Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Atlantic coastal plain
The Atlantic coastal plain is a physiographic region of low relief along the East Coast of the United States. It extends 2,200 miles from the New York Bight southward to a Georgia/Florida section of the Eastern Continental Divide, which demarcates the plain from the ACF River Basin in the Gulf Coastal Plain to the west; the province is bordered on the west by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line and the Piedmont plateau, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Floridian province. The Outer Lands archipelagic region forms the insular northeasternmost extension of the Atlantic coastal plain; the province's average elevation is less than 900 meters above sea level and extends some 50 to 100 kilometers inland from the ocean. The coastal plain is wet, including many rivers and swampland. There are no mountains in this region of North America, it is composed of sedimentary rock and unlithified sediments and is used for agriculture. The area is subdivided into the Embayed and Sea Island physiographic provinces, as well as the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic coastal plains
Allendale County, South Carolina
Allendale County is a county in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,419, making it the second-least populous county in South Carolina, its county seat is Allendale. Allendale County was formed in 1919 from southwestern portions of Barnwell County, along the Savannah River, it is the location of the Topper Site, an archeological excavation providing possible evidence of a pre-Clovis culture dating back 50,000 years. The site is near a source of chert on private land in Martin owned by Clariant Corporation, a Swiss chemical company with a plant there; the site, named after John Topper, a local resident who discovered it, has been under excavation by archeologists from the University of South Carolina for about one month a year since 1999, after an initial exploratory dig in the mid-1980s. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 412 square miles, of which 408 square miles is land and 4.3 square miles is water. The Savannah River forms the county's western border with Georgia.
Allendale is 62 miles from Georgia. Before interstate highways were built, Allendale had several motels serving travelers going between Northeastern states and Florida. Traffic that traveled U. S. 301 through Allendale now uses Interstate-95. Bamberg County – northeast Colleton County – east Hampton County – southeast Screven County, Georgia – southwest Burke County, Georgia – west Barnwell County – northwest US 278 US 301 US 321 As of the census of 2000, there were 11,211 people, 3,915 households and 2,615 families residing in the county; the population density was 28 people per square mile. There were 4,568 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 71.0 percent Black or African American, 27.37 percent White, 0.12 percent Asian, 0.09 percent Native American, 0.06 percent Pacific Islander, 0.85 percent from other races, 0.51 percent from two or more races. 1.61 percent of the population were Latino of any race. There were 3,915 households out of which 30.3 percent had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.8 percent were married couples living together, 25.8 percent had a female householder with no husband present, 33.2 percent were non-families.
30.0 percent of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3 percent had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.21. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.6 percent under the age of 18, 9.8 percent from 18 to 24, 28.2 percent from 25 to 44, 22.8 percent from 45 to 64, 12.7 percent who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 108.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.5 males. The median income for a household in the county was $20,898, the median income for a family was $27,348. Males had a median income of $25,930 versus $20,318 for females; the per capita income for the county was $11,293. About 28.4 percent of families and 34.5 percent of the population were below the poverty line, including 48.1 percent of those under age 18 and 26.00 percent of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,419 people, 3,706 households, 2,333 families residing in the county.
The population density was 25.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,486 housing units at an average density of 11.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 73.6% black or African American, 23.7% white, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.3% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 5.6% were American. Of the 3,706 households, 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.5% were married couples living together, 26.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.0% were non-families, 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.14. The median age was 38.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $20,081 and the median income for a family was $25,146. Males had a median income of $30,440 versus $28,889 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,190. About 35.7% of families and 42.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 53.8% of those under age 18 and 27.4% of those age 65 or over.
The county has been Democratic in Presidential voting since 1976 and was among the counties to be carried by Walter Mondale in 1984. In the 2008 U. S. presidential election Barack Obama received 75.1 percent of the county's vote. In the 2012 U. S. presidential election Barack Obama received 78.3 percent of the county's vote. Allendale is an agricultural rural county, its primary products are cotton, soybeans and cantaloupe. Timbering is important for paper pulp. Robert McNair, Democratic Governor of South Carolina from 1965 to 1971, moved to Allendale County as an adult because his wife was from there; because of McNair's influence, USC-Salkahatchie was located in the town of Allendale. The county is the site of WEBA, Channel 14, a broadcast outlet of the South Carolina Educational Television Network. Ranking 45th in population among the state's 46 counties, it is the smallest county to have either a state-supported college or an ETV station. Allendale County School District includes one high school: Allendale-Fairfax High School.
The former C. V. Bing High School served African-American students during the time of segregation
U.S. Route 1 in South Carolina
U. S. Route 1 is a north–south United States highway that traverses along through the South Carolina sandhills region. US 1 enters South Carolina in North Augusta. From North Augusta to Aiken, US 1 is a divided four-lane highway, it goes through the historic district of Aiken, heading north through Batesburg-Leesville, into Columbia up to Camden. US 1 parallels I-20, it has junctions with I-26 and I-77 in Columbia. In Richland County, it goes through downtown Columbia along Gervais Street, passing directly in front of the State Capitol building. From Camden, it continues northeast as a two-lane road to the town of Cheraw and Cheraw State Park before entering the state of North Carolina; the entire route is part of the Jefferson Davis Highway, named after Civil War Confederate leader Jefferson Davis. Markers of the highway dot all along the route. Though US 1 connects to several urban areas in the state, it has fallen out of favor with most causal and business travelers not seeking to drive along a historic highway, as Interstate travel has become a much faster and more efficient means of ground transportation.
US-1 has thus been replaced as primary route by I-20 and I-95. Most urban areas of US-1 are multi-lane with some sections divided, while the rural areas continue to be two-lane. US 1 was established in 1927 as an original US route, it traveled as it does now, overlapping with SC 12, from North Augusta to West Columbia, SC 2, from West Columbia to Columbia, SC 50, from Columbia to the North Carolina border. The following year, both SC 12 and SC 50 were dropped along the route; the entire route was paved by 1932. Around 1938, US 1 was rerouted between Cheraw and Wallace, going further north along its now current alignment, leaving behind Hickson Road and Brickyard Road; the first section widen to four-lane was a 2-mile section north of Columbia, in 1940. Between 1940-1946, US 1 was rerouted in Columbia. By 1952, US 1 was rerouted again in Columbia, switching to Gervais Street, Millwood Avenue, Two Notch. By 1952, US 1/US 78 were given new alignment bypassing Clearwater, Bath and Gloverville. By 1957, US 1/US 78 was rerouted from Fifth Street Bridge to its current alignment over the Savannah River.
South Carolina portal U. S. Roads portal Special routes of U. S. Route 1 Media related to U. S. Route 1 in South Carolina at Wikimedia Commons Mapmikey's South Carolina Highways Page: US 1
Augusta Augusta–Richmond County, is a consolidated city-county on the central eastern border of the U. S. state of Georgia. The city lies across the Savannah River from South Carolina at the head of its navigable portion. Georgia's second-largest city after Atlanta, Augusta is located in the Piedmont section of the state. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, Augusta–Richmond County had a 2017 estimated population of 197,166, not counting the unconsolidated cities of Blythe and Hephzibah, it is the 122nd largest city in the United States. The process of consolidation between the City of Augusta and Richmond County began with a 1995 referendum in the two jurisdictions; the merger was completed on July 1, 1996. Augusta is the principal city of the Augusta metropolitan area, situated in both Georgia and South Carolina on both sides of the Savannah River. In 2017 it had an estimated population of 600,151, making it the second-largest metro area in the state, it is the 93rd largest metropolitan area in the United States.
Augusta was established in 1736 and is named for Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, the bride of Frederick, Prince of Wales and the mother of the British monarch George III. During the American Civil War, Augusta housed the principal Confederate powder works. Augusta's warm climate made it a major resort town of the Eastern United States in the early and mid-20th century. Internationally, Augusta is best known for hosting The Masters golf tournament each spring; the Masters brings over 200,000 visitors from across the world to the Augusta National Golf Club. Membership at Augusta National is considered to be the most exclusive in the sport of golf across the world. Augusta lies two hours east of downtown Atlanta by car via I-20; the city is home to Fort Gordon, a major U. S. Army base. In 2016, it was announced that the new National Cyber Security Headquarters would be based in Augusta, bringing as many as 10,000 cyber security specialists to the Fort Gordon area; the area along the river was long inhabited by varying cultures of indigenous peoples, who relied on the river for fish and transportation.
The site of Augusta was used by Native Americans as a place to cross the Savannah River, because of its location on the fall line. In 1735, two years after James Oglethorpe founded Savannah, he sent a detachment of troops to explore the upper Savannah River, he gave them an order to build a fort at the head of the navigable part of the river. The expedition was led by Noble Jones, who created a settlement as a first line of defense for coastal areas against potential Spanish or French invasion from the interior. Oglethorpe named the town in honor of Princess Augusta, the mother of King George III and the wife of Frederick, Prince of Wales. Oglethorpe visited Augusta in September 1739 on his return to Savannah from a perilous visit to Coweta Town, near present-day Phenix City, Alabama. There, he had met with a convention of 7,000 Native American warriors and concluded a peace treaty with them in their territories in northern and western Georgia. Augusta was the second state capital of Georgia from 1785 until 1795.
Augusta developed as a market town as the Black Belt in the Piedmont was developed for cotton cultivation. Invention of the cotton gin made processing of short-staple cotton profitable, this type of cotton was well-suited to the upland areas. Cotton plantations were worked by slave labor, with hundreds of thousands of slaves shipped from the Upper South to the Deep South in the domestic slave trade. Many of the slaves were brought from the Lowcountry, where their Gullah culture had developed on the large Sea Island cotton and rice plantations; the city experienced the Augusta Fire of 1916, which damaged 25 blocks of the town and many buildings of historical significance. As a major city in the area, Augusta was a center of activities after. In the mid-20th century, it was a site of civil rights demonstrations. In 1970 Charles Oatman, a mentally disabled teenager, was killed by his cellmates in an Augusta jail. A protest against his death broke out in a riot involving 500 people, after six black men were killed by police, each found to have been shot in the back.
The noted singer and entertainer James Brown was called in to help quell lingering tensions, which he succeeded in doing. Augusta is located on the Georgia/South Carolina border, about 150 miles east of Atlanta and 70 miles west of Columbia; the city is located at 33°28′12″N 81°58′30″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Augusta–Richmond County balance has a total area of 306.5 square miles, of which 302.1 square miles is land and 4.3 square miles is water. Augusta is located about halfway up the Savannah River on the fall line, which creates a number of small falls on the river; the city marks the end of a navigable waterway for the river and the entry to the Georgia Piedmont area. The Clarks Hill Dam is built on the fall line near Augusta. Farther downstream, near the border of Columbia County, is the Stevens Creek Dam, which generates hydroelectric power. Farther downstream is the Augusta Diversion Dam, which marks the beginning of the Augusta Canal and channels Savannah River waters into the canal.
As with the rest of the state, Augusta has a humid subtropical climate, with short, mild winters hot, humid summers, a wide diurnal temperature variation throughout much of the year, despite its low elevation and moisture. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 45.4 °F in January to 81.6 °F in July.
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government