Urchadh mac Murchadh, king of Maigh Seóla in west Connacht; that they belonged to the Uí Briúin Seóla may explain why he received the name Brian, rare among the Dál gCais. Brian's family were descended from the Ui Tairdelbach branch of the Dal gCais; this branch had taken power from the more powerful Ui Óengusso branch which had traditionally supplied the Kings of the Dal gCais. This power shift occurred after the death of Ui Óengusso King Rebechan Mac Mothla who died as King of the Dal gCais in 934; the sons of Brian's grandfather Lorcan seized the opportunity and took power from the rival branch, with Brian's father Cennétig being the most successful of these. His father was the first King of the Dal gCais to lead an army beyond his own territory and lead an expedition as far north as Athlone.
By his death in 951 had been acknowledged as "King of Tuadmumu". His brother Mahon built on these achievements and was the first to capture Cashel and become King of Munster. Brian was born at a town in the region of Tuadmumu. Brian's posthumous cognomen "Bóruma" may have referred to "Béal Bóruma", a fort north of Killaloe, where the Dál gCais held sway. Another explanation, though a late interpretation, is that the nickname represented Old Irish bóruma "of the cattle tribute", referring to his capacity as a powerful overlord; the River Shannon served as an easy route by which raids could be made against the provinces of Connacht and Meath. Both Brian's father, Cennétig mac Lorcáin, his older brother Mathgamain conducted river-borne raids, in which the young Brian would undoubtedly have participated; this was the root of his appreciation for naval forces in his career. Thus an important influence upon the Dalcassians was the presence of the Hiberno-Norse city of Limerick on an isthmus around which the Shannon River winds.
The Norse had made many a raid themselves from the Shannon, the Dalcassians benefited from some interaction with them, from which they would have been exposed to innovations such as superior weapons and ship design, all factors that may have contributed to their growing power. When their father died, the kingship of Tuadmumu passed to Brian's older brother, and, when Mathgamain was killed in 976, Brian replaced him. Subsequently, he became the king of the entire kingdom of Munster. In 964, Brian's older brother, claimed control over the entire province of Munster by capturing the Rock of Cashel, capital of the ancient Eóganachta, the hereditary overlords or High Kings of Munster, but who in dynastic strife and with multiple assassinations had weakened themselves to the point they were now impotent. Earlier attacks from both the Uí Néill and Vikings were factors; this situation allowed the illegitimate but militarized Dál Cais to attempt to seize the provincial kingship. Mathgamain was never recognized and was opposed throughout his career in the 960s and 970s by Máel Muad mac Brain, a semi-outsider from the Cashel perspective but still a legitimate Eóganacht
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press, they are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century; the Press is located on opposite Somerville College, in the suburb Jericho. The Oxford University Press Museum is located on Oxford. Visits are led by a member of the archive staff. Displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary; the university became involved in the print trade around 1480, grew into a major printer of Bibles, prayer books, scholarly works. OUP took on the project that became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century, expanded to meet the ever-rising costs of the work.
As a result, the last hundred years has seen Oxford publish children's books, school text books, journals, the World's Classics series, a range of English language teaching texts. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, beginning with New York City in 1896. With the advent of computer technology and harsh trading conditions, the Press's printing house at Oxford was closed in 1989, its former paper mill at Wolvercote was demolished in 2004. By contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year; the first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood. A business associate of William Caxton, Rood seems to have brought his own wooden printing press to Oxford from Cologne as a speculative venture, to have worked in the city between around 1480 and 1483; the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinus's Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, printer.
Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as "1468", thus pre-dating Caxton. Rood's printing included John Ankywyll's Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century. Records or surviving work are few, Oxford did not put its printing on a firm footing until the 1580s. In response to constraints on printing outside London imposed by the Crown and the Stationers' Company, Oxford petitioned Elizabeth I of England for the formal right to operate a press at the university; the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxford's case. Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, a decree of Star Chamber noted the legal existence of a press at "the universitie of Oxforde" in 1586. Oxford's chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the university's printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute.
Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers' Company and the King's Printer, obtained a succession of royal grants to aid it; these were brought together in Oxford's "Great Charter" in 1636, which gave the university the right to print "all manner of books". Laud obtained the "privilege" from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford; this "privilege" created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although it was held in abeyance. The Stationers' Company was alarmed by the threat to its trade and lost little time in establishing a "Covenant of Forbearance" with Oxford. Under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes.
Laud made progress with internal organization of the Press. Besides establishing the system of Delegates, he created the wide-ranging supervisory post of "Architypographus": an academic who would have responsibility for every function of the business, from print shop management to proofreading; the post was more an ideal than a workable reality, but it survived in the loosely structured Press until the 18th century. In practice, Oxford's Warehouse-Keeper dealt with sales and the hiring and firing of print shop staff. Laud's plans, hit terrible obstacles, both personal and political. Falling foul of political intrigue, he was executed in 1645, by which time the English Civil War had broken out. Oxford became a Royalist stronghold during the conflict, many printers in the city concentrated on producing political pamphlets or sermons; some outstanding mathematical and Orientalist works emerged at this time—notably, texts edited by Edward Pococke, the Regius Professor of Hebrew—but no university press on Laud's model was possible before the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660.
It was established by the vice-chancellor, John Fell, Dean of Christ Church, Bishop of Oxford, Secretary to the Delegates. Fell regarded Laud as a martyr, was determined to honour his vision of the Press. Using the provisions of the Great Charter, Fell persuaded Oxford to refuse any further payments from the Stationers and drew
Anglo-Irish is a term, more used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify a social class in Ireland, whose members are the descendants and successors of the English Protestant Ascendancy. They belong to the Anglican Church of Ireland, the established church of Ireland until 1871, or to a lesser extent one of the English dissenting churches, such as the Methodist church, though some were Catholic, its members tended to follow English practices in matters of culture, law and politics but defined themselves as "Irish" or "British", "Anglo-Irish" or "English". Many became eminent as senior army and naval officers. Others were prominent Irish nationalists; the term is not applied to Presbyterians in the province of Ulster, whose ancestry is Lowland Scottish, rather than English or Irish, who are sometimes identified as Ulster-Scots. The Anglo-Irish held a wide range of political views, with some being outspoken Irish Nationalists, but most overall being Unionists, and while many of the Anglo-Irish were part of the English diaspora in Ireland, some were of native Irish origin in part and Catholic but had converted to Anglicanism.
The term "Anglo-Irish" is applied to the members of the Church of Ireland who made up the professional and landed class in Ireland from the 17th century up to the time of Irish independence in the early 20th century. In the course of the 17th century, this Anglo-Irish landed class replaced the Gaelic Irish and Old English aristocracies as the ruling class in Ireland, they were referred to as "New English" to distinguish them from the "Old English", who descended from the medieval Hiberno-Norman settlers. A larger but less prominent element of the Protestant Irish population were immigrant French Huguenots and the English and Scottish dissenters who settled in Ireland in the 17th and 18th centuries in the plantation period. Many of these the Scots-Irish or their descendants, emigrated to the American colonies in the eighteenth century before the American Revolutionary War. Under the Penal Laws, which were in force between the 17th and 19th centuries, Roman Catholic recusants in Great Britain and Ireland were barred from holding public office, while in Ireland they were barred from entry to the University of Dublin and from professions such as law and the military.
The lands of the recusant Roman Catholic landed gentry who refused to take the prescribed oaths were confiscated during the Plantations of Ireland. The rights of Roman Catholics to inherit landed property were restricted; those who converted to the Church of Ireland were able to keep or regain their lost property, as the issue was considered one of allegiance. In the late 18th century, the Parliament of Ireland in Dublin won legislative independence, the movement for the repeal of the Test Acts began. Not all Anglo-Irish people could trace their origins to the Protestant English settlers of the Cromwellian period. Members of this ruling class identified themselves as Irish, while retaining English habits in politics and culture, they participated in the popular English sports of the day racing and fox hunting, intermarried with the ruling classes in Great Britain. Many of the more successful of them spent much of their careers either in Great Britain or in some part of the British Empire. Many constructed large country houses, which became known in Ireland as Big Houses, these became symbolic of the class' dominance in Irish society.
The Dublin working class playwright Brendan Behan, a staunch Irish Republican, saw the Anglo-Irish as Ireland's leisure class and famously defined an Anglo-Irishman as "a Protestant with a horse". The Anglo-Irish novelist and short story writer Elizabeth Bowen memorably described her experience as feeling "English in Ireland, Irish in England" and not accepted as belonging to either. Due to their prominence in the military and their conservative politics, the Anglo-Irish have been compared to the Prussian Junker class by, among others, Correlli Barnett. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Anglo-Irish owned many of the major indigenous businesses in Ireland, such as Jacob's Biscuits, Bewley's, Beamish and Crawford, Jameson's Whiskey, W. P. & R. Odlum, Cleeve's, R&H Hall, Maguire & Patterson, Dockrell's, Arnott's, Goulding Chemicals, the Irish Times, the Irish Railways, the Guinness brewery, Ireland's largest employer, they controlled financial companies such as the Bank of Ireland and Goodbody Stockbrokers.
Prominent Anglo-Irish poets and playwrights include Maria Edgeworth, Jonathan Swift, George Berkeley, Oliver Goldsmith, George Darley, Lucy Knox, Bram Stoker, Oscar Wilde, J. M. Synge, W. B. Yeats, Cecil Day-Lewis, Bernard Shaw, Lady Gregory, Samuel Beckett, Giles Cooper, C. S. Lewis, Lord Longford, Elizabeth Bowen, William Trevor and William Allingham. In the 19th century, some of the most prominent mathematical and physical scientists of the British Isles, including Sir William Rowan Hamilton, Sir George Stokes, John Tyndall, George Johnstone Stoney, Thomas Romney Robinson, Edward Sabine, Thomas Andrews, Lord Rosse, George Salmon, George FitzGerald, were Anglo-Irish. In the 20th-century, scientists John Joly and Ernest Walton were Anglo-Irish, as was the polar explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton. Medical experts included Sir William Wilde, Robert Graves, Thomas Wrigley Grimshaw, William Stokes, Robert Collis, Sir John Lumsden and William Babi
In the modern Gaelic languages, Lochlann signifies Scandinavia or, more Norway. As such it is cognate with the Welsh name for Llychlyn. In both old Gaelic and old Welsh, such names mean "land of lakes" or "land of swamps". Classical Gaelic literature and other sources from early medieval Ireland first featured the name, in earlier forms like Laithlind and Lothlend. In Irish, the adjectival noun Lochlannach has an additional sense of "raider" or, more a viking. All uses of the word "Lochlann" relate it to Nordic realms of Europe. While the traditional view has identified Laithlind with Norway, some have preferred to locate it in a Norse-dominated part of Scotland the Hebrides or the Northern Isles. Donnchadh Ó Corráin states that Laithlinn was the name of Viking Scotland, that a substantial part of Scotland—the Northern and Western Isles and large areas of the coastal mainland from Caithness and Sutherland to Argyll—was conquered by the Vikings in the first quarter of the ninth century and a Viking kingdom was set up there earlier than the middle of the century.
The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland contain numerous reference to the "Lochlanns", who are Vikings and feared and distrusted by the writers. However few named individuals are identified from amongst their number and their relationships with one another are obscure. Jarl Tomrair, described as the "tanist of the king of Lochlann" fell in the Battle of Sciath Nechtain in 848. In 851 Zain identified as the "half-king of the Lochlanns" and Iargna "the two chiefs of the fleet of the Lochlanns" are recorded as fighting against the Danes in Carlingford Lough; the same source notes that in the sixth year of the reign of Maelsechlainn, circa 852 Amlaíb "the son of the King of Lochlann, came to Erin, he brought with him commands from his father for many rents and tributes, but he left suddenly. Imhar, his younger brother, came after him to levy the same rents." Amlaíb is called the "son of the king of Laithlind" by the Annals of Ulster in 853. While of Scandinavian origin – Amlaíb is the Old Irish representation of the Old Norse name Oláfr – the question of Amlaíb's immediate origins is debated.
In 871 he "went from Erin to Lochlann to wage war on the Lochlanns" to assist his father Goffridh who had "come for him". Hona, who the annalists believed was a druid and Tomrir Torra were "two noble chiefs", "of great fame among their own people", "of the best race of the Lochlanns", although their careers appear to have been otherwise unrecorded, they died whilst fighting the men of Munster in 860. Gnimbeolu, chief of the Galls of Cork, was killed in 865 the same person as Gnim Cinnsiolla, chief of the Lochlanns, recorded as dying in similar circumstances. In 869 Tomrark the Earl is described as a "fierce, cruel man of the Lochlanns" and the annalist notes with some satisfaction, that this "enemy of Brenann" died of madness at Port-Mannan in the same year. In 869 the Picts were attacked by the Lochlanns and internal strife in Lochlann was recorded because: the sons of Albdan, King of Lochlann, expelled the eldest son, son of Albdan, because they feared that he would take the kingdom of Lochlann after their father.
But his elder sons, with a great host, which they collected from every quarter, came on to the British Isles, being elated with pride and ambition, to attack the Franks and Saxons. They thought that their father had returned to Lochlann after setting out; this entry provides a number of problems. The demise of Gofraid, King of Lochlann and father of Amlaíb and Imhar and Auisle seems to be recorded in the Fragmentary Annals in 873:Ég righ Lochlainne.i. Gothfraid do. Sic quod placuit Deo. O' Corrain concludes that: "this much-emended entry appears to be the death notice of Gøðrøðr, king of the Vikings in Scotland" and although other interpreters believed this entry referred to the death of his son Ímar it is about one of the other. Who is "Albdan"? The name is a corruption of the Norse Halden, or Halfdane, this may be a reference to Halfdan the Black; this would make Raghnall Rognvald Eysteinsson of the brother of Harald Finehair. The "Lochlanns" may thus have been a generic description for both Norwegian-based warriors and insular forces of Norse descent based in the Norðreyjar or Suðreyjar.
Other Lochlannachs mentioned in the texts for dates during the early 10th century are Hingamund and Otter, son of Iargna, killed by the Scots. Whatever the meaning of Laithlind and Lochlann in Ireland in the ninth and tenth centuries, it may have referred to Norway later. In 1058 Magnus Haraldsson is called "the son of the king of Lochlann", his nephew Magnus Barefoot is the "king of Lochlann" in the Irish πreports of the great western expedition four decades later; the Irish Lochlann has a cognate in the Welsh language Llychlyn, which appears as a name for Scandinavia in the prose tales Culhwch and Olwen and The Dream of Rhonabwy, in some versions of Welsh Triad 35. In these versions of Triad 35 Llychlyn is the destination of the otherwise unattested Yrp of the Hosts, who depleted Britain's armies by demanding that each of the island's chief fortresses provide him with twice the men he brought; the same versions give
Hurling is an outdoor team game of ancient Gaelic and Irish origin. It is administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association; the game has prehistoric origins, has been played for 4,000 years. One of Ireland's native Gaelic games, it shares a number of features with Gaelic football, such as the field and goals, the number of players, much terminology. There is a similar game for women called camogie, it shares a common Gaelic root with the sport of shinty, played predominantly in Scotland. The objective of the game is for players to use a wooden stick called a hurl to hit a small ball called a sliotar between the opponents' goalposts either over the crossbar for one point, or under the crossbar into a net guarded by a goalkeeper for one goal, equivalent to three points; the sliotar can be caught in the hand and carried for not more than four steps, struck in the air, or struck on the ground with the hurley. It slapped with an open hand for short-range passing. A player who wants to carry the ball for more than four steps has to bounce or balance the sliotar on the end of the stick, the ball can only be handled twice while in his possession.
Provided that a player has at least one foot on the ground, a player may make a shoulder to shoulder charge on an opponent:, in possession of the ball, playing the ball when both players are moving in the direction of the ball to play itNo protective padding is worn by players. A plastic protective helmet with a faceguard is mandatory for all age groups, including senior level, as of 2010; the game has been described as "a bastion of humility", with player names absent from jerseys and a player's number decided by his position on the field. Hurling is played throughout the world, is popular among members of the Irish diaspora in North America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and South Korea. In many parts of Ireland, hurling is a fixture of life, it has featured in art forms such as film and literature. The final of the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship was listed in second place by CNN in its "10 sporting events you have to see live", after the Olympic Games and ahead of both the FIFA World Cup and UEFA European Football Championship.
After covering the 1959 All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship Final between Kilkenny and Waterford for BBC Television, English commentator Kenneth Wolstenholme was moved to describe hurling as his second favourite sport in the world after his first love, football. In 2007, Forbes magazine described the media attention and population multiplication of Thurles town ahead of one of the game's annual provincial hurling finals as being "the rough equivalent of 30 million Americans watching a regional lacrosse game". UNESCO lists Hurling as an element of Intangible Cultural Heritage. A team comprises 15 players, or "hurlers" The hurley is 24 to 36 inches in length The ball, known as a sliotar, has a cork centre and a leather cover. A ball hit over the bar is worth one point. A ball, hit under the bar is called a goal and is worth three points; as of 2010, all players must wear helmets A hurling pitch is similar in some respects to a rugby pitch but larger. The grass pitch is rectangular. There are H-shaped goalposts at each end, formed by two posts, which are 6–7 metres high, set 6.5 m apart, connected 2.5 m above the ground by a crossbar.
A net extending behind the goal is attached to lower goal posts. The same pitch is used for Gaelic football. Lines are marked at distances of 21 yards and 65 yards from each end-line. Shorter pitches and smaller goals are used by youth teams. Teams consist of fifteen players: a goalkeeper, three full backs, three half backs, two midfielders, three half forwards and three full forwards; the panel is made up of 24–30 players and five substitutions are allowed per game. An exception can now be made in the case of a blood substitute being necessary. From 1 January 2010, the wearing of helmets with faceguards became compulsory for hurlers at all levels; this saw senior players follow the regulations introduced in 2009 at minor and under 21 grades. The GAA hopes to reduce the number of injuries by introducing the compulsory wearing of helmets with full faceguards, both in training and matches. Hurlers of all ages, including those at nursery clubs when holding a hurley in their hand, must wear a helmet and faceguard at all times.
Match officials will be obliged to stop play if any player at any level appears on the field of play without the necessary standard of equipment. Senior inter-county matches last 70 minutes. All other matches last 60 minutes. For teams under-13 and lower, games may be shortened to 50 minutes. Timekeeping is at the discretion of the referee. If a knockout game finishes in a draw, a replay is staged. If a replay finishes in a draw, 20 minutes of extra time are played. If the game is still tied, another replay is staged. In clu
The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not survive the conversion to Christianity. However, much of it was preserved in medieval Irish literature, though it was shorn of its religious meanings; this literature represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. Although many of the manuscripts have not survived and much more material was never committed to writing, there is enough remaining to enable the identification of distinct, if overlapping, cycles: the Mythological Cycle, the Ulster Cycle, the Fenian Cycle and the Historical Cycle. There are a number of extant mythological texts that do not fit into any of the cycles. Additionally, there are a large number of recorded folk tales that, while not mythological, feature personages from one or more of these four cycles. Today some of the best known tales are of Tír na nÓg, Fionn MacCumhaill, Na Fianna, The Aos Sí / Aes Sídhe, Sétanta, The Tuatha Dé Danann, the Children of Lir, Táin Bó Cúailnge & the Salmon of Knowledge.
Depending on the sources, the importance of gods and goddesses in Irish mythology varies. The geographical tales, emphasize the importance of female divinities while the historical tradition focuses on the colonizers, inventors, or male warriors with the female characters only intervening in episodes. Goddesses are linked to a place and they seem to draw their power from that place, they are maternal deities caring for the earth itself as well as children. They are connected to poetry, smith craft, healing. Many appear to be prophetic when foretelling death as well as transformational. Zoomorphism is an important feature for many Irish deities. Badb Catha, the Raven of Battle, introduces zoomorphism to celtic deities of both sexes. Male deities are less zoomorphic than the female deities in the Irish tradition, but there are still some instances of shapeshifting among gods. There is a presence in Irish Mythology of the Triad referred to as the "power of three," which expresses the extreme potency of a deity rather than dividing the power.
It is an attribute more pronounced among female deities. Dagda is called by two other names, Lug has two brothers, there is the Three Gods of Skill There is a lack of a goddess of love equivalent to Aphrodite or Venus due to the predominance of the maternal element in the culture of the Celts. There are multiple categories of goddesses in Irish Mythology: the Mother Goddess, Seasonal Goddess, Warrior Goddess are a few; some of these goddesses are considered to be all one goddess while other stories treat them as separate. Among the mother goddesses is Anu the goddess of Danu. Additionally, Brigit is a mother goddess, sometimes considered one goddess and sometimes considered the three sisters Brigit, she is the mother goddess that watches over childbirth. She brings abundance. Brigit can be categorized as a seasonal goddess and one can win her favor by burying a fowl alive at the meeting of three waters as a form of sacrifice, she survives as Saint Brigit in the Christian faith and some modern folklore makes her midwife to the Blessed Virgin.
The function of these goddesses involves the entire cycle of life from birth through adolescence and the fertility. They are protecting forces that provide the necessities of life within the home and are envisioned as being the earth itself, their importance have led some scholars to propose a matrilineal social organization and others highlight this argument as being feminist propaganda and deny all indications of importance. These goddesses are the patronesses of feasts, they appear during great feasts of Ireland and they bring abundance. The main goddesses are the Machas: Carman, Tea, but there are other seasonal goddesses. Warrior Goddesses are linked with warrior women because there is historical evidence of women leading their tribes into battle. Oftentimes, warrior goddesses are depicted in a trio; this trio can change to include different goddesses. They reign over the battlefield without having to physically be involved, they do not need to strike a blow because they control the events while the male deities are depicted as being in the battles.
This aspect leads to the discussion of women as the gods of slaughter. Scholars note that the female deities govern the natural event while the male deities govern the social event; the main goddesses of war are Morrigan and Bodb. The Irish Gods are divided into four main groups. Group one encompasses the older gods of Britain; the second group is the main focus of much of the mythology and surrounds the native Irish gods with their homes in burial mounds. The third group are the gods that dwell in the sea and the fourth group includes stories of the Otherworld; the gods that appear most are Dagda and Lug. Some scholars have argued that the stories of these gods align with the Greek gods. Druids were held in high esteem by the community as religious leaders, their functions and origins are debated which some attribute to the fact that there was no written tradition. This lack of documentary evidence is said to be because the practices become common property and this makes the student relax their diligence.
They are figures in Irish Mythology and study astronomy. Heroes in Irish mythology can be found in two distinct groups. There is the hero outside of the tribe; the first group encompasses all, subject to man and his works must belong to the tribe and live under its laws. Within the tribe, heroes are of the race of humans and gods