Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Pinet is a municipality located in the north-east of the comarca of Vall d'Albaida in the south of the province of Valencia, Valencian Community and some 82.6 km from the regional capital, Valencia. Pinet borders with the following municipalities: Barx, Quatretonda and Llutxent, all of which lie within the province of Valencia; the name of the municipality is derived from the Valencian term “pi”, meaning “pine tree”. The village belonged to the barony of Llutxent, under the authority of the Maza family, subsequently the houses of Mandas and Dos Aguas. In 1530, Pope Clement VII created the Vicariate of Pinet, run under the authority of the Dominicans of Llutxent until 1835. By 1646, only 20 inhabitants were recorded as living in the municipality following the expulsion of the Moriscos, implemented was particular intensity in Valencia. Towards the end of the 18th century, the population had risen to around 150 inhabitants, before reaching some 300 hundred at the beginning of the 20th century. By 1920, the population had reached 434 inhabitants, from which point it entered a progressive decline in consonance with the rural flight experienced in many areas throughout Spain during the 20th century.
The local economy was traditionally based on a combination of dryland and irrigation agriculture, dry stone walling and the production of baskets, espadrilles and other articles made from esparto and palm leaves. In common with other rural areas throughout Spain, these activities have been in decline since the mid-20th century, their place having been taken by livestock farming, services and tourism. Pinet is located in the north-east of the Valle de Albaida comarca and covers an area of 11.9 km2. It is situated at the head of a horse-shoe shaped valley, the surface of, composed of reddish marl deposited by water erosion originating in the mountains that lie at its north-easterly and northern extremes; the municipality’s altitude ranges from 466 metres above sea level in its most southerly point, to 700 metres above sea leval in the area known as Alto del Collado dels Caragols, located in its north east. The village of Pinet lies at an altitude of 348 metres. Pinet is located on the poorly-defined Pinet Syncline, which runs from North-North West to South-South East.
This structure would appear to have been formed by two vertical faults. The River Pinet runs through the municipality from north to south, running into the River Vernisa, in turn an affluent of the River Serpis; as is characteristic with the rivers and streams in the comarque, the River Pinet is a wash, that is, a stream bed, dry during the summer months and which carries abundant water following the typical heavy rains known as cold drop which fall in autumn and spring. The municipality enjoys a Mediterranean climate, characterised by hot summers and cold winters, with an average of two snowfalls per year; the climate is rated Csa in accordance with the Köppen climate classification system. The average annual temperature is around 17 °C, with maximums in summer of 45 °C and minimum in winter of -7 °C. Rainfall averages around 600 mm per year, although recent years have seen volumes of more than 1000 mm due to the large downpours to which the area is subject during the autumn as a result of the weather phenomenon known as cold drop.
The predominant vegetation in the lower valley is that associated with dryland fruit farming, whilst the surrounding mountains host pine and cork forests and shrubland, interspersed with holly oak and wild herbs and plants such as silene diclinis, snapdragon, rosemary, oregano, etc. The forested areas are home to such animal species as Bonelli's eagle, golden eagle, short-toed snake eagle, common bent-wing bat and greenfinch, whilst the fruit trees are host to such species as titmice, blackbird, golden oriole, nightingale, Cetti's warbler and wagtail, among others. There are wild boar and rabbit present in the area. El Surar, the southernmost cork oak forest in Valencia, is a Municipal Natural Park located in the municipalities of Pinet and Llutxent. Declared a Municipal Natural Park by Generalitat Valenciana on March 4, 2005, it can be accessed on foot, by bicycle, on horseback or by car via signposted roads and tracks from the village of Pinet. Pinet lies on the Route of the Monasteries of Valencia, a religious and cultural route that connects five monasteries located in central region of the Province of Valencia.
Of the Route’s four different itineraries, three cross through Pinet, with a separate variant passing through El Surar. The 18th-century parish church of St. Peter the Apostle has a single nave with chapels set between masonry buttresses. Pinet celebrates its main festivities during the last weekend of June in honour St. Peter and the Christ of the Mountain. A fair held in late summer in celebration of Pinet’s traditional craft of manufacturing products from esparto and palm leaves. Includes practical demonstrations, workshops and a culinary fair with local gastronomic dishes; the only road within the municipality is the CV-608, which connects the village of Pinet with the village of Llutxent, which lies on the CV-610 regional road, joining the towns of Gandia and Xàtiva. Route of the Monasteries of Valencia El Surar
Albaida, Province of Valencia
Albaida is a municipality in the comarca of Vall d'Albaida in the Valencian Community, Spain. Palace of Milà i Aragó Segrelles Museum Route of the Borgias Route of the Valencian classics Daniel Olcina, footballer
Luis Manuel Ferri Llopis, better known by his stage name Nino Bravo, was a Spanish barroque - pop and ballad singer. Ferri Llopis was born in Aielo de Spain, his father, Luis Manuel, a salesman, moved the family to Valencia, in search of better opportunities, when his son was three years old. Young Luis met, in bassist Vicente López, who introduced him to other Valencian musicians. Ferri Llopis discovered he could sing while on a trip with Paco Ramón. López recalled that he was surprised, upon waking up from a nap, to hear him singing Domenico Modugno's hit "Libero". Impressed, Lopez predicted that Ferri Llopis would become a superstar. Meanwhile, Ferri Llopis took a job as a jeweler working for his mother, who owned a supermarket. At age 16 he became a fan of the famous Chilean singer Antonio Prieto, whose song, "La Novia", had become a number one hit in Spain. Bravo and his friends formed a band, "Los Hispánicos", made a cover recording of "La Novia". Bravo enjoyed Rock & Roll music, he began singing at a hotel, where he sang his favorite English song, "Only You".
Ferri Llopis was approached by a recording company to sign with their label but he declined as the projected contract would not include the entire "Los Hispánicos" band. In 1964, "Los Hispánicos" changed their name to "Los Superson", they won a local radio contest moved on to Benidorm, where they became quite popular. Ferri Llopis was soon after called up for military duty. Suffering from depression, he contemplated quitting singing. While Ferri Llopis was away on military duty, his empresario López befriended Miguel Siurán, a radio personality, impressed by Los Superson's sound and wanted to help them get a recording contract. López declined; when Ferri Llopis returned from his military service, López talked to him about the contract, but Siurán was doubtful, questioning the young man's singing ability, asking if he could sing like Tom Jones, Engelbert Humperdinck or John Rowles. Siurán, became impressed with Ferri Llopis and took him to a music festival. Although Bravo did not win at the festival, Siurán became convinced that it was time for Bravo to become a star.
Bravo and Siurán first tried unsuccessfully to get a contract with RCA. They went to Fonogram, in Madrid. Bravo and Siurán returned to Valencia, where Siurán published a newspaper ad announcing "Nino Bravo y Los Superson". Shortly thereafter, Fonogram called to offer a contract for an album with the band. In March 1969, shortly after their album hit the market, Bravo sang before a live audience for the first time. After the concert, frenzied admirers tore down Bravo's concert posters. On 20 April 1970, he married María del Ámparo Martínez Gil and their first daughter, María del Ámparo Ferri Martínez, was born in 1972, they would have a second daughter, born after her father's death. Fonogram wanted Bravo to go solo. In 1970, Bravo participated for the first time in the prestigious Barcelona Music Festival, he would not gain international acclaim until two festivals however. After Bravo received favorable reviews from a festival audience in Athens, Greece, he went on to impress festival goers at the Rio de Janeiro Festival.
After being exposed to international audiences in Europe and Latin America and Meri parted ways, Bravo took on a new manager. His first solo album was soon released, the song "Te quiero, te quiero", by the composer Augusto Algueró, became an international hit, now considered a classic by many Hispanic music critics. Bravo's first album, "Tu Cambiarás", sold well in Colombia. Bravo went on tour in Colombia and Brazil, where he participated, for a second time in the Rio de Janeiro Festival. In 1971, Bravo recorded his second album posthumously released in CD format as "Puerta de amor". In 1972, Bravo released a third album, "Libre", a huge success and led to him becoming known in Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic and among the Hispanic population of the United States; the song ended up taking on political associations in the hispanophone world - it was popular among supporters of the Pinochet regime, José Miguel, Juan Pablo González. 2005. En busca de la música chilena: Crónica y antología de una historia sonora.
Santiago de Chile: Publicaciones del Bicentena rio</ref> while other Latin American dictators of the time banned the album, including Fidel Castro. Bravo was banned from singing in certain countries. A song that he released in 1973, "Un beso y una flor" became one of Bravo's greatest international hits.. On 14 March 1973, Bravo performed his last concert, before his Valencia fans. On 16 April 1973, Bravo was driving his BMW 2800 along with the Humo duo and Miguel Diurni when his car was involved in an accident about 100 km southeast of Madrid, he died en route to the hospital from his injuries, aged 28. He had just signed a five-year record deal with the European record label Polydor. Un beso y una flor Nino Bravo En Libertad Por siempre Nino Bravo
The Valencian Community is an autonomous community of Spain. It is the fourth most populous autonomous community after Andalusia and Madrid with more than 4.9 million inhabitants. Its homonymous capital Valencia is metropolitan area in Spain, it is located along the Mediterranean coast on the east side of the Iberian peninsula. It borders with Catalonia to the north and Castilla–La Mancha to the west, Murcia to the south; the Valencian Community consists of three provinces which are Valencia and Alicante. According to its Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian people are a nationality, their origins date back to the Aragonese reconquest of the Moorish Taifa of Valencia, taken by James I of Aragon in 1238 during the Reconquista. The newly founded Kingdom of Valencia was granted wide self-government under the Crown of Aragon. Valencia experienced its golden age in the 15th century. Self-government continued after the unification of the Spanish Kingdom, but was suspended in 1707 by Phillip V of Spain as a result of the Spanish War of Succession.
Valencian nationalism resurged towards the end of the 19th century, which led to the modern conception of the Valencian Country. Self-government under the Generalitat Valenciana was reestablished in 1982 after Spanish transition to democracy. Many Valencian people speak Valencian, the region's own co-official language, a southwestern dialect of Catalan standardised by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua. Valencian is a diglossic language, repressed during Franco's dictatorship in favour of Spanish. Since it regained official status in 1982 in the Valencian Estatut d'Autonomia. Valencian has been implemented in public administration and the education system leading to an exponential increase in knowledge of its formal standard. Valencian is understood by more than half of the population living within the Valencian Community. Valencia was founded by the Romans under the name of "Valentia Edetanorum", which translates to'Valiance of the Land of the Lamb'. With the establishment of the Taifa of Valencia, the name developed to بلنسية, which became Valencia after the expulsion of the Moors.
"Valencian Community" is the standard translation of the official name in Valencian recognized by the Statute of Autonomy of 1982. This is the name most used in public administration, the media and Spanish written language. However, the variant of "Valencian Country" that emphasizes the nationality status of the Valencian people is still the preferred one by left-wing parties, civil associations, Catalan written language and major academic institutions like the University of Valencia. "Valencian Community" is a neologism, adopted after democratic transition in order to solve the conflict between two competing names: "Valencian Country" and "Former Kingdom of Valencia". On one hand, "Valencian Country" represented the modern conception of nationality that resurged in the 19th century, it became well-established during the Second Spanish Republic and on with the works of Joan Fuster in the 1960s, implying the existence of the "Catalan Countries". This nationalist subtext was opposed by anti-Catalan blaverists, who proposed "Former Kingdom of Valencia" instead in order to emphasize Valencian independence from Catalonia.
Blaverists have accepted the official denomination. The autonomous community can be homonymously identified with its capital "Valencia". However, this could be disregarding of the provinces of Castellón. Other more anecdotal translations have included "Land of Valencia", "Region of Valencia" and "Valencian Region"; the term "Region", carries negative connotations among many Valencians because it could deny their nationality status. The Pre-Roman autochthonous people of the Valencian Community were the Iberians, who were divided in several groups; the Greeks established colonies in the coastal towns of Saguntum and Dénia beginning in the 5th century BC, where they traded and mixed with the local Iberian populations. After the end of the First Punic War between Carthage and Rome in 241 BC, which established their limits of influence in the Ebro river, the Carthaginians occupied the whole region; the dispute over the hegemony of Saguntum, a Hellenized Iberian coastal city with diplomatic contacts with Rome, destroyed by Hannibal in 219 BC, ignited the Second Punic War, which ended with the incorporation of the region to the Roman Empire.
The Romans founded the city of Valentia in 138 BC, over the centuries overtook Saguntum in importance. After the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the Barbarian Invasions in the 5th century AD, the region was first invaded by the Alans and ruled by the Visigoths, until the arrival of the Arabs in 711, which left a broad impact in the region, still visible in today's Valencian landscape and culture. After the fall of the Caliphate of Cordoba, two main independent taifas were established at the region, Balansiya and Dénia, along with the small and short living taifas of Orihuela, Alpuente, Jérica and Sagunt and the short Christian conquest of Valencia by El Cid. However, the origins of present-day Valencia date back to the Kingdom of Valencia, which came into existence in the 13th century. James I of Aragon led the Christian conquest and colonization of the existing Islamic taifas with Aragonese and Catalan colonizers in 1208; the kingdom developed intensively in the 14th and 15th centuries, which are con
Valencian referred to as Southern Catalan, is a dialect of the Catalan language spoken in the Valencian Community, where it is an official language, in the El Carche comarca in Murcia, where it has no official recognition. Besides, it is spoken in the south of the Terres de l'Ebre and in the south of La Franja in Aragon, in its transitional variety; the denominations "Valencian" or "Valencian language" are used traditionally and as a glottonym exclusively in the Valencian Community, to refer not only to the dialect spoken in the region, but to refer to the totality of the Catalan language. However, outside this territory the use of this denomination is null, it is considered the Valencian Community's own language according to the region's 1982 Statute of Autonomy and the Spanish Constitution. According to philological studies, the varieties of this language spoken in the Valencian Community and El Carxe cannot be considered a dialect restricted to these borders: the several dialects of Valencian belong to the Western group of Catalan dialects.
Valencian, as a variety of the Catalan language, displays transitional features between Ibero-Romance languages and Gallo-Romance languages. Its similarity with Occitan has led many authors to group it under the Occitano-Romance languages. There is some controversy within the Valencian Community regarding its status as a glottonym or as a language on its own among certain political sectors such as blaverism and Spanish nationalism. According to a study carried out by the Generalitat Valenciana in 2014, scarcely more than a half people in the Valencian Community consider it as a separate language, different from Catalan. However, according to the same study, most of Valencians with higher studies say that it is the same language. According to the 2006 Statute of Autonomy Valencian is regulated by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, by means of the Normes de Castelló. Due to not having been recognized for a long time and the considerable immigration coming from Andalusia but from other areas of Spain where Spanish is spoken, the number of speakers has decreased, the influence of Spanish has led to the adoption of a huge amount of loanwords.
Some of the most important works of Catalan literature in Valencia experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, Ausiàs March's poetry; the first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor; the official status of Valencian is regulated by the Spanish Constitution and the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, together with the Law of Use and Education of Valencian. Article 6 of the Valencian Statute of Autonomy sets the legal status of Valencian, providing that: The official language of the Valencian Community is Valencian. Valencian is official within the Valencian Community, along with Spanish, the official language nationwide. Everyone shall have the right to know it and use it, receive education in Valencian. No one can be discriminated against by reason of their language.
Special protection and respect shall be given to the recuperation of Valencian. The Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua shall be the normative institution of the Valencian language; the Law of Use and Education of Valencian develops this framework, providing for implementation of a bilingual educational system, regulating the use of Valencian in the public administration and judiciary system, where citizens can use it when acting before both. Valencian is recognized under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages as "Valencian". Valencian is not spoken all over the Valencian Community. A quarter of its territory, equivalent to 10% of the population, is traditionally Castilian-speaking only, whereas Valencian is spoken to varying degrees elsewhere. Additionally, it is spoken by a reduced number of people in Carche, a rural area in the Region of Murcia adjoining the Valencian Community. Although the Valencian language was an important part of the history of this zone, nowadays only about 600 people are able to speak Valencian in the area of Carche.
In 2010 the Generalitat Valenciana published a study and Social use of Valencian, which included a survey sampling more than 6,600 people in the provinces of Castellón, Alicante. The survey collected the answers of respondents and did not include any testing or verification; the results were: Valencian was the language "always or most used": at home: 31.6% with friends: 28.0% in internal business relations: 24.7%For ability: 48.5% answered they speak Valencian "perfectly" or "quite well" 26.2% answered they write Valencian "perfectly" or "quite well" The survey shows that, although Valencian is still the common language in many areas in the Valencian Community, where more than half of the Valencian population are able to speak it, most Valencians do not speak in Valencian in their
Llutxent is a town located within the county of the Vall d'Albaida, in the middle-eastern part of the Valencian Community, Spain. As of the 2016, the town had a population of 2,402, ranking as the 218th biggest Valencian municipality in terms of population, it is located 80 km south of 110 km north of Alicante. The town was first settled by Ancient Romans; the town's economy is based on agriculture, construction and the manufacture of pallets, a small services sector. Llutxent is host to one of the most popular Moors and Cristians celebrations during the end of April, attracting many people around the Valencian Community to see the festival; the town derives its name from the Latin etymon Luciana villa or pagu Lucianu, meaning "Light Villa" or "Pagus of Light". Little is known about the Islamic Period in Llutxent; the town's area was made up of a large number of farmsteads. The first written references about the town are about the reconquest of the municipality's area by James I of Aragon and the arrival of Catalan-Aragonese troops to the "beyond the Xúquer" lands.
These describe the "Great Islamic revolt of 1247-1248, after which James I of Aragon in 1248, besieged and conquered the castle of the Xiu. Subsequently, James I of Aragon gave the town to the conquering troops and established a permanent Christian population in Llutxent, while the farms located around the town's area kept their native Islamic population. In 1276, the town is razed during Al-Azraq's revolt. Jaume I, in response to the town's razing, sent Christian troops which re-conquered the town. Next year, the town's control and territory was given to the Italian noble "Joan de Proxita", who created the Barony of Llutxent. Between 1348 and 1349 Llutxent was scene to various skirmishes during the War of the Union of the Crown of Aragon; the Proxitas, as lords of Llutxent, began the construction of the Palace Castle. In 1487, the town's lordship was handed over to the family of the Maçà. Castles and palaces Castle of Xiu. Muslim. Abandoned after the Expulsion of the Moriscos, the building is still an important landmark for the town and its surrounding area.
In dire need of Renovation. Castle-palace of Llutxent. Constructed between the 15th and 16th centuries by the Proxitas; the building is owned by the municipality. Religious buildings Church of the Assumption, built in the 19th century on top of an old Gothic Church in ruins; the building follows the Classical Architecture Style, it is home to important pieces of art and culture of great historic value, such as the Santa Faç icon-chest. Monastery of the Corpus Christi, erected by the Dominicans, it was the first Valencian University; the building has undergone several renovations and extensions, with the most important one being the addition of the Corpus Christi in the 17th century, a church built in the Gothic style. A 200-year old Carob Tree can be found next to the Monastery. Chapel of the Consolation, founded by Catalan pilgrims in 1772, the building follows the Barroque Architecture Style. A stained glass windows were added to the chapel in the 1970s by Alfred Manessier. Other sights The Coast, Stone-paved road built in 1580 that connected Monastery of the Corpus Christi with the town's church and was used for religious pilgrimage between the two.
Farmer's park. Monastery of the Corpus Christi Route of the Monasteries of Valencia