Provinces of Greece
The provinces of Greece were sub-divisions of some the countrys prefectures. From 1887, the provinces were abolished as actual administrative units, before the Second World War, there were 139 provinces, and after the war, with the addition of the Dodecanese Islands, their number grew to 147. According to the Article 7 of the Code of Prefectural Self-Government, Provincial administration consisted of two parts, a collective Provincial Council and an eparch. Members of the Provincial Council were the councillors of the respective province. The eparch or sub-prefect was the councillor who received the most votes in the prefectural elections
Patras is Greeces third-largest city and the regional capital of Western Greece, in the northern Peloponnese,215 km west of Athens. The city is built at the foothills of Mount Panachaikon, overlooking the Gulf of Patras, Patras has a population of 213,984. According to the results of 2011 census, the area has a population of 260,308. Dubbed as Greeces Gate to the West, Patras is a hub, while its busy port is a nodal point for trade and communication with Italy. The Rio-Antirio bridge connects Patras easternmost suburb of Rio to the town of Antirrio, Patras is famous for supporting an indigenous cultural scene active mainly in the performing arts and modern urban literature. It was European Capital of Culture in 2006, Patras is 215 km west of Athens by road,94 km northeast of Pyrgos,7 kilometres south of Rio,134 km west of Corinth,77 km northwest of Kalavryta, and 144 km northwest of Tripoli. A central feature of the geography of Patras is its division into upper and lower sections. It is built on what was originally a bed of river soils, the older upper section covers the area of the pre-modern settlement, around the Fortress, on what is the last elevation of Mount Panachaikon before the Gulf of Patras.
The largest river in the area is the Glafkos, flowing to the south of Patras, the water is used for the orchards of Eglykas and as drinking water for the city. Other rivers are Haradros and the mountain torrent Diakoniaris and it features the typical mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers, with spring and autumn being pleasant transitional seasons. Autumn in Patras, however, is wetter than spring, of great importance for the biological diversity of the area and the preservation of its climate is the swamp of Agyia, a small and coastal aquatic ecosystem of only 30 ha, north of the city centre. Another geophysical characteristic of the region is its level of seismicity. Small tremors are recorded along the coast of Patras almost constantly, larger earthquakes hit the area every few years with potentially destructive effects. In 1993, a 5. 0-magnitude earthquake caused damage to several buildings throughout Patras due to the proximity of the epicenter to the city. On June 15,1995, a 6. 2-magnitude earthquake hit the town of Aigion.
The Ionian Islands are hit by even more severe earthquakes. In antiquity, the most notable example of destruction caused by an earthquake in the region was the total submergence of the ancient Achaean city of Helike, the first traces of settlement in Patras date to as early as the third millennium BC, in the area of modern Aroe. Patras flourished for the first time in the Post-Helladic or Mycenean period, Ancient Patras was formed by the unification of three Mycenaean villages in modern Aroe, namely Antheia and Mesatis
The Vouraikos is a river in Achaea, Greece. In ancient times it was called Erasinos and its source is in the Aroania mountains, near the village of Priolithos. It flows past the towns of Kalavryta and Diakopto, and flows into the Gulf of Corinth near Diakopto. The name is derived from Boura, a daughter of Ion and Helice who was beloved by Hercules. This is the Vouraikos gorge, which has a length of about 20 km, in the gorge the river passes through dense vegetation and tunnels with many caves and crags. According to legend there was a cave on the banks of the river which was dedicated to Hercules, there pilgrims came to read their fate in the Tables of Knowledge, as they were called. The river is mentioned by Pausanias in his Description of Greece
The Achaean League was a Hellenistic-era confederation of Greek city states on the northern and central Peloponnese. The league was named after the region of Achaea in the northwestern Peloponnese, the first league was formed in the 5th century BC. The second Achaean League was established in 280 BC, as a rival of Antigonid Macedon and an ally of Rome, the league played a major role in the exapansion of the Roman Republic into Greece. This process eventually led to the Leagues conquest and dissolution by the Romans in 146 BC, the League represents the most successful attempt by the Greek city states to develop a form of federalism, which balanced the need for collective action with the desire for local autonomy. Through the writings of the Achaean statesman Polybius, this structure has had an influence on the constitution of the United States, the first Achaean League became active in the fifth century in the northwestern Peloponnese. After the catastrophic destruction of the ancient capital Helike by an earthquake and tsunami in 373 BC, it appears to have lapsed sometime in the fourth century.
The regional Achaean League was reformed in 281/0 BC by the communities of Dyme, Patrae and Tritaea, joined in 275 by Aegium, the league grew quickly to include the entire Achaean heartland, and after a decade it had ten or eleven members. Since the Sicyonians were of Dorian and Ionian origin, their inclusion opened the League for other national elements, only twenty years old, rapidly grew to become the leading politician of the League. In the thirty two years between 245 and his death in 213, Aratus would hold the office of general a total of sixteen times. In other cities of the Peloponnese, namely Argos, Orchomenus and he used the money to challenge the Macedonian hold on the Peloponnese. Aratus greatest success came when he captured Corinth and the fortress of Acrocorinth in 243 BC in a night attack. This effectively blocked Macedonian access to the Peloponnese by land, isolating their allies at Megalopolis, Antigonus Gonatas finally made peace with the Achaean League in a treaty of 240 BC, ceding the territories that he had lost in Greece.
Corinth was followed by Megalopolis in 235 BC and Argos in 229 BC, however the league soon ran into difficulties with the revived Sparta of Cleomenes III. Aratus was forced to call in the aid of the Macedonian King, Antigonus III Doson, Antigonus Doson re-established Macedonian control over much of the region. In 220 BC, the Achaean League entered into a war against the Aetolian League, the young king Philip V of Macedon sided with the Achaeans and called for a Panhellenic conference in Corinth, where the Aetolian aggression was condemned. After Aratuss death, the League joined Rome in the Second Macedonian War, the Achaean League was one of the main beneficieries. Under the leadership of Philopoemen, the League was able to defeat a heavily weakened Sparta. The Leagues dominance was not to last long, however, in 146 BC, the leagues relations with Rome completely collapsed, leading to the Achaean War
Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated.
The senate appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine adopted Christianity which became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos.
The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperor
Achaea (ancient region)
Achaea or Achaia was the northernmost region of the Peloponnese, occupying the coastal strip north of Arcadia. Its approximate boundaries were to the south the range of Erymanthus, to the south-east the range of Cyllene, to the east Sicyon. Apart from the plain around Dyme, to the west, Achaea was generally a mountainous region, the name of Achaea has a slightly convoluted history. Homer uses the term Achaeans as a term for Greeks throughout the Iliad, conversely. The region known as Achaea is instead referred to as Aegialus, both Herodotus and Pausanias recount the legend that the Achaean tribe was forced out of their lands in the Argolis by the Dorians, during the legendary Dorian invasion of the Peloponnese. Consequently, the Achaeans forced the Aegialians out of their land, the Ionians took temporary refuge in Athens, and Aegialus became known as Achaea. It was supposedly for this reason that the known as Achaea in Classical Greece did not correspond to Homeric references. Under the Romans, Achaea was a province covering much of central and this is the Achaea referenced in the New Testament.
The name, was used in the crusader state, the Principality of Achaea. The modern Greek prefecture of Achaea is largely based on the ancient region and cromlechs have been found in the ancient area of Achaea dating back to the Neolithic period. Flint axes and blades fabricated from materials such as quartz or obsidian have been found in chamber tombs from this ancient region. Among other finds, alabaster pottery sherds have been discovered during excavations at Antheia in Achaia, the twelve cities of Achaea were grouped into an early Achaean League which had important cultural and religious functions. In its 3rd century BC incarnation the Achaean League would play an important role in Greek politics, according to Pausanias, in 688 BC the city of Hyperesia was threatened by an army from Sicyon. The locals defended their city by placing burning torches on their goats horns, the Sicyonians retreated and the Hyperesians renamed their town Aigeira to honor the goats. During the 5th century BC the cities of Achaea were neutral in the Persian Wars and were neutral in the struggles between Athens and Sparta.
We begin to more of Achaea in the following centuries. In 373 BC the Achaean city of Helice was destroyed in a great cataclysm, “Immense columns of flame”, the first record in history of the phenomenon of earthquake lights, were seen in the days leading up to the earthquake. The quake hit at night causing Helice to subside and a massive tsunami rushed in from the Corinthian Gulf to inundate the city, the city of Boura, further inland, was destroyed in the earthquake
Diakopto is a town and a former municipality in Achaea, West Greece, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reforms it is a unit of the Aigialeia municipality. The municipal unit has an area of 103.932 km2, the town of Diakopto is situated on the Gulf of Corinth, near the mouth of the Vouraikos river and at the lower end of the Vouraikos Gorge. The 750 mm gauge Diakofto–Kalavryta Railway built in 1885 leads up to the town of Kalavryta passing the Mega Spilaio Monastery at about halfway, Diakopto is on the old Greek National Road 8, the new Greek National Road 8A passes 1 km to the south. Diakopto is located about 40 km east of Patras, and 15km southeast of Aigio, the area followed the fate of the rest of Achaea. Between 1460 and 1821 the area was ruled by the Ottoman Empire, as a result of the Greek War of Independence of 1821 Diakopto became part of the new Greek state. The municipality was created in 1835, the municipality was known as Voura
Aigio, written as Aeghion, Aegio, Egio, is a town and a former municipality in Achaea, West Greece, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Aigialeia, of which it is the seat, the municipal unit has an area of 151.101 km2. Aigio is a town on the Gulf of Corinth. The southwestern part of the municipality consists of the foothills of the Panachaiko mountain, the river Selinountas flows into the Gulf of Corinth in Valimitika,5 km east of Aigio town centre. The town centre is immediately on the coast, between the port and the railway station. Fishermen bring their catches from a night of fishing into the markets every morning, sites of interest include a Mycenean house dating back to ancient times, located near the cliffs. There is a hospital southwest of the town centre, residential houses surround the city and flourish in the western part of Aigio, making it a popular destination for Athenians and others alike. Orange and lemon grow in most yards, and irrigation from small.
Before the founding of the city, the area had a Neolithic settlement, the city of Aigion was founded during Homeric times and became part of the first Achaean League since around 800 BC. The city had several Olympic winners including Xenophon, Athenodorus, after the disaster of Helike, which was destroyed by an earthquake and buried by a tsunami in 373 BC, Aigion took the territory of the neighbouring city. The ruins of Helike were discovered in 2000 off the coast in the Corinthian Gulf, from 330 BC Aigion was for fifty years under the Kingdom of Macedon, but around the year 275 BC the people expelled the Macedonian garrison and the city joined the new Achaean League. With the famous temple of Zeus Homarios, Aigion became the Achaean assembly place, after the annexation of Achaia, the Romans removed the wall of the city and Aegium lost its importance. After the division of the Roman Empire in 395 AD, Aegium became a part of the Eastern Roman Empire, after the Slavic invasions of the 7th century it was renamed Vostitsa.
The origin of name is the Old Church Slavonic word vosta or vostan which meant the city of gardens or the garden city. It was captured by the Crusaders in the early 13th century and it was captured by the Greek rebels on 26 March 1821, becoming the first town to be liberated. After Greek Independence, the town was renamed to its ancient name. On June 15,1995, a earthquake destroyed many buildings and damaged roads in the downtown and southwestern sections. The earthquake shattered Aigio, small memorials are found throughout the city, with candles aglow day, the mountainous countryside near Aigio was severely damaged by the 2007 Greek forest fires
Corinth is a city and former municipality in Corinthia, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality of Corinth, of which it is the seat and it is the capital of Corinthia. It was founded as Nea Korinthos or New Corinth in 1858 after an earthquake destroyed the settlement of Corinth. Corinth derives its name from Ancient Corinth, a city-state of antiquity, in 1858, the old city, now known as Archaia Korinthos, located 3 kilometres SW of the modern city, was totally destroyed by a magnitude 6.5 earthquake. Nea Korinthos or New Corinth was built a few kilometers away on the coast of the Gulf of Corinth, a magnitude 6.3 earthquake in 1928 devastated the new city, which was rebuilt on the same site. It was rebuilt again after a fire in 1933. The Municipality of Corinth had a population of 58,192 according to the 2011 census, the second most populous municipality in the Peloponnese Region after Kalamata. The municipal unit of Corinth had 38,132 inhabitants, of which Corinth itself had 30,176 inhabitants, placing it in place behind Kalamata.
The municipal unit of Corinth includes apart from Corinth proper the town of Archaia Korinthos, the town of Examilia, the municipal unit has an area of 102.187 km2. Corinth is an industrial hub at a national level. Corinth Refineries are one of the largest oil refining Industrial complex in Europe, copper cables, petroleum products, medical equipment, gypsum, ceramic tiles, mineral water and beverages, meat products, and gums are produced nearby. As of 2005, a period of deindustrialization has commenced as a large complex, a textile factory. Corinth is a road hub. The A7 toll motorway for Tripoli and Kalamata, branches off the A8/European route E94 toll motorway from Athens at Corinth, Corinth is the main entry point to the Peloponnesian peninsula, the southernmost area of continental Greece. KTEL Korinthias provides intercity bus service in the peninsula and to Athens via the Isthmos station southeast of the city center, local bus service is available. The city has connected to the Proastiakos, the Athens suburban rail network, since 2005.
The port of Corinth, located north of the city centre and close to the northwest entrance of the Corinth Canal, at 3756. 0’ N /2256. 0’ E, serves the needs of industry. It is mainly a cargo exporting facility and it is an artificial harbour (depth approximately 9 metres, protected by a concrete mole
Administrative regions of Greece
The administrative regions of Greece are the countrys thirteen first-level administrative entities, each comprising several second-level units, originally prefectures and, since 2011, regional units. The current regions were established in July 1986, by decision of then-Interior Minister Menios Koutsogiorgas as a second-level administrative entities, as part of a decentralization process inspired by then-Interior Minister Alekos Papadopoulos, they were accorded more powers in the 1997 Kapodistrias reform of local and regional government. They were transformed into separate entities by the 2010 Kallikratis Plan. In the 2011 changes, the general secretary was replaced with a popularly elected regional governor. Many powers of the prefectures, which were abolished or reformed into regional units, were transferred to the region level. The regional organs of the government were in turn replaced by seven decentralized administrations. Bordering the region of Central Macedonia there is one region, Mount Athos.
It is located on the easternmost of the three large peninsulas jutting into the Aegean from the Chalcidice Peninsula, ISO 3166-2, GR Administrative divisions of Greece
Achaea or Achaia, sometimes transliterated from Greek as Akhaïa, is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of West Greece and is situated in the part of the Peloponnese peninsula. Since 2001, the population has exceeded 300,000, Achaea is bordered by Elis to the west and southwest, Arcadia to the south, and Corinthia to the east and southeast. The Gulf of Corinth lies to its northeast, and the Gulf of Patras to its northwest, the mountain Panachaiko, though not the highest of Achaea, dominates the coastal area near Patras. Higher mountains are found in the south, such as Aroania, other mountain ranges in Achaea are Skollis, Omplos and Movri. Its main rivers ordered from west to east are the Larissos, Peiros, Selinountas, most of the forests are in the mountain ranges, though several are in the plains including the extreme west. There are grasslands around the areas and barren lands in the highest areas. Achaea has hot summers and mild winters, sunny days dominate during the summer months in areas near the coast, while the summer can be cloudy and rainy in the mountains.
Snow is very common during the winter in the mountains of Erymanthos, winter high temperatures are around the 10 °C mark throughout the low-lying areas. The regional unit Achaea is subdivided into 5 municipalities and these are, Aigialeia Erymanthos Kalavryta Patras West Achaea As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Achaea was created out of the former prefecture Achaea. The prefecture had the territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below, Province of Aigialeia - Aigio Province of Kalavryta - Kalavryta Province of Patras - Patras Note, Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece. The Achaean League was a Hellenistic-era confederation of city states in Achaea and it grew until it included most of Peloponnese, much reducing the Macedonian rule in the area. After Macedons defeat by the Romans in the late 2nd century BC, however, as the Roman influence in the area grew, the league erupted into an open revolt against Roman domination, in what is known as Achaean War.
The Achaeans were defeated at the Battle of Corinth, and the League was dissolved by the Romans, in AD 51/52, Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus was proconsul of Achaea, and presided over the trial of the Apostle Paul in Corinth. This event provides a date for the book of the Acts of the Apostles within the Bible. Achaea remained a province of the Byzantine Empire after the fall of the western Roman Empire, in the 6th and 7th centuries, Slavs invaded the Peloponnese, and settled in parts of Achaea as well. By the 9th century, the peninsula was under Byzantine control again