A single parent is an uncoupled individual who shoulders most or all of the day-to-day responsibilities for raising a child or children. A mother is often the primary caregiver in a single-parent family structure that has arisen due to death of the partner, intentional artificial insemination. Historically, death of a partner was a cause of single parenting. Single parenting can result from the breakup or divorce of coupled parents, custody battles, awarded by the court or rationalized in other terms, determine who the child will spend majority of their time with. Recent years have seen the increasing incidence and visibility of uncoupled women who choose to be single parents, when single women seek to get pregnant intentionally in order to become single mothers by choice, they often seek an anonymous or known sperm donor. Single parent adoption or fostering is sometimes an option for adults who want to raise a family. The demographics of single parenting show a general increase worldwide in children living in single parent homes, Single parenting has become a norm in the United States and is a trend found in multiple other countries.
The morality and advisability of single motherhood has long been debated in the US, Single American mothers live in poverty 5 times more often than married parents. The topic is less contentious in Western European countries where all families enjoy more robust state-sponsored social benefits, Single parenthood has been common historically due to parental mortality rate. In the United States, since the 1960s, there has been an increase in the number of children living with a single parent. The 1980 United States Census reported that 19. 5% were single parent households, from 1980 to 2009, the percentage of single-parent households jumped to 29. 5%. The jump was caused by an increase in births to unmarried women, in 2010,40. 7% of births in the US were to unmarried women. In 2000, 11% of children were living with parents who had never married,15. 6% of children lived with a divorced parent. The results of the 2010 United States Census showed that 27% of children live with one parent, consistent with the trend noted in 2000.
Mississippi leads the nation with the highest percent of births to unmarried mothers with 54% in 2014, followed by Louisiana, New Mexico, about 16% of children worldwide live in a single-parent household. In 2006,12.9 million families in the US were headed by a single parent, in 2003, 14% of all Australian households were single-parent families. At the 2013 census,17. 8% of New Zealand families were single-parent, in the United Kingdom, about 1 out of 4 families with dependent children are single-parent families,8 to 11 percent of which have a male single-parent. UK poverty figures show that 52% of single parent families are below the Government-defined poverty line, Single parents in the UK are almost twice as likely to be in low-paid jobs as other workers
Libertarianism is a collection of political philosophies that uphold liberty as a core principle. Libertarians seek to maximize freedom and autonomy, emphasizing freedom of choice, voluntary association, individual judgment. Libertarians share a skepticism of authority and state power, they diverge on the scope of their opposition to existing political and economic systems. Various schools of libertarian thought offer a range of views regarding the functions of state and private power. Some libertarians advocate laissez-faire capitalism and strong private property rights, such as in land, infrastructure, an additional line of division is between minarchists and anarchists. While minarchists think that a centralized government is necessary and anarcho-capitalists propose to completely eliminate the state. The first recorded use of the term libertarian was in 1789, the word was again used in a political sense in 1802, in a short piece critiquing a poem by the author of Gebir, and has since been used with this meaning.
Déjacque used the term for his anarchist publication Le Libertaire, Journal du Mouvement Social, in the mid-1890s, Sébastien Faure began publishing a new Le Libertaire while Frances Third Republic enacted the lois scélérates, which banned anarchist publications in France. Libertarianism has frequently used as a synonym for anarchism since this time. Although the word continues to be widely used to refer to socialists internationally. Libertarianism in the United States has been described as conservative on issues and liberal on personal freedom. There is contention about whether right and socialist libertarianism represent distinct ideologies as opposed to variations on a theme, all libertarians begin with a conception of personal autonomy from which they argue in favor of civil liberties and a reduction or elimination of the state. Right-libertarianism developed in the United States in the century and is the most popular conception of libertarianism in that region. It is commonly referred to as a continuation or radicalization of classical liberalism, right-libertarians value the social institutions that enforce conditions of capitalism, while rejecting institutions that function in opposition to these institutions.
These may be the byproducts of conservatism, one or more of its historically specific, but they are not its animating purpose. Such a view might seem miles away from the defense of the free market, with its celebration of the atomistic. When the libertarian looks out upon society, he does not see isolated individuals, he sees private, often hierarchical, where a father governs his family and an owner his employees. Left-libertarianism encompasses those libertarian beliefs that claim the Earths natural resources belong to everyone in a manner, either unowned or owned collectively
Reason is an American libertarian monthly magazine published by the Reason Foundation. The magazine has a circulation of around 50,000 and was named one of the 50 best magazines in 2003 and 2004 by the Chicago Tribune, Reason was founded in 1968 by Lanny Friedlander as a more-or-less monthly mimeographed publication. In 1970 it was purchased by Robert W. Poole, Jr. Manuel S. Klausner, and Tibor R. Machan, who set it on a more regular publishing schedule. As the monthly print magazine of free minds and free markets, it covers politics and ideas with a mix of news, commentary, during the 1970s and 80s, the magazines contributors included Milton Friedman, Murray Rothbard, Thomas Szasz and Thomas Sowell. In 1978, Poole and Machan created the associated Reason Foundation, marty Zupan joined Reason in 1975, and served through the 1980s as managing editor and editor-in-chief, leaving in 1989. Virginia Postrel was editor-in-chief of the magazine from July 1989 to January 2000 and she founded the magazines website in 1995.
Nick Gillespie became editor-in-chief in 2000, erik Spiekermann, the designer of the Meta typeface, headed a redesign of Reason in 2001, aiming for a look that is cleaner, more modern, making use of the Meta typeface throughout. In June 2004, subscribers to Reason magazine received an issue that had their name. The concept was to demonstrate the power of public databases, as well as the customized printing capabilities of Xeikons printer, according to editor-in-chief Nick Gillespie. The move was seen by David Carr of The New York Times as the ultimate in customized publishing, in 2008, Reasons web site was named a Webby Award Honoree in the magazine category. That same year, Matt Welch became magazines editor-in-chief, with Gillespie becoming editor-in-chief of reason. tv, in 2011, Gillespie and Welch published The Declaration of Independents, How Libertarian Politics Can Fix Whats Wrong with America. Katherine Mangu-Ward became the magazines editor-in-chief in June 2016, with Welch moving to an editor-at-large position.
Other Reason editors include Jacob Sullum, Jesse Walker, Brian Doherty, Peter Suderman, and Damon Root, contributors include Ronald Bailey, Greg Beato, Cathy Young, Hit & Run is Reasons group blog. It is maintained and written by the staff of the magazine, Reason editors referred to this co-opting of the former website as the Suck-ification of Reason. In 2005, Hit & Run was named as one of the best political blogs by Playboy, Reason TV is a website affiliated with Reason magazine that produces short-form documentaries and video editorials. The site produced a series of videos called The Drew Carey Project hosted by comedian Drew Carey, Reason. tv teamed with Carey again in 2009 to produce Reason Saves Cleveland, in which Carey suggested free market solutions to his hometowns problems. Since 2010, comedian Remy Munasifi has partnered with Reason TV to produce parody videos, the Declaration of Independents The Independents Official website Reason TVs channel on YouTube Wired founder helps Reason
Slate is an online liberal / progressive magazine that covers current affairs and culture in the United States. It was created in 1996 by former New Republic editor Michael Kinsley, on 21 December 2004, it was purchased by The Washington Post Company, renamed the Graham Holdings Company. Since 4 June 2008, Slate has been managed by The Slate Group, Slate is based in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, DC. A French version was launched in February 2009 by a group of four journalists, including Jean-Marie Colombani, Eric Leser, among them, the founders hold 50% in the publishing company, while The Slate Group holds 15%. In 2011, slate. fr started a separate site covering African news, Slate Afrique, in July 2014, Julia Turner replaced David Plotz, who had been editor of Slate since 2008. Plotz had been the deputy editor to Jacob Weisberg, Slates editor from 2002 until his designation as the Chairman, the Washington Post Companys John Alderman is Slates publisher. Slate, which is updated throughout the day, covers politics and culture, sports, as of mid-2015, it publishes about 1500 stories per month.
Slate is known for adopting contrarian views, giving rise to the term Slate Pitches and it is ad-supported and has been available to read free of charge since 1999, but restricted access for non-US readers via a metered paywall in 2015. Slate features regular and semi-regular columns such as Explainer, Spectator, many of the articles are short and argument-driven. Around 2010, the magazine began running long-form journalism. Many of the stories are an outgrowth of the Fresca Fellowships. In the context of a 2014 reader discussion, it was stated that the magazine is perceived to have left-liberal leanings, in 1998, Slate introduced a paywall-based business model that attracted up 20,000 subscribers but was abandoned afterwards. A similar subscription model would be implemented by Slates independently owned competitor, Salon. com, on November 30,2005, Slate started a daily feature ”Todays Pictures”, featuring fifteen to twenty photographs from the archive at Magnum Photos that share a common theme.
The column features two flash animated ”Interactive Essays” a month, in June 2006, on its tenth anniversary, Slate unveiled a redesigned website. In 2007, it introduced Slate V, a video magazine with content that relates to or expands upon their written articles. In 2013, the magazine was redesigned under the guidance of Design Director Vivian Selbo, in 2011, Slate was nominated for four digital National Magazine Awards and won the NMA for General Excellence. In the same year, the laid off several high-profile journalists, including co-founder Jack Shafer. At the time, it had around 40 full-time editorial staff, the following year, a dedicated ad sales team was created
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party, commonly referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party. The party is named after republicanism, the dominant value during the American Revolution and it was founded by anti-slavery activists, modernists, ex-Whigs, and ex-Free Soilers in 1854. The Republicans dominated politics nationally and in the majority of northern States for most of the period between 1860 and 1932, there have been 19 Republican presidents, the most from any one party. The Republican Partys current ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats more progressive platform, its platform involves support for free market capitalism, free enterprise, fiscal conservatism, a strong national defense and restrictions on labor unions. In addition to advocating for economic policies, the Republican Party is socially conservative. As of 2017, the GOP is documented as being at its strongest position politically since 1928, in addition to holding the Presidency, the Republicans control the 115th United States Congress, having majorities in both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The party holds a majority of governorships and state legislatures, the main cause was opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise by which slavery was kept out of Kansas. The Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil, the first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement where the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party was held on March 20,1854, in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin. The name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jeffersons Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 6,1854, in Jackson and it oversaw the preserving of the union, the end of slavery, and the provision of equal rights to all men in the American Civil War and Reconstruction, 1861–1877. The Republicans initial base was in the Northeast and the upper Midwest, with the realignment of parties and voters in the Third Party System, the strong run of John C. Fremont in the 1856 United States presidential election demonstrated it dominated most northern states, early Republican ideology was reflected in the 1856 slogan free labor, free land, free men, which had been coined by Salmon P.
Chase, a Senator from Ohio. Free labor referred to the Republican opposition to labor and belief in independent artisans. Free land referred to Republican opposition to the system whereby slaveowners could buy up all the good farm land. The Party strove to contain the expansion of slavery, which would cause the collapse of the slave power, representing the fast-growing western states, won the Republican nomination in 1860 and subsequently won the presidency. The party took on the mission of preserving the Union, and destroying slavery during the American Civil War, in the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. The partys success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s and those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished and was continued mostly to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant ran Horace Greeley for the presidency. The Stalwarts defended Grant and the system, the Half-Breeds led by Chester A.
Arthur pushed for reform of the civil service in 1883
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act
The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 is a United States federal law considered to be a major welfare reform. The bill was a cornerstone of the Republican Contract with America and was authored by Rep. E. Clay Shaw, President Bill Clinton signed PRWORA into law on August 22,1996, fulfilling his 1992 campaign promise to end welfare as we have come to know it. PRWORA instituted Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, which became effective July 1,1997, TANF replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program—which had been in effect since 1935—and supplanted the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training program of 1988. The law was heralded as a reassertion of Americas work ethic by the U. S. Chamber of Commerce, TANF was reauthorized in the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005. AFDC caseloads increased dramatically from the 1930s to the 1960s as restrictions on the availability of support to poor families were reduced. Under the Social Security Act of 1935, federal funds only covered part of relief costs, more permissive Northern laws were tested during the Great Migration between 1940 and 1970 in which millions of people migrated from the agricultural South to the more industrial North.
Additionally, all able-bodied adults without children and two-parent families were originally disqualified from obtaining AFDC funds, court rulings during the Civil Rights Movement struck down many of these regulations, creating new categories of people eligible for relief. Community organizations, such as the National Welfare Rights Organization, distributed informational packets informing citizens of their ability to receive government assistance, between 1936 and 1969, the number of families receiving support increased from 162,000 to 1,875,000. After 1970, federal funding for the program lagged behind inflation, between 1970 and 1994, typical benefits for a family of three fell 47% after adjusting for inflation. The legislation was designed to increase labor market participation among public assistance recipients and this represented a major departure from the protectionist legacy institutionalized in U. S. social welfare policy from the inception of mothers pensions beginning in the early 19th century.
As such, the message regarding womens roles was that full-time mothering was a luxury reserved only for people who could afford it. The idea that the poor had become too dependent upon public assistance encouraged the act. The idea was that those who were on welfare for many years lost any initiative to find jobs and those on welfare realized that taking up a job would mean not only losing benefits but incur child care and clothing costs. Their new jobs probably would not pay well or include health insurance, there are many reasons welfare recipients would feel discouraged from working. In the 1980s, AFDC came under increasing criticism for the programs alleged ineffectiveness. While acknowledging the need for a safety net, Democrats often invoked the culture of poverty argument. Proponents of the bill argued that welfare recipients were trapped in a cycle of poverty, highlighting instances of welfare fraud, conservatives often referred to the system as a welfare trap and pledged to dismantle the welfare state.
Ronald Reagans oft-repeated story of a queen from Chicagos South Side became part of a larger discourse on welfare reform
James Joseph Heckman is an American economist and Nobel laureate. Heckman shared the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics in 2000, with Daniel McFadden and he is considered to be among the most influential economists in the world. Heckman was born to John Jacob Heckman and Bernice Irene Medley in Chicago and he received his B. A. in mathematics from Colorado College and his Ph. D. in economics from Princeton University, under the supervision of Albert Rees. He served as an assistant professor at Columbia University before he moved to the University of Chicago, harris School of Public Policy at the University of Chicago where he is the director of both the Center for Social Program Evaluation and Center for the Study of Childhood Development. He serves as a member of the Becker Friedman Institute for Research in Economicss Research Council, Heckman is noted for his contributions to selection bias and self-selection analysis, especially Heckman correction, which awarded him the Nobel Prize in Economics.
He is known for his empirical research in labor economics. He developed a body of new tools that address these issues. He demonstrated a causal effect of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 in promoting African-American economic progress. He has recently demonstrated that the school dropout rate is increasing in the US. He has studied the benefits of sorting in the labor market, the ineffectiveness of active labor market programs. His recent research focuses on inequality, human development and lifecycle skill formation and he is currently conducting new social experiments on early childhood interventions and reanalyzing old experiments. He is studying the emergence of the underclass in the US, in the early 1990s, his pioneering research, on the outcomes of people who obtain the GED certificate, received national attention. Heckman has published over 300 articles and several books and his books include Inequality in America, What Role for Human Capital Policy. He is currently co-editor of the Journal of Political Economy and he is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Philosophical Society
Administration for Children and Families
The Administration for Children and Families is a division of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. It is headed by the Assistant Secretary for Children and Families and it has a $49 billion budget for 60 programs that target children and families. These programs include assistance with welfare, child support enforcement, adoption assistance, foster care, child care, aCFs programs are designed to help children to develop into healthy adults and communities to become more prosperous and supportive of their members. ACF is responsible for programs that promote the economic and social well-being of families, individuals. Such programs teach that abstaining from sex is the effective or acceptable method to prevent pregnancy or disease. In October 2006, revised guidelines by ACF specified that states seeking grants are to identify groups, most likely to bear children out-of-wedlock, targeting adolescents and/or adults within the 12- through 29-year-old age range. Previous guidelines didnt mention specific ages, and programs focused on preteens and teens, for fiscal year 2005,63 grants were awarded, totaling $104 million to organizations and other entities, in fiscal 2001, grants totaled only $20 million. GAO reported that most of the efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of education programs included in GAO’s review have not met certain minimum scientific criteria.
Aid to Families with Dependent Children Child Abuse Reform and Enforcement Act to promote the improvement of information on, Administration For Children and Families Administration for Children and Families in the Federal Register
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court of the United States. In the legal system of the United States, the Supreme Court is the interpreter of federal constitutional law. The Court normally consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight justices who are nominated by the President. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, in modern discourse, the justices are often categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. Each justice has one vote, and while many cases are decided unanimously, the Court meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C. The Supreme Court is sometimes referred to as SCOTUS, in analogy to other acronyms such as POTUS. The ratification of the United States Constitution established the Supreme Court in 1789 and its powers are detailed in Article Three of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is the court specifically established by the Constitution.
The Court first convened on February 2,1790, by which five of its six initial positions had been filled. According to historian Fergus Bordewich, in its first session, he Supreme Court convened for the first time at the Royal Exchange Building on Broad Street and they had no cases to consider. After a week of inactivity, they adjourned until September, the sixth member was not confirmed until May 12,1790. Because the full Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the Courts full membership to make decisions, under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases, its first decision was West v. Barnes, a case involving a procedural issue. The Courts power and prestige grew substantially during the Marshall Court, the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuing his opinion seriatim, a remnant of British tradition, and instead issuing a single majority opinion. Also during Marshalls tenure, although beyond the Courts control, the impeachment, the Taney Court made several important rulings, such as Sheldon v.
Nevertheless, it is primarily remembered for its ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which helped precipitate the Civil War. In the Reconstruction era, the Chase and Fuller Courts interpreted the new Civil War amendments to the Constitution, during World War II, the Court continued to favor government power, upholding the internment of Japanese citizens and the mandatory pledge of allegiance. Nevertheless, Gobitis was soon repudiated, and the Steel Seizure Case restricted the pro-government trend, the Warren Court dramatically expanded the force of Constitutional civil liberties. It held that segregation in public schools violates equal protection and that traditional legislative district boundaries violated the right to vote