Opium is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy. The latex contains the closely related opiates codeine and thebaine, the word meconium historically referred to related, weaker preparations made from other parts of the opium poppy or different species of poppies. The production of opium has not changed since ancient times, through selective breeding of the Papaver somniferum plant, the content of the phenanthrene alkaloids morphine, and to a lesser extent thebaine has been greatly increased. For the illegal trade, the morphine is extracted from the opium. It is converted to heroin which is two to four times as potent, and increases the value by two to four times, the reduced weight and bulk make it easier to smuggle. Evidence from ancient Greece indicate that opium was consumed in several ways, including inhalation of vapors, medical poultices, Opium is mentioned in the most important medical texts of the ancient world, including the Ebers Papyrus and the writings of Dioscorides and Avicenna.
Widespread medical use of unprocessed opium continued through the American Civil War before giving way to morphine and its successors, Opium has been actively collected since prehistoric times. Though western scholars typically estimate this to be around 1500 BCE, Indian scholars maintain that the verses and the history contained in them have been orally transmitted thousands of years before. A common name for males in Afghanistan is Redey, which in Pashto means poppy and this term may be derived from the Sanskrit words rddhi and hrdya, which mean magical, a type of medicinal plant, and heart-pleasing, respectively. The upper Asian belt of Afghanistan, northern India, numerous finds of P. somniferum or P. setigerum from Bronze Age and Iron Age settlements have been reported. The first known cultivation of poppies was in Mesopotamia, approximately 3400 BCE, by Sumerians, who called the plant hul gil. Tablets found at Nippur, a Sumerian spiritual center south of Baghdad, described the collection of juice in the morning.
Opium production continued under the Babylonians and Egyptians, Opium was used with poison hemlock to put people quickly and painlessly to death, but it was used in medicine. The Ebers Papyrus, c. 1500 BCE, describes a way to stop a child using grains of the poppy plant strained to a pulp. Spongia somnifera, sponges soaked in opium, were used during surgery, the Egyptians cultivated opium thebaicum in famous poppy fields around 1300 BCE. Opium was traded from Egypt by the Phoenicians and Minoans to destinations around the Mediterranean Sea, including Greece and Europe. By 1100 BCE, opium was cultivated on Cyprus, where surgical-quality knives were used to score the poppy pods, and opium was cultivated, Opium was mentioned after the Persian conquest of Assyria and Babylonian lands in the 6th century BCE. From the earliest finds, opium has appeared to have ritual significance, and anthropologists have speculated ancient priests may have used the drug as a proof of healing power
Vang Pao was a Major General in the Royal Lao Army. He was a leader in the Hmong American community in the United States, Vang began his early life as a farmer until Japanese forces invaded and occupied French Indochina in World War II. His father sent him away to school from the age of 10 to 15 before he launched his military career, while taking an entrance examination, the captain who was the proctor realized that Vang knew almost no written French. The captain dictated the answers to Vang so he could join the army, Vang insisted the captain gave him the answers but did not actually guide his hand on the paper. Anne Fadiman, author of The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, after World War II, French Groupement de Commandos Mixtes Aéroportés authorities recruited Vang as a lieutenant during the First Indochina War to combat the Viet Minh. He was the only ethnic Hmong to attain the rank of General officer in the Royal Lao Army, Vangs ethnic Hmong and Laotian veterans and their refugee families who served in the U. S.
The Lao and Hmong refugees were allowed to resettle in the United States, Australia, New Zealand and elsewhere. Many of Vangs former veterans formed the Lao Veterans of America, Inc. Vang emigrated to the United States after the communists seized power in Laos in 1975. He and his wife, May Song Vang, whom he married in 1973 and he remained widely respected by his fellow Hmong and was an esteemed elder of the American Hmong people, many of whom experienced the war or the reprisals that followed. He was one of the eight founders of the organization in 1981, along with Prince Sisouk na Champassak, General Phoumi Nosavan and General Kouprasith Abhay. Throughout Vangs residence in the U. S. the Hmong leader diplomatically opposed human rights violations by the communist government of Laos against the Hmong and he was invited to speak at the U. S. Congressional Forum on Laos, with Members of Congress, about the persecution of the Laotian, from 1993-2003, Vang relied on Philip Smith for much of his efforts with policymakers in Washington, D. C. and the U. S.
Congress. Smith was a friend of Vang Pao and many Laotian. Vang, in cooperation with one of his highly controversial sons, Cha Vang, reversed his long-standing position. This included the Lao Veterans of America, The Centre for Public Policy Analysis, by 2004-05, independent journalists investigating complex financial relations, ethics probes, and scandals surrounding Cha Vang and various lawsuits. The Minnesota Star Tribune and St. Paul Pioneer Press reported extensively on these matters, the Vang Pao Foundation was forced to close following investigation by authorities and a lawsuit by the attorney general of Minnesota. S. in 2004-05. Vang Pobzeb, Members of the United States Congress and others, Vietnam Peoples Army forces were involved with military attacks on the Hmong people in Laos and illegal logging activities driving many Hmong from their mountain homelands. On 15 June 2007, defendants were indicted by a grand jury, the defendants face possible life prison terms for violation of the U. S
Parties engaging in the production or distribution of prohibited goods and services are members of the illegal economy. Examples include the trade, illegal currency transactions. Violations of the tax code involving income tax evasion constitutes membership in the unreported economy, because tax evasion or participation in a black market activity is illegal, participants will attempt to hide their behavior from the government or regulatory authority. Cash usage is the medium of exchange in illegal transactions since cash usage does not leave a footprint. Common motives for operating in markets are to trade contraband, avoid taxes and regulations. Typically the totality of such activity is referred to with the article as a complement to the official economies, by market for such goods and services. Black money is the proceeds of a transaction, on which income and other taxes have not been paid. Because of the nature of the black economy it is not possible to determine its size. There is no single underground economy, there are many and these underground economies are omnipresent, existing in market oriented as well as in centrally planned nations, be they developed or developing.
Different types of activities are distinguished according to the particular institutional rules that they violate. Illegal economy participants engage in the production and distribution of prohibited goods and services, such as trafficking, arms trafficking. The unreported economy consists of economic activities that circumvent or evade the institutionally established fiscal rules as codified in the tax code. A summary measure of the economy is the amount of income that should be reported to the tax authority but is not so reported. A complementary measure of the economy is the tax gap. In the U. S. unreported income is estimated to be $2 trillion resulting in a tax gap of $450–$500 billion, the unrecorded economy consists of those economic activities that circumvent the institutional rules that define the reporting requirements of government statistical agencies. A summary measure of the economy is the amount of unrecorded income. Unrecorded income is a problem in transition countries that switched from a socialist accounting system to UN standard national accounting.
New methods have been proposed for estimating the size of the unrecorded economy, but there is still little consensus concerning the size of the unreported economies of transition countries
Kingdom of Laos
The Kingdom of Laos was a constitutional monarchy that ruled Laos beginning with its independence on 9 November 1953. The Kingdom of Laos was officially proclaimed when the new Constitution was promulgated in 1947, as part of the colonial French Union, following the Franco-Lao Treaty of 1953, which gave Laos independence, the Royal Lao Government took control of the country. This treaty established a monarchy, with Sisavang Vong as King. Many attempts were made by the Three Princes and King Sisavang Vatthana to establish a coalition government, the First Government of National Unity was established in 1958 under Prince Souvanna Phouma, but collapsed after two months. The Prime Minister, who under the constitution appointed his ministers and received advice from the King, Souvanna Phouma gave the Communists two seats in the Cabinet, and in return Souphanouvong would integrate 1,500 of his 6,000 Communist troops into the royal army. Prince Souphanouvong was given the post of Minister of Planning and Urbanization, while member of the Communist Party was named Minister of Religion.
The Kingdom of Laos was divided into five military regions, the United States supplied the Royal Lao Navy with twenty river patrol boats and sixteen amphibious landing craft. Between 1962 and 1971, the United States provided Laos with an estimated US$500 million in military assistance. The Royal Lao Government had close relations with the United States, which gave the country aid and assisted it in the campaign against the Pathet Lao, during 1957, the United States spent more per capita on foreign aid for Laos than it had on any other nation. That worked out as US$150 per Laotian, twice the average annual income. Some of the went to support pro-American candidates in an election, while other money went to a program to support the local currency. King Savang Vatthana visited the United States in 1963 to meet with President Kennedy, Laos was supported by France, Burma and Japan. The Pathet Lao were backed militarily by the NVA and Vietcong, Laos was dragged into the Vietnam War since parts of Laos were invaded and occupied by North Vietnam for use as a supply route for its war against the South.
It provided supplies and funding to the central government, in 1968, the North Vietnamese Army launched a multi-division attack to help the Pathet Lao fight the Royal Lao Army. The attack resulted in the army largely demobilizing, leaving the conflict to irregular forces raised by the United States, massive aerial bombardment against Pathet Lao and NVA forces was carried out by the United States. It has been reported that Laos was hit by an average of one B-52 bombload every eight minutes,24 hours a day, US bombers dropped more ordnance on Laos in this period than was dropped during the whole of the Second World War. Of the 260 million bombs that rained down, particularly on Xiangkhouang Province on the Plain of Jars, some 80 million failed to explode, Laos is the most heavily bombed country, per capita, in the world. In 1975, the Pathet Lao, along with Vietnam Peoples Army and backed by the Soviet Union, overthrew the royalist Lao government, a ceasefire was finally attained in February 1973, following the Paris Peace Accords between the United States and North Vietnam
Robert Downey Jr.
Robert John Downey Jr. is an American actor. His career has included critical and popular success in his youth, followed by a period of abuse and legal troubles. For three consecutive years from 2012 to 2015, Downey has topped the Forbes list of Hollywoods highest-paid actors, making an estimated $80 million in earnings between June 2014 and June 2015. He starred as the character in the 1992 film Chaplin. This earned him a Golden Globe Award and his character was written out when Downey was fired after two drug arrests in late 2000 and early 2001. After his last stay in a drug treatment program, Downey achieved sobriety. Each of these films has grossed over $500 million at the box office worldwide, four of these—The Avengers, Age of Ultron, Iron Man 3 and Captain America, Downey Jr. has played the title character in Guy Ritchies Sherlock Holmes and its sequel. Downey was born in Manhattan, New York, the younger of two children and his father, Robert Downey Sr. is an actor and filmmaker, while his mother, Elsie Ann, was an actress who appeared in Downey Sr. s films.
Downeys father is of half Lithuanian Jewish, one-quarter Hungarian Jewish, and one-quarter Irish descent, while Downeys mother had Scottish, German and his older sister Allyson grew up in Greenwich Village. As a child, Downey was surrounded by drugs and his father, a drug addict, allowed Downey to use marijuana at age six, an incident which his father has said he now regrets. Eventually, Downey began spending every night abusing alcohol and making a phone calls in pursuit of drugs. During his childhood Downey had minor roles in his fathers films and he made his acting debut at the age of five, playing a sick puppy in the absurdist comedy Pound, and at seven appeared in the surrealist Greasers Palace. At the age of ten, he was living in England and he attended the Stagedoor Manor Performing Arts Training Center in upstate New York as a teenager. When his parents divorced in 1978, Downey moved to California with his father and Kiefer Sutherland, who shared the screen in the 1988 drama 1969, were roommates for three years when he first moved to Hollywood to pursue his career in acting.
Downey began building upon theater roles, including in the short-lived off-Broadway musical American Passion at the Joyce Theater in 1983, rolling Stone magazine named Downey the worst SNL cast member in its entire run, stating that the Downey Fail sums up everything that makes SNL great. That same year, Downey had a dramatic acting breakthrough when he played James Spaders sidekick in Tuff Turf and he was considered for the role of Duckie in John Hughes film Pretty in Pink, but his first lead role was with Molly Ringwald in The Pick-up Artist. Because of these and other coming-of-age films Downey did during the 1980s, in 1987, Downey played Julian Wells, a drug-addicted rich boy whose life rapidly spirals out of his control, in the film version of the Bret Easton Ellis novel Less Than Zero. In 1992, he starred as Charlie Chaplin in Chaplin, a role for which he prepared extensively, learning how to play the violin and he had a personal coach in order to help him imitate Chaplins posture and way of carrying himself
A film poster is a poster used to promote and advertise a film. Studios often print several posters that vary in size and content for various domestic and they normally contain an image with text. Todays posters often feature photographs of the main actors, prior to the 1990s, illustrations instead of photos were far more common. The text on film posters usually contains the title in large lettering. It may include a tagline, the name of the director, names of characters, film posters are displayed inside and on the outside of movie theaters, and elsewhere on the street or in shops. The same images appear in the film exhibitors pressbook and may be used on websites, DVD packaging, advertisements in newspapers and magazines, film posters have been used since the earliest public exhibitions of film. They began as outside placards listing the programme of films to be shown inside the hall or movie theater, by the early 1900s, they began to feature illustrations of a film scene or an array of overlaid images from several scenes.
Other posters have used artistic interpretations of a scene or even the theme of the film, as an economy measure, the NSS regularly recycled posters that were returned, sending them back out to be used again at another theater. During this time, a film could stay in circulation for several years and those posters which were not returned were often thrown away by the theater owner, but some found their way into the hands of collectors. Today there is a thriving market in film posters, some have become very valuable. The record price for a poster was set on November 15,2005 when $690,000 was paid for a poster of Fritz Langs 1927 film Metropolis from the Reel Poster Gallery in London. The 1931 Frankenstein six-sheet poster, of only one copy is known to exist, is considered to be the most valuable film poster in the world. Over the years, old Bollywood posters, especially with hand-painted art, have become collectors items, rare film posters have been found being used as insulation in attics and walls.
In 2011,33 film posters, including a Dracula Style F one-sheet, from 1930-1931 were discovered in an attic in Berwick, Pennsylvania, as a result of market demand, some of the more popular older film posters have been reproduced either under license or illegally. Although the artwork on reproductions is the same as originals, reproductions can often be distinguished by size, printing quality, several websites on the Internet offer authentication tests to distinguish originals from reproductions. Original film posters distributed to theaters and other venues by the movie studios are never sold directly to the public. However, most modern posters are produced in quantities and often become available for purchase by collectors indirectly through various secondary markets such as eBay. Accordingly, most modern posters are not as valuable, however some recent posters, such as the recalled Pulp Fiction Lucky Strike U. S. one sheet poster, are quite rare
A fuel gauge is an instrument used to indicate the level of fuel contained in a tank. Commonly used in most motor vehicles, these may be used for any tank including underground storage tanks, as the tank empties, the float drops and slides a moving contact along the resistor, increasing its resistance. In addition, when the resistance is at a certain point, the indicator unit is measuring and displaying the amount of electric current flowing through the sending unit. When the tank level is high and maximum current is flowing, when the tank is empty and the least current is flowing, the needle points to E indicating an empty tank. If an electrical fault opens, the electrical circuit causes the indicator to show the tank as being empty rather than full, corrosion or wear of the potentiometer will provide erroneous readings of fuel level. However, this system has a risk associated with it. An electric current is sent through the resistor to which a float is connected. In most automotive fuel gauges such resistors are on the side of the gauge.
Sending current through such a resistor has a hazard and an explosion risk associated with it. These resistance sensors are showing an increased rate with the incremental additions of alcohol in automotive gasoline fuel. Alcohol increases the rate at the potentiometer, as it is capable of carrying current like water. Potentiometer applications for alcohol fuel use a methodology, with a periodic signal being sent to determine fuel level decreasing the corrosion potential. Therefore, demand for safer, non-contact method for fuel level is desired. Magnetoresistance type fuel level sensors, now becoming common in aircraft applications. These fuel level sensors work similar to the example, however a sealed detector at the float pivot determines the angular position of a magnet pair at the pivot end of the float arm. These are highly accurate, and the electronics are completely outside the fuel, the non-contact nature of these sensors address the fire and explosion hazard, and the issues related to any fuel combinations or additives to gasoline or to any alcohol fuel mixtures.
Magneto resistive sensors are suitable for all fuel or fluid combinations, including LPG, the fuel level output for these senders can be ratiometric voltage or preferable CAN bus digital. These sensors fail-safe in that either provide a level output or nothing
Sir Thomas Sean Connery is a retired Scottish actor and producer who has won an Academy Award, two BAFTA Awards and three Golden Globes. He was knighted by Elizabeth II in July 2000 after receiving Kennedy Center Honors in the US in 1999, Connery was the first actor to portray the character James Bond in film, starring in seven Bond films between 1962 and 1983. In 1988, Connery won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role in The Untouchables, Connery has been polled as The Greatest Living Scot and Scotlands Greatest Living National Treasure. In 1989, he was proclaimed Sexiest Man Alive by People magazine, Thomas Sean Connery, named Thomas after his grandfather, was born in Fountainbridge, Scotland on 25 August 1930. His mother, Euphemia McBain Effie, was a cleaning woman and his paternal grandfathers parents emigrated to Scotland from Ireland in the mid-19th century. The remainder of his family was of Scottish descent, and his maternal great-grandparents were native Scottish Gaelic speakers from Fife and his father was a Roman Catholic, and his mother was a Protestant.
He has a brother, Neil. He was generally referred to in his youth as Tommy, although he was small in primary school, he grew rapidly around the age of 12, reaching his full adult height of 6 ft 2 in at 18. He was known during his teen years as Big Tam, and has stated that he lost his virginity to a woman in an ATS uniform at the age of 14. Connerys first job was as a milkman in Edinburgh with St. Cuthberts Co-operative Society, one tattoo is a tribute to his parents and reads Mum and Dad, and the other is self-explanatory, Scotland Forever. Connery was discharged from the navy on medical grounds because of a duodenal ulcer, Archie Brennan, a coffin polisher. The modelling earned him 15 shillings an hour, student artist Richard Demarco who painted several notable early pictures of Connery described him as very straight, slightly shy, too beautiful for words, a virtual Adonis. Connery began bodybuilding at the age of 18, and from 1951 trained heavily with Ellington, Connery was a keen footballer, having played for Bonnyrigg Rose in his younger days.
He was offered a trial with East Fife, while on tour with South Pacific, Connery played in a football match against a local team that Matt Busby, manager of Manchester United, happened to be scouting. According to reports, Busby was impressed with his physical prowess, Connery admits that he was tempted to accept, but he recalls, I realised that a top-class footballer could be over the hill by the age of 30, and I was already 23. I decided to become an actor and it turned out to be one of my more intelligent moves, looking to pick up some extra money, Connery helped out backstage at the Kings Theatre in late 1951. He became interested in the proceedings, and a career was launched, the production returned the following year out of popular demand, and Connery was promoted to the featured role of Lieutenant Buzz Adams, which Larry Hagman had portrayed in the West End. While in Edinburgh, Connery was targeted by the notorious Valdor gang, there Connery launched an attack single-handedly against the gang members, grabbing one by the throat and another by a biceps and cracked their heads together
Air America (airline)
Air America was an American passenger and cargo airline covertly owned by the US government in 1950 as a dummy corporation for Central Intelligence Agency operations in China. In August 1950, the CIA, at the direction of the National Security Council, Airdale formed a subsidiary corporation named CAT, Inc. CAT purchased 40% of the assets of Civil Air Transport, an airline that had started in China in 1946 by Gen Claire Lee Chennault. Sixty percent remained with Chinese investors, CAT Inc. formed Asiatic Aeronautical Company Ltd, a Republic of China company. In 1957 Airdale changed its name to Pacific Corporation, CAT, Inc. changed its name to Air America, Inc. in 1959 after settling objections from Air France. Asiatic Aeronautical Company, Ltd changed its name to Air Asia Company, Civil Air Transport remained in existence throughout the tenure of Air America from 1950 through 1976, and for several years was the flag carrier for the Republic of China. This status was lost after an accident and China Airlines became the flag carrier.
Civil Air Transport became a company used mostly for inter-company travel. Air Americas slogan was Anything, Anytime, Professionally and it operated from bases in those countries and from bases in Thailand and as far afield as Taiwan and Japan. It on occasion flew top-secret missions into Burma and the Peoples Republic of China. Air Americas headquarters moved several times during its existence, including 808 17th St NW,801 World Center Bldg,815 Connecticut Ave NW, the principal continental US maintenance base was at Pinal Airpark, Arizona. From 1959 to 1962 the airline provided direct and indirect support to US Special Forces Ambidextrous and White Star, after 1962 a similar operation known as Project 404 fielded numerous US Army attachés and air attachés to the US embassy in Vientiane. Its civilian-marked craft were used, under the control of the Seventh/Thirteenth Air Force, to launch search. Air America pilots were the only known private US corporate employees to operate non-Federal Aviation Administration-certified military aircraft in a combat role, there were more than 300 pilots, flight mechanics, and airfreight specialists based in Laos and Thailand.
During 1970, Air America delivered 46 million pounds of food in Laos, helicopter flight time reached more than 4,000 hours a month in the same year. Its non-human passengers were even more bizarre on occasion, part of the CIAs support operations in Laos, for instance, involved logistical support for local tribes fighting the North Vietnamese forces and the Pathet Lao, their local opponents. On top of the food drops came the demands for the war itself. During the CIAs secret war in Laos, the CIA used the Meo population to fight Pathet Lao rebels, because of the war against Pathet Lao rebels, the Hmong depended upon poppy cultivation for hard currency
Central Intelligence Agency
As one of the principal members of the U. S. Intelligence Community, the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is focused on providing intelligence for the President. Though it is not the only U. S. government agency specializing in HUMINT and it exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division. Despite transferring some of its powers to the DNI, the CIA has grown in size as a result of the September 11 attacks. In 2013, The Washington Post reported that in fiscal year 2010, the CIA has increasingly expanded its roles, including covert paramilitary operations. One of its largest divisions, the Information Operations Center, has shifted focus from counter-terrorism to offensive cyber-operations, when the CIA was created, its purpose was to create a clearinghouse for foreign policy intelligence and analysis. Today its primary purpose is to collect, analyze and disseminate foreign intelligence, warning/informing American leaders of important overseas events, with Pakistan described as an intractable target.
Counterintelligence, with China, Iran, the Executive Office supports the U. S. military by providing it with information it gathers, receiving information from military intelligence organizations, and cooperates on field activities. The Executive Director is in charge of the day to day operation of the CIA, each branch of the military service has its own Director. The Directorate has four regional groups, six groups for transnational issues. There is a dedicated to Iraq, regional analytical offices covering the Near East and South Asia and Europe, and the Asian Pacific, Latin American. The Directorate of Operations is responsible for collecting intelligence. The name reflects its role as the coordinator of intelligence activities between other elements of the wider U. S. intelligence community with their own HUMINT operations. This Directorate was created in an attempt to end years of rivalry over influence, philosophy, in spite of this, the Department of Defense recently organized its own global clandestine intelligence service, the Defense Clandestine Service, under the Defense Intelligence Agency.
This Directorate is known to be organized by regions and issues. The Directorate of Science & Technology was established to research, many of its innovations were transferred to other intelligence organizations, or, as they became more overt, to the military services. For example, the development of the U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft was done in cooperation with the United States Air Force, the U-2s original mission was clandestine imagery intelligence over denied areas such as the Soviet Union. It was subsequently provided with signals intelligence and measurement and signature intelligence capabilities, subsequently, NPIC was transferred to the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
Kevin Michael Costner is an American actor, director and musician. His accolades include two Academy Awards, three Golden Globe Awards, and one Emmy Award, Costner has played Eliot Ness in The Untouchables, Crash Davis in Bull Durham, Ray Kinsella in Field of Dreams, Lt. John J. He directed and starred in The Postman, Costner was born January 18,1955 in Lynwood, California. He grew up in Compton, California and he is the youngest of three boys, the middle of whom died at birth. His mother, Sharon Rae, was a worker, and his father, William Costner, was an electrician. His fathers heritage originates with German immigrants to North Carolina in the 1700s and Costner has English, Scottish, Welsh and he instead enjoyed sports, took piano lessons, wrote poetry, and sang in the First Baptist Choir. He has stated that a viewing of the 1962 film How the West Was Won at the age of seven had formed his childhood. Spending his teenage years in parts of California as his fathers career progressed, Costner has described this as a period when he lost a lot of confidence.
Costner lived in Ventura, in Visalia, he attended Mt. Whitney High School and moved to Orange County and he went on to earn a BA in marketing and finance from California State University, Fullerton in 1978. While at CSUF, he was a fraternity brother in Delta Chi. Costner became interested in acting while in his last year of college, Burton agreed to speak to Costner after he finished reading his book. Costner, who had been taking acting classes but had not told his wife about his desire to be an actor, watched Burton closely and approached when Burton gestured. Costner told Burton that he would prefer to avoid the drama that followed Burton, Burton replied, You have green eyes. After landing, Burtons limousine pulled up to the curb where Costner, Burton wished Costner luck, and the two would never meet again. Still, Costner credits Burton with partially contributing to his career, having agreed to undertake a job as a marketing executive, Costner began taking acting lessons five nights a week, with the support of his wife.
His marketing job lasted 30 days, Costner allegedly made his film debut in the film Sizzle Beach, U. S. A. Although a biography claims it was filmed in the winter of 1978–79. Costner made a brief appearance in the Ron Howard film Night Shift. He is listed in the credits as Frat Boy No.1 and appears at the climax of a frat-style, blow-out party in the New York City morgue, Costner can be seen holding a beer and looking surprised at the sudden halt of celebration