From Russia, with Love (novel)
From Russia, with Love is the fifth novel by the English author Ian Fleming to feature his fictional British Secret Service agent James Bond. Fleming wrote the story in early 1956 at his Goldeneye estate in Jamaica; the novel was first published in the United Kingdom by Jonathan Cape on 8 April 1957. The story centres on a plot by SMERSH, the Soviet counter-intelligence agency, to assassinate Bond in such a way as to discredit both him and his organisation; as bait, the Russians use the Spektor, a Soviet decoding machine. Much of the action takes place on the Orient Express; the book was inspired by Fleming's visit to Turkey on behalf of The Sunday Times to report on an Interpol conference. From Russia, with Love deals with the East–West tensions of the Cold War, the decline of British power and influence in the post-Second World War era. From Russia, with Love received broadly positive reviews at the time of publication; the book's sales were boosted by an advertising campaign that played upon a visit by the British Prime Minister Anthony Eden to the Goldeneye estate, the publication of an article in Life, which listed From Russia, with Love as one of US President John F. Kennedy's ten favourite books.
The story was serialised in the Daily Express newspaper, first in an abridged, multi-part form and as a comic strip. In 1963 it was adapted into the second film in the Bond series. SMERSH, the Soviet counterintelligence agency, plans to commit a grand act of terrorism in the intelligence field. For this, it targets the British secret service agent James Bond. Due in part to his role in the defeat of the SMERSH agents Le Chiffre, Mr Big and Hugo Drax, Bond has been listed as an enemy of the Soviet state and a "death warrant" is issued for him, his death is planned to precipitate a major sex scandal, which will run in the world press for months and leave his and his service's reputations in tatters. Bond's killer is to be the SMERSH executioner Red Grant, a psychopath whose homicidal urges coincide with the full moon. Kronsteen, SMERSH's chess-playing master planner, Colonel Rosa Klebb, the head of Operations and Executions, devise the operation, they instruct an attractive young cipher clerk, Corporal Tatiana Romanova, to falsely defect from her post in Istanbul having, she would claim, fallen in love with Bond after seeing a photograph on his file.
As an added lure for Bond, Romanova will provide the British with a Spektor, a Russian decoding device much coveted by MI6. She is not told the details of the plan; the offer of defection is received by MI6 in London, ostensibly from Romanova, but is conditional that Bond collects her and the Spektor from Istanbul. MI6 is unsure of Romanova's motive. Once there, Bond forms a comradeship with Darko Kerim, head of the British service's station in Turkey. Bond meets Romanova and they plan their route out of Turkey with the Spektor, he and Kerim believe the three board the Orient Express. Kerim discovers three Russian MGB agents on board, travelling incognito, he uses bribes and trickery to have two of them taken off the train, but he is found dead in his compartment with the body of the third MGB agent. At Trieste a fellow MI6 agent, "Captain Nash", introduces himself and Bond presumes he has been sent by M as added protection for the rest of the trip. Romanova is suspicious of Nash. After dinner, at which Nash has drugged Romanova, they rest.
Bond is woken with a weapon pointing at him and Nash reveals himself to be the killer Grant. Instead of killing Bond he describes SMERSH's plan, he is to shoot Bond through the heart and dispose of Romanova after leaving a film of their love-making in the luggage. As Grant talks, Bond places his metal cigarette case between the pages of a book he holds in front of him, positioning it in front of his heart to stop the bullet. After Grant fires, Bond collapses to the floor and, when Grant steps over him, he attacks and kills the assassin. Bond and Romanova escape. In Paris, after delivering Romanova and the booby-trapped Spektor to his superiors, Bond meets Rosa Klebb, she manages to kick Bond with a poisoned blade concealed in her shoe. By January 1956 the author Ian Fleming had published three novels—Casino Royale in 1953, Live and Let Die in 1954 and Moonraker in 1955. A fourth, Diamonds Are Forever, was being prepared for production; that month Fleming travelled to his Goldeneye estate in Jamaica to write with Love.
He followed his usual practice, which he outlined in Books and Bookmen magazine: "I write for about three hours in the morning... and I do another hour's work between six and seven in the evening. I never correct anything and I never go back to see what I have written... By following my formula, you write 2,000 words a day." He returned to London in March that year with a 228-page first-draft manuscript that he subsequently altered more than any of his other works. One of the significant re-writes changed Bond's fate. I am getting fed up with Bond and it has been difficult to make him go through his tawdry tricks." Fleming re-wrote the end of the novel in April 1956 to make Klebb poison Bond, which allowed him to finish the series with the death of the
A biotope is an area of uniform environmental conditions providing a living place for a specific assemblage of plants and animals. Biotope is synonymous with the term habitat, more used in English-speaking countries. However, in some countries these two terms are distinguished: the subject of a habitat is a population, the subject of a biotope is a biocoenosis or biological community, it is an English loanword derived from the German Biotop, which in turn came from the Greek bios, "life" and topos, "place". The concept of a biotope was first advocated by Ernst Haeckel, a German zoologist famous for the recapitulation theory. In his book General Morphology, which defines the term "ecology", he stresses the importance of the concept of habitat as a prerequisite for an organism's existence. Haeckel explains that with one ecosystem, its biota is shaped by environmental factors and interaction among living things. Following this, F. Dahl, a professor at the Berlin Zoological Museum, referred to this ecological system as a "biotope".
Although the term "biotope" is considered to be a technical word with respect to ecology, in recent years the term is more used in administrative and civic activities. Since the 1970s the term "biotope" has received great attention as a keyword throughout Europe for the preservation and creation of natural environmental settings. Used in this context, the term "biotope" refers to a smaller and more specific ecology and is familiar to human life. In Germany activities related to regenerating biotopes are enthusiastically received; these activities include — making roof gardens, reconstructing rivers to restore their natural qualities, leaving bushes or trees on farms, building nature parks along motorways "Autobahn," making school gardens or ponds by considering the ecosystem, bearing in mind ecological considerations in private gardens. Various sectors play a part in these activities, including architecture, civil engineering, urban planning, agriculture, river engineering, biology, landscape gardening, domestic gardening.
In all fields, all sorts of people are seeking a viable way for humans to respect other living things. The term "biotope" would include a complete environmental approach; the following four points are the chief characteristics of biotopes. A biotope is not considered to be a large-scale phenomenon. For example, a biotope might be a neighbouring park, a back garden potted plants or a fish tank on a porch. In other words, the biotope is not a macroscopic but a microscopic approach to preserving the ecosystem and biological diversity. So biotopes fit into ordinary people's daily activities and lives, with more people being able to take part in biotope creation and continuing management, it is emphasised that biotopes should not be isolated. Instead biotopes need to be connected to each other and other surrounding life for without these connections to life-forms such as animals and plants, biotopes would not work as a place in which diverse organisms live. So one of the most effective strategies for regenerating biotopes is to plan a stretch of biotopes, not just a point where animals and plants come and go.
In the stretch method, the centre of the network would be large green tracts of land: a forest, natural park, or cemetery. By connecting parcels of land with smaller biotope areas such as a green belt along the river, small town parks, gardens, or roadside trees, biotopes can exist in a network. In other words, a biotope is a practicable strategy; the term "biotope" does not apply to biosphere reserves, which are separate from humans and become the object of human admiration. Instead, it is an active part of human daily life. For example, an ornamental flower bed may be considered a biotope since it enhances the experience of daily life. An area that has many functions, such as human living space, is home to other living things, whether plant or animal, can be considered a biosphere reserve; when artificial items are introduced to a biotope setting, their design and arrangement is of great importance for biotope regeneration. Tree-planting areas where the surface is uneven results in plants that sprout and the nesting of small insects.
A mat or net made from natural fibres will biodegrade as it is exposed to the weather. So there is the artificial in a biotope. Rather, such artificial materials are used, it is characteristic in Germany, the birthplace of the term biotope, that the authorities take the initiative in conserving biotopes, maintaining consistency with urban or rural planning and considering the regions' history and landscape. The federal nature protection law requires that wild animals and plants and their community should be protected as part of the ecosystem in the specific diversity that has grown and and their biotope and other living conditions should be protected, preserved and restored.. The law requires that some kinds of biotope that are full of a specific variety should not be harmed by development. So there is a law. There is a provincial law corresponding to the federal one; such developments were uncommon i
Drosera known as the sundews, is one of the largest genera of carnivorous plants, with at least 194 species. These members of the family Droseraceae lure and digest insects using stalked mucilaginous glands covering their leaf surfaces; the insects are used to supplement the poor mineral nutrition of the soil. Various species, which vary in size and form, are native to every continent except Antarctica. Both the botanical name and the English common name refer to the glistening drops of mucilage at the tip of the glandular trichomes that resemble drops of morning dew. Sundews are perennial herbaceous plants, forming prostrate or upright rosettes between 1 and 100 cm in height, depending on the species. Climbing species form scrambling stems which can reach much longer lengths, up to 3 m in the case of D. erythrogyne. Sundews have been shown to be able to achieve a lifespan of 50 years; the genus is specialized for nutrient uptake through its carnivorous behavior, for example the pygmy sundew is missing the enzymes that plants use for the uptake of earth-bound nitrates.
The genus can be divided into several habits, or growth forms: Temperate sundews: These species form a tight cluster of unfurled leaves called a hibernaculum in a winter dormancy period. All of the North American and European species belong to this group. Drosera arcturi from Australia and New Zealand is another temperate species that dies back to a horn-shaped hibernaculum. Subtropical sundews: These species maintain vegetative growth year-round under uniform or nearly uniform climatic conditions. Pygmy sundews: A group of 40 Australian species, they are distinguished by miniature growth, the formation of gemmae for asexual reproduction, dense formation of hairs in the crown center; these hairs serve to protect the plants from Australia's intense summer sun. Pygmy sundews form the subgenus Bryastrum. Tuberous sundews: These nearly 50 Australian species form an underground tuber to survive the dry summers of their habitat, re-emerging in the autumn; these so-called tuberous sundews can be further divided into two groups, those that form rosettes and those that form climbing or scrambling stems.
Tuberous sundews comprise the subgenus Ergaleium. Petiolaris complex: A group of tropical Australian species, they live in warm but sometimes wet conditions. Several of the 14 species that comprise this group have developed special strategies to cope with the alternately drier conditions. Many species, for example, have petioles densely covered in trichomes, which maintain a sufficiently humid environment and serve as an increased condensation surface for morning dew; the Petiolaris complex comprises the subgenus Lasiocephala. Although they do not form a single defined growth form, a number of species are put together in a further group: Queensland sundews: A small group of three species, all are native to humid habitats in the dim understories of the Australian rainforest. Sundews are characterised by the glandular tentacles, topped with sticky secretions, that cover their laminae; the trapping and digestion mechanism employs two types of glands: stalked glands that secrete sweet mucilage to attract and ensnare insects and enzymes to digest them, sessile glands that absorb the resulting nutrient soup.
Small prey consisting of insects, are attracted by the sweet secretions of the peduncular glands. Upon touching these, the prey become entrapped by sticky mucilage which prevents their progress or escape; the prey either succumb to death through exhaustion or through asphyxiation as the mucilage envelops them and clogs their spiracles. Death occurs within 15 minutes; the plant meanwhile secretes esterase, peroxidase and protease enzymes. These enzymes free the nutrients contained within it; this nutrient mixture is absorbed through the leaf surfaces to be used by the rest of the plant. All species of sundew are able to move their tentacles in response to contact with edible prey; the tentacles are sensitive and will bend toward the center of the leaf to bring the insect into contact with as many stalked glands as possible. According to Charles Darwin, the contact of the legs of a small gnat with a single tentacle is enough to induce this response; this response to touch is known as thigmonasty, is quite rapid in some species.
The outer tentacles of D. burmannii and D. sessilifolia can bend inwards toward prey in a matter of seconds after contact, while D. glanduligera is known to bend these tentacles in toward prey in tenths of a second. In addition to tentacle movement, some species are able to bend their laminae to various degrees to maximize contact with the prey. Of these, D. capensis exhibits what is the most dramatic movement, curling its leaf around prey in 30 minutes. Some species, such as D. filiformis, are unable to bend their leaves in response to prey. A further type of emergence has been discovered in a few Australian species, their function is not known yet. The leaf morphology of the species within the genus is varied, ranging from the sessile ovate leaves of D. erythrorhiza to the bipinnately divided acicular leaves of D. binata. While the exact physiological mechanism of the sundew's
Lac Blanc (Chamonix)
Lac Blanc is a lake in Chamonix-Mont-Blanc, Haute-Savoie, France
Gneiss is a common and distributed type of metamorphic rock. Gneiss is formed by high temperature and high-pressure metamorphic processes acting on formations composed of igneous or sedimentary rocks. Orthogneiss is gneiss derived from igneous rock. Paragneiss is gneiss derived from sedimentary rock. Gneiss forms at higher pressures than schist. Gneiss nearly always shows a banded texture characterized by alternating darker and lighter colored bands and without a distinct foliation; the word gneiss has been used in English since at least 1757. It is borrowed from the German word Gneis also spelled Gneiss, derived from the Middle High German noun gneist "spark". Gneiss is formed from sedimentary or igneous rock exposed to temperatures greater than 320°C and high pressure. Gneissic rocks are medium- to coarse-foliated. Gneisses that are metamorphosed igneous rocks or their equivalent are termed granite gneisses, diorite gneisses, etc. Gneiss rocks may be named after a characteristic component such as garnet gneiss, biotite gneiss, albite gneiss, etc.
Orthogneiss designates a gneiss derived from an igneous rock, paragneiss is one from a sedimentary rock. Gneissose rocks have properties similar to gneiss. Gneiss appears to be striped in bands like parallel lines in shape, called gneissic banding; the banding is developed under high pressure conditions. The minerals are arranged into layers; the appearance of layers, called'compositional banding', occurs because the layers, or bands, are of different composition. The darker bands have more mafic minerals; the lighter bands contain more felsic minerals. A common cause of the banding is the subjection of the protolith to extreme shearing force, a sliding force similar to the pushing of the top of a deck of cards in one direction, the bottom of the deck in the other direction; these forces stretch out the rock like a plastic, the original material is spread out into sheets. Some banding is formed from original rock material, subjected to extreme temperature and pressure and is composed of alternating layers of sandstone and shale, metamorphosed into bands of quartzite and mica.
Another cause of banding is "metamorphic differentiation", which separates different materials into different layers through chemical reactions, a process not understood. Not all gneiss rocks have detectable banding. In kyanite gneiss, crystals of kyanite appear as random clumps in what is a plagioclase matrix. Augen gneiss, from the German: Augen, meaning "eyes", is a coarse-grained gneiss resulting from metamorphism of granite, which contains characteristic elliptic or lenticular shear-bound feldspar porphyroclasts microcline, within the layering of the quartz and magnetite bands. Henderson gneiss is found in South Carolina, US, east of the Brevard Shear Zone, it has deformed into two sequential forms. The second, more warped, form is associated with the Brevard Fault, the first deformation results from displacement to the southwest. Most of the Outer Hebrides of Scotland have a bedrock formed from Lewisian gneiss. In addition to the Outer Hebrides, they form basement deposits on the Scottish mainland west of the Moine Thrust and on the islands of Coll and Tiree.
These rocks are igneous in origin, mixed with metamorphosed marble and mica schist with intrusions of basaltic dikes and granite magma. Gneisses of Archean and Proterozoic age occur in the Baltic Shield. List of rock types Blatt and Robert J. Tracy. Petrology: Igneous and Metamorphic, 2nd ed. Freeman, pp. 359–65. ISBN 0-7167-2438-3. Gillen, Con. Geology and landscapes of Scotland. Harpenden. Terra Publishing. ISBN 1-903544-09-2. Harper, Douglas. "gneiss", Online Etymological Dictionary. Retrieved 2015-03-01. Marshak, Stephen. Essentials of Geology. W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-91939-4. McKirdy, Roger Crofts and John Gordon. Land of Mountain and Flood: The Geology and Landforms of Scotland. Edinburgh. Birlinn. ISBN 978-1-84158-357-0. Murray, W. H.. The Hebrides. London. Heinemann. Sacks, Paul E. and Donald T. Secor. "Kinematics of Late Paleozoic continental collision between Laurentia and Gondwana". Science, 250: 1702–05. Doi:10.1126/science.250.4988.1702. "Gneiss". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Gneiss". New International Encyclopedia.
The French Prealps are a group of subalpine mountain ranges of medium elevation located west of the French Alps. They stretch from Lake Geneva southwest to the rivers Isère and Drôme. In the northern subalpine regions, the various ranges are identifiable by geographical separations, such as the Voreppe Gorge between Vercors and Chartreuse, or Chambéry, which sits in a valley between the Bauges and Chartreuse ranges. In the southern subalpine regions, the ranges are disorganized and lack the wide, deep valleys that divide them in the north. Three non-contiguous ranges traditionally comprise the southern French Prealps: the Alpilles, Mont Sainte-Victoire, Sainte-Baume. Among the best known peaks in the French Prealps are: Mont Ventoux, near Carpentras, called the "Giant of Provence" 1,912 metres Mont Aiguille, near Chichilianne, Isère, which has a distinctive broad flat top, 2,087 metres L'Organisation structurale des Alpes françaises Raoul Blanchard, Les Alpes Occidentales. Paris: Édition Arthaud.
Roger Frison-Roche, Les montagnes de la terre. Paris: Flammarion
Aiguilles Rouges d'Arolla
The Aiguilles Rouges d'Arolla are a multi-summited mountain of the Swiss Pennine Alps, located west of Arolla in the canton of Valais. The main summit has an elevation of 3,646 metres above sea level. List of mountains of Switzerland Aiguilles Rouges d'Arolla on Hikr