Trip hop is a musical genre that originated in the early 1990s in the United Kingdom Bristol. It has been described as "a fusion of hip hop and electronica until neither genre is recognizable", may incorporate a variety of styles, including funk, soul, psychedelia, R&B, house, as well as other forms of electronic music. Trip hop can be experimental. Deriving from idioms of acid house, the term was first used by the British music media to describe the more experimental variant of breakbeat emerging from the Bristol Sound scene in the early 1990s, which contained influences of soul and jazz, it was pioneered by acts like Massive Attack and Portishead. Trip hop achieved commercial success in the 1990s, has been described as "Europe's alternative choice in the second half of the'90s." Common musical aesthetics include a bass-heavy drumbeat emulating the slowed down breakbeat samples typical of hip hop in the 1990s, giving the genre a more psychedelic feel. Vocals in trip hop are female and feature characteristics of various singing styles including R&B, jazz and rock.
The female-dominant vocals of trip hop may be attributable to the influence of genres such as jazz and early R&B, in which female vocalists were more common. However, there are notable exceptions - Massive Attack and Groove Armada collaborates with male & female vocalists, Tricky features vocally in his own productions along with Martina Topley-Bird, Chris Corner provided vocals for albums with Sneaker Pimps. Trip hop is known for its melancholy sound; this may be due to the fact that several acts were inspired by post-punk bands. Tricky opened his second album Nearly God by a version of "Tattoo", a proto-trip-hop song of Siouxsie and the Banshees recorded in 1983. Trip hop tracks incorporate Rhodes pianos, saxophones and flutes, may employ unconventional instruments such as the theremin and Mellotron. Trip hop differs from hip hop in theme and overall tone. Instead of gangsta rap with its hard-hitting lyrics, trip hop offers a more aural atmospherics with instrumental hip hop, turntable scratching, breakbeat rhythms.
Regarded in some ways as a 1990s update of fusion, trip hop may be said to "transcend" the hardcore rap styles and lyrics with atmospheric overtones to create a more mellow tempo. The term "trip-hop" first appeared in print in June 1994. Andy Pemberton, a music journalist writing for Mixmag, used it to describe Mo' Wax Records Artist RPM and DJ Shadow's "In/Flux" single. In Bristol hip hop began to seep into the consciousness of a subculture well-schooled in Jamaican forms of music. DJs, MCs, b-boys and graffiti artists grouped together into informal soundsystems. Like the pioneering Bronx crews of DJs Kool Herc, Afrika Bambataa and Grandmaster Flash, the soundsystems provided party music for public spaces in the economically deprived council estates from which some of their members originated. Bristol's soundsystem DJs, drawing on Jamaican dub music used a laid-back and heavy drum beat. Bristol's Wild Bunch crew became one of the soundsystems to put a local spin on the international phenomenon, helping to birth Bristol's signature sound of trip hop termed "the Bristol Sound".
The Wild Bunch and its associates included at various times in its existence the MC Adrian "Tricky Kid" Thaws, the graffiti artist and lyricist Robert "3D" Del Naja, producer Jonny Dollar and the DJs Nellee Hooper, Andrew "Mushroom" Vowles and Grant "Daddy G" Marshall. As the hip hop scene matured in Bristol and musical trends evolved further toward acid jazz and house in the late 1980s, the golden era of the soundsystem began to end; the Wild Bunch signed a record deal and evolved into Massive Attack, a core collective of 3D, Mushroom and Daddy G, with significant contributions from Tricky Kid and Hooper on production duties, along with a rotating cast of other vocalists. Another influence came from Gary Clail's Tackhead soundsystem. Clail worked with former The Pop Group singer Mark Stewart; the latter experimented with his band Mark Stewart & the Maffia, which consisted of New York session musicians Skip McDonald, Doug Wimbish, Keith LeBlanc, a part of the house band for the Sugarhill Records record label.
Produced by Adrian Sherwood, the music combined hip hop with experimental rock and dub and sounded like a premature version of what became trip hop. In 1993, Kirsty MacColl released "Angel", one of the first examples of the genre crossing over to pop, a hybrid that dominated the charts toward the end of the 1990s. Massive Attack's first album Blue Lines was released in 1991 to huge success in the UK. Blue Lines was seen as the first major manifestation of a uniquely British hip hop movement, but the album's hit single "Unfinished Sympathy" and several other tracks, while their rhythms were sample-based, were not seen as hip hop songs in any conventional sense. Produced by Dollar, Shara Nelson featured on the orchestral "Unfinished", Jamaican dance hall star Horace Andy provided vocals on several other tracks, as he would throughout Massive Attack's career. Massive Attack released their second album entitled Protection in 1994. Although Tricky stayed on in a lesser role, Hooper again produced, the fertile dance music scene of the early 1990s had informed the record, it was seen as an more significant shift away from the Wild Bunch era.
In the June 1994 issue of UK magazine Mixmag, music journalist Andy Pemberton used the term trip hop to describe the hip hop instru
Alessandro Baricco is an Italian writer and performer. His novels have been translated into a wide number of languages, he lives in Rome with his wife and two sons. Baricco was born in Turin. After receiving degrees in philosophy and piano, he published essays on music criticism: Il genio in fuga on Gioachino Rossini, L'anima di Hegel e le mucche del Wisconsin on the relation between music and modernity, he subsequently worked as musical critic for La Repubblica and La Stampa, hosted talk shows on Rai Tre. Baricco debuted as a novelist with Castelli di rabbia in 1991. In 1993 he co-founded a creative writing school in Turin, naming it Scuola Holden after J. D. Salinger's Holden Caulfield; the Scuola Holden hosts a variety of courses on narrative techniques including screenwriting, videogames and short stories. In the following years his fame grew enormously throughout Europe, with his works topping the Italian and French best-seller lists. Larger recognition followed the adaptation of his theatrical monologue Novecento into the movie The Legend of 1900, directed by Academy Award-winning director Giuseppe Tornatore.
He has worked with the French band Air, releasing "City Reading", a mix of the band's music with Baricco's reading of his novel City. He has directed the film Lezione 21 on its critical reception. Castelli di rabbia, Rizzoli 1991, Tascabili Bompiani 1994. Awarded with Prix Médicis étranger – France Oceano Mare, Rizzoli 1993. Awarded with'Palazzo al Bosco' — Italy Novecento. Un monologo, Giangiacomo Feltrinelli Editore, Milan, 1994. Seta, Rizzoli 1996. City, ISBN 978-0-375-72548-7, Rizzoli 1999. Constellations, 1999. Senza sangue, Rizzoli 2002. Questa storia, Fandango 2005. Emmaus, Feltrinelli 2009. Mr Gwyn, Feltrinelli 2011. Tre volte all'alba, Feltrinelli 2012. Smith & Wesson, Feltrinelli 2014. La Sposa giovane, Feltrinelli 2015. Totem, a literary and musical happening staged in various locations throughout Italy with varying structure and contents, it consisted of a two-night theatrical event in which Baricco himself, helped by director Gabriele Vacis, actor Eugenio Allegri and musician Daniele Sepe, would read and comment on bits of literature from all centuries and countries, accompanying them with music.
In 2001 Rizzoli published the video of Totem recorded in Milan in 1997. Novecento, Feltrinelli 1994. Davila Roa, staged only once by director Luca Ronconi. A huge fiasco, it was never published in written form. Omero, Feltrinelli 2004; the theatrical event from which the book originated was staged only twice due to its logistic difficulties: it spanned over three nights during which the best contemporary Italian actors would impersonate one character each, eight per night. Partita Spagnola, Audino Editore 2003. Lecture 21, 2008. Barnum. Cronache dal Grande Show, Feltrinelli 1995 Barnum 2. Altre cronache del Grande Feltrinelli 1998 Next. Piccolo libro sulla globalizzazione e il mondo che verrà, Feltrinelli 2002 Il nuovo Barnum, Feltrinelli 2016 Il genio in fuga. Sul teatro musicale di Rossini, Il Melangolo 1988, Einaudi 1997 L'anima di Hegel e le mucche del Wisconsin, Garzanti 1992 I Barbari, La Repubblica 2006 Source: "A note about the author" of Without Blood. Prix Médicis étranger — France Selezione Campiello — Italy Viareggio – Italy Palazzo al Bosco – Italy Alessandro Baricco at the Berlin International Literature Festival 2002/03
Pocket Symphony is the fourth full-length album by French duo Air. The album features collaborations with Jarvis Cocker and Neil Hannon. Pocket Symphony incorporates some of the Japanese instruments Godin learned to play from an Okinawan master musician: the koto and the three-string, banjo-like shamisen. However, a press release claims that "conventional instruments continue to play a great role" in the duo's music; the album features art by Xavier Veilhan. The first single from this album, ``. Pocket Symphony debuted on the US Billboard 200 at number 40, with about 17,000 copies sold in its first week; as of 2012 it has sold 77,000 copies in United States according to Nielsen SoundScan. The name Pocket Symphony stems from the groundbreaking 1960s song "Good Vibrations" by the Beach Boys. At the time of its release and chief composer Brian Wilson described the track to journalists as a "pocket symphony". All songs written by JB Dunckel and Nicolas Godin, except "One Hell of a Party", lyrics by Jarvis Cocker.
"Space Maker" – 4:02 Nicolas Godin – bass and solina JB Dunckel – piano, synthesizers & vibraphone Joey Waronker – drums and percussion Strings arranged and conducted by Joby Talbot Nicolas: We wanted to have this idea of the album as a pocket symphony so you imagine you're going into the opera and the lights go down and this starts. It's not the greatest song on the album. Jean-Benoit: This was a joke title from pace maker. Hilarious, huh? "Once Upon a Time" – 5:02 JB Dunckel – vocals, piano and glockenspiel Nicolas Godin – guitar, synth bass, drum machine and shamisen Magic Malik – flute Tony Allen – drums Nicolas: It's a story of boys meet girl. A fairy tale. Jean-Benoit is singing. I don't like my voice, really. Jean-Benoit: We like the fairy tales. "One Hell of a Party" – 4:02 Jarvis Cocker – vocals JB Dunckel – synthesizers and samples Nicolas Godin – piano, koto and bass Joey Waronker – drums and percussion Nicolas: Well, you'd have to talk to Jarvis about the lyrics. It's the kind of song where we wanted to experiment with the instruments.
And I played the piano the way that Sakamoto would play on it. Jean-Benoit: This is the sort of party where you are older and drunk and you are looking at the mess and wondering what happened. So we wanted the track to be empty and dark. "Napalm Love" – 3:27 Nicolas Godin – bass and guitars, drum machine JB Dunckel – vocals and synthesizers Nicolas: It's about the words you use to talk about love. If you list all the words that are used to talk about love they are horrible, like falling in love, burning for someone, like it's destructive. "Mayfair Song" – 4:18 JB Dunckel – piano, arp percussions, voice pad and synthesizers Nicolas Godin – bass, drum machine and keyboards Nicolas: It's a song we wrote here while Nigel was mixing. So we set up a little studio in the other room, we were recording; when we did Premiers Symptomes we used to do a bassline, get a vibe and, it. We forgot how to do that and we wanted to get back to that simplicity. Nigel told us: “Do what you're good at”. Jean-Benoit: We made this track quickly, it only took one day.
"Left Bank" – 4:07 Nicolas Godin – guitars and vocals JB Dunckel – synthesizers, drum machine and vocals Nicolas: This is a song I wrote in a hotel room after a lovely weekend with a girl. And Monday morning she left without saying a word and I wrote it on my guitar simple. Crazy French girls! Jean-Benoit: Nicolas and I are always talking about this non-existent girl that we want to meet, that we'd like to have in our bed, the one who left, recently. In our minds we say to her, “come back I love you, I've been a naughty boy”; this is our obsession right now. "Photograph" – 3:51 JB Dunckel – rhodes, piano and vocals Nicolas Godin – bass, guitar and tambourine Joey Waronker – drums and percussion Magic Malik – flute Nicolas: Very cinematic music. When we started with Premiers Symptomes we liked Blaxploitation soundtrack music. We've come back to this grooving thing. Jean-Benoit: The original title of this was "Message For A Rock Star" and the idea was this: ok you are a rock star and God is a fan of yours and he wants to have your autograph.
You are such a rock star that God wants you. "Mer du Japon" – 3:04 Nicolas Godin – bass, koto and drums JB Dunckel – piano and vocals Nicolas: Haiku music. J'ai perdu la raison dans la mer du Japon. Oops, I lost my mind in the sea of Japan. Just one simple line. Jean-Benoit: When you go to Los Angeles or Japan there is something special in the air, we wanted to capture this special Pacific touch. It's like a perfume, it sounds a little bit like Mirwais' first band. We were big fans of this band and there is a similar feel in the production. "Lost Message" – 3:32 JB Dunckel – piano and synthesizers Nicolas Godin – bass, memory moog and drum machine Nicolas: It's so Satie and so French. It sounds so different. Jean-Benoit: In my mind I see a sort of fresh modern Emmanuelle soundtrack. It's erotic. "Somewhere Between Waking and Sleeping" – 3:35 Neil Hannon – vocals Nicolas Godin – guitars and koto JB Dunckel – piano, synth bass, vibraphone Strings arranged by David Richard Campbell Nicolas: This is the Neil Hannon collaboration.
I love this song so much. We wrote this for Charlotte. "Redhead Girl" – 4:33 JB Dunckel – vocals
Jean-Benoît Dunckel is a French musician best known for being one half of the French music duo Air, along with Nicolas Godin. In the 1980s, he formed the band Orange with Xavier Jamaux and Jean de Reydellet, he studied mathematics and physics and taught at a middle school in Paris, before embarking on a career as a professional musician. Since 1995, he has been one of two members of the band Air, along with his partner Nicolas Godin. Working under the name "Darkel" he released his first solo album, Darkel, in September 2006. In April 2009, a concert was held in Paris to launch the release of MaJiKer's first album, Body-Piano-Machine, with guest vocalist Camille and a DJ set by Dunckel. In 2011, he formed the electronica side project Tomorrow's World with Lou Hayter of New Young Pony Club, their first album, Tomorrow's World, was released in 2013. Dunckel collaborated with Icelander Barði Jóhannsson under the name Starwalker and released an E. P. in March 2014 featuring "Losers Can Win" and "Bad Weather".
A new song not featured on the E. P. was issued in November 2014, called "Blue Hawaii". In April 2016, a self-titled full-length album was released. In March 2015 he issued the 4-track mini-album titled The Man Of Sorrow. In 2015, he composed the soundtrack for the film The Summer of Sangailé; the soundtrack album was released on 24 July. Official website of Darkel nndb profile Darkel Myspace page Tomorrow's World page Starwalker's page
Moon Safari is the debut studio album by French electronic music duo Air, released on 16 January 1998. Virgin Records re-released Moon Safari on 14 April 2008 to mark the album's tenth anniversary; the limited edition album came with a bound book, a DVD documentary about the duo, an extra CD with live performances and remixes. Moon Safari remains Air's most renowned release. Moon Safari is credited with setting the stage for the budding downtempo music style; as of 2012 it has sold 386,000 copies in United States according to Nielsen SoundScan. Moon Safari was met with general acclaim upon its release. John Mulvey, writing for NME, praised Air's "sensitive but tenacious grasp of melody, a laid-back disposition and a reckless way with a Vocoder that makes them unafraid of sounding like a digital ELO," noting similarities to Garbage on "Sexy Boy" and Beth Hirsch on "All I Need". Entertainment Weekly's Ethan Smith felt that though the album bears excessive resemblance to Everything but the Girl, "Air leaven it all with a welcome dash of Gallic irony."
Pitchfork writer Brent DiCrescenzo remarked that the music would befit "minimalist architecture design, shagging up against a tree in a field of sunflowers, waiting in line for'Space Mountain,' drinking gin upstairs in a 747, and'60s Swedish industrial documentaries," adding that though the album is "too cheeky" for everyday listening, it is nonetheless romantic. Rolling Stone's Rob Sheffield was more reserved in his praise, praising the album's stylistic range and the instrumental songs but calling the group "obsessive." Spin's Jeff Salamon felt that though the album's pathos is "heartening", the music lacks irony. Moon Safari was voted in Select, it featured in top ten lists for magazines like Spin, Melody NME and Mojo. On aggregation site Acclaimed Music's list of the most recommended albums of all time, Moon Safari ranks 139th, the highest rank achieved by Air and by a French album in general. Rolling Stone magazine ranked the album at number 93 on their list of the best albums of the 1990s, while the magazine's French edition ranked it at number 65 on their "100 Greatest French Rock Albums" list.
In a retrospective review, John Bush of AllMusic commented that Moon Safari "delivered the emotional power of great dance music while pushing the barriers of what'electronica' could or should sound like", that the album "proved they could write accessible pop songs like'Sexy Boy' and'Kelly Watch the Stars'" while containing successful experiments with less pop-oriented material. The album was included in the book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die. All tracks written except where noted. Notes "La femme d'argent" samples "Runnin'" by Edwin Starr. "Remember" samples "Do It Again" by The Beach Boys. DVD "Eating Sleeping Waiting & Playing" by Mike Mills. Music videos for "Sexy Boy", "Kelly Watch the Stars", "All I Need", "Le soleil est près de moi". Graphics and storyboards. Jean-Benoît Dunckel – keyboards, organ, piano, pan pipes, hand claps, glockenspiel Nicolas Godin – bass, percussion, guitar, hand claps, glockenspiel, organ, pan pipes, drums Beth Hirsch – vocals Enfants square Burcq – vocals Alf – hand claps Caroline L. – hand claps Marlon – drums Eric Regert – organ David Whitaker – string arrangement, conducting P. Woodcock – guitar, trombone
Ambient music is a genre of music that emphasizes tone and atmosphere over traditional musical structure or rhythm. A form of slow instrumental music, it uses repetitive, but gentle, soothing sound patterns that can be described as sonic wallpaper to complement or alter one’s space and to generate a sense of calmness; the genre is said to evoke an "unobtrusive" quality. Ambient music focuses on creating a mood or atmosphere through synthesizers and timbral qualities lacking the presence of any net composition, beat, or structured melody, it uses textural layers of sound without prevalent musical tropes, rewarding both passive and active listening. Nature soundscapes are included, the sounds of acoustic instruments such as the piano and flute, among others, may be emulated through a synthesizer. According to Brian Eno, one of its pioneers, "Ambient music must be able to accommodate many levels of listening attention without enforcing one in particular. Eno popularized ambient music in 1978 with his album Ambient 1: Music for Airports.
It saw a revival towards the late 1980s with the prominence of house and techno music, growing a cult following by the 1990s. Ambient music may have elements of new-age music and drone music, as some works may use sustained or repeated notes. Ambient music did not achieve large commercial success, being criticized as having a "boring" and "over-intellectual" sound, it has attained a certain degree of acclaim throughout the years in the Internet age. Due to its open style, ambient music takes influences from many other genres, ranging from classical, avant-garde music, folk and world music, among several others; as an early 20th-century French composer, Erik Satie used such Dadaist-inspired explorations to create an early form of ambient/background music that he labeled "furniture music". This he described as being the sort of music that could be played during a dinner to create a background atmosphere for that activity, rather than serving as the focus of attention. In his own words, Satie sought to create "a music...which will be part of the noises of the environment, will take them into consideration.
I think of it as melodious, softening the noises of the knives and forks at dinner, not dominating them, not imposing itself. It would fill up those heavy silences, it would spare them the trouble of paying attention to their own banal remarks. And at the same time it would neutralize the street noises which so indiscreetly enter into the play of conversation. To make such music would be to respond to a need." In the 1960s, many music groups experimented with unusual methods, with some of them creating what would be called ambient music. In 1969, the group Coum Transmissions were performing sonic experiments in British art schools. Many pieces of ambient music were released in England and the United States of America between the late 1960s and the 1990s; some 1960s music with ambient elements include Music for Zen Meditation by Tony Scott, Soothing Sounds for Baby by Raymond Scott, Music for Yoga Meditation and Other Joys by Tony Scott. Developing in the 1970s, ambient stemmed from the experimental and synthesizer-oriented styles of the period.
Although Jamaican dub musicians such as King Tubby, Japanese electronic music composers such as Isao Tomita, as well as the psychoacoustic soundscapes of Irv Teibel's Environments series, German bands such as Popol Vuh, Ash Ra Tempel and Tangerine Dream, predate him in the creation of ambient music and/or were contemporaneous with him, Brian Eno played a key role in its development and popularization. The concept of background or furniture music had existed some time before, but only in the 70s was ambient music first created, which incorporated New Age ideals with the newly invented modular synthesizer. Eno went on to record 1975's Discreet Music with this in mind, suggesting that it be listened to at "comparatively low levels to the extent that it falls below the threshold of audibility", referring to Satie's quote about his musique d'ameublement; the impact the rise of the synthesizer in modern music had on ambient as a genre cannot be overstated. The only limit is with the composer"; the Yellow Magic Orchestra developed a distinct style of ambient electronic music that would be developed into ambient house music.
The English producer Brian Eno is credited with coining the term "ambient music" in the mid-1970s. He said that "I just gave it a name. Which is what it needed... By naming something you create a difference. You say. Names are important." He used the term to describe music that can be "actively listened to with attention or as ignored, depending on the choice of the listener", which exists on the "cusp between melody and texture". In the liner notes for his 1978 album Ambient 1: Music for Airports, Eno wrote:Whereas the extant canned music companies proceed from the basis of regularizing environments by blanketing their acoustic and atmospheric idiosyncrasies, Ambient Music is intended to enhance these. Whereas conventional background music is produced by stripping away all sense of doubt and uncertainty from the music, Ambient Music retain
Marie-Georges-Jean Méliès, known as Georges Méliès, was a French illusionist and film director who led many technical and narrative developments in the earliest days of cinema. Méliès was well-known for the use of special effects, popularizing such techniques as substitution splices, multiple exposures, time-lapse photography and hand-painted colour, he was one of the first filmmakers to use storyboards. His films include A Trip to the Moon and The Impossible Voyage, both involving strange, surreal journeys somewhat in the style of Jules Verne, are considered among the most important early science fiction films, though their approach is closer to fantasy. Marie-Georges-Jean Méliès was born 8 December 1861 in Paris, son of Jean-Louis-Stanislas Méliès and his Dutch wife, Johannah-Catherine Schuering, his father had moved to Paris in 1843 as a journeyman shoemaker and began working at a boot factory, where he met Méliès' mother. Johannah-Catherine's father had been the official bootmaker of the Dutch court before a fire ruined his business.
She helped to educate Jean-Louis-Stanislas. The two married, founded a high-quality boot factory on the Boulevard Saint-Martin, had sons Henri and Gaston. Georges Méliès attended the Lycée Michelet from age seven until it was bombed during the Franco-Prussian War. In his memoirs, Méliès emphasised his formal, classical education, in contrast to accusations early in his career that most filmmakers had been "illiterates incapable of producing anything artistic." However, he acknowledged that his creative instincts outweighed intellectual ones: "The artistic passion was too strong for him, while he would ponder a French composition or Latin verse, his pen mechanically sketched portraits or caricatures of his professors or classmates, if not some fantasy palace or an original landscape that had the look of a theatre set." Disciplined by teachers for covering his notebooks and textbooks with drawings, young Georges began building cardboard puppet theatres at age ten and moved on to craft more sophisticated marionettes as a teenager.
Méliès graduated from the Lycée with a baccalauréat in 1880. After completing his education, Méliès joined his brothers in the family shoe business, where he learned how to sew. After three years of mandatory military service, his father sent him to London to work as a clerk for a family friend. While in London, he began to visit the Egyptian Hall, run by the London illusionist John Nevil Maskelyne, he developed a lifelong passion for stage magic. Méliès returned to Paris in 1885 with a new desire: to study painting at the École des Beaux-Arts, his father, refused to support him financially as an artist, so Georges settled with supervising the machinery at the family factory. That same year, he avoided his family's desire for him to marry his brother's sister-in-law and instead married Eugénie Génin, a family friend's daughter whose guardians had left her a sizable dowry. Together they had two children: Georgette, born in 1888, André, born in 1901. While working at the family factory, Méliès continued to cultivate his interest in stage magic, attending performances at the Théâtre Robert-Houdin, founded by the magician Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin.
He began taking magic lessons from Emile Voisin, who gave him the opportunity to perform his first public shows, at the Cabinet Fantastique of the Grévin Wax Museum and at the Galerie Vivienne. In 1888, Méliès' father retired, Georges Méliès sold his share of the family shoe business to his two brothers. With the money from the sale and from his wife's dowry, he purchased the Théâtre Robert-Houdin. Although the theatre was "superb" and equipped with lights, trap doors, several automata, many of the available illusions and tricks were out of date, attendance to the theatre was low after Méliès' initial renovations. Over the next nine years, Méliès created over 30 new illusions that brought more comedy and melodramatic pageantry to performances, much like those Méliès had seen in London, attendance improved. One of his best-known illusions was the Recalcitrant Decapitated Man, in which a professor's head is cut off in the middle of a speech and continues talking until it is returned to his body.
When he purchased the Théâtre Robert-Houdin, Méliès inherited its chief mechanic Eugène Calmels and such performers as Jehanne D'Alcy, who would become his mistress and his second wife. While running the theatre, Méliès worked as a political cartoonist for the liberal newspaper La Griffe, edited by his cousin Adolphe Méliès; as owner of the Théâtre Robert-Houdin, Méliès began working more behind the scenes than on stage. He acted as director, writer and costume designer, as well as inventing many of the magical tricks. With the theatre's growing popularity, he brought in magicians including Buatier De Kolta and Raynaly to the theatre. Along with magic tricks, performances included fairy pantomimes, an automaton performance during intermissions, magic lantern shows, special effects such as snowfall and lightning. In 1895, Méliès was elected president of the Chambre Syndicale des Artistes Illusionistes. On 28 December 1895, Méliès attended a special private demonstration of the Lumière brothers' cinematograph, given for owners of Parisian houses of spectacle.
Méliès offered the Lumières 10,000₣ for one of their machines. (For the same reasons, they