A Marksmanship Ribbon is a United States Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard award, issued to its members who pass a weapons qualification course and achieve an above-average score. Additionally, there are select State National Guard organizations that award marksmanship ribbons for high placement in state-level marksmanship competitions; the U. S. Navy has issued these two marksmanship awards since 1920: the Navy Pistol Marksmanship Ribbon, awarded for qualification on the Beretta M9 9mm pistol, the Navy Rifle Marksmanship Ribbon, awarded for qualification on the M14 and M16 rifle variants; the Navy issues the marksmanship ribbon in three levels of precedence: Expert and Marksman. The basic ribbon is awarded for the Marksman level while the specific ribbon device is awarded for qualification as a Sharpshooter or Expert; those receiving an Expert qualification receive Marksmanship Ribbon. The Navy issued Distinguished Marksmanship Ribbons between 1942 and 1960 which were declared obsolete by 1965; the U.
S. Air Force awards a single ribbon, known as the Small Arms Expert Marksmanship Ribbon, for an expert qualification on either the M16 rifle, M4 carbine or the individual's AFSC designated pistol; the ribbon is issued in only one degree. The ribbon was authorized by the Secretary of the Air Force on Aug. 28, 1962, was awarded to all Air Force members who qualified after Jan. 1, 1963. Prior to the conception of a ribbon, Air Force members were awarded with the United States Air Force Small Arms Marksmanship Certificate of Achievement; the U. S. Coast Guard Marksmanship Ribbons are issued under the same criteria as the U. S. Navy, but Coast Guardsmen use a.40 cal SIG Sauer P229R DAK pistol instead of the Navy's M9 pistol. The Coast Guard issues two ribbons, known as the Coast Guard Pistol Marksmanship Ribbon and the Coast Guard Rifle Marksmanship Ribbon; the ribbon device is awarded for qualification at the higher levels of expert. Like the Navy, for those who receive an expert qualification, the Marksmanship Medal is awarded instead of the Marksmanship Ribbon.
Once a year, thousands of U. S. Army and Air National Guard shooters compete against each other at the Winston P. Wilson Rifle and Pistol Championships. In the Missouri National Guard, the top twelve guardsmen selected to represent their state at the Winston P. Wilson matches are awarded the Governor's Twelve Ribbon, worn on dress uniforms. In addition, these guardsman are awarded the Governor's Twelve Tab for wear on the combat uniform; the Adjutant General of Missouri awards the Adjutant General's Twenty Ribbon to soldiers and airmen who qualify among the top twenty competitors at the Missouri State Combat Matches conducted each year. In addition to this ribbon, these guardsman are awarded the Adjutant General's Twenty Combat Badge for wear on the combat uniform. Guardsmen are authorized to wear these ribbons as a permanent decoration on service dress uniforms, to the left of federal awards, when operating under Title 32 status; when federalized, guardsman can not wear these ribbons. The U. S. Army and U.
S. Marine Corps provide weapons qualification badges instead of a marksmanship ribbon. For the services that award the marksmanship ribbon, re-qualification is not necessary once a service member has obtained the award, the ribbon may be worn throughout an individual's career. In the Navy and Coast Guard, the marksmanship ribbon may be upgraded with a specific ribbon device if a higher qualification is achieved. Marksmanship Device Marksmanship Medal Marksmanship Badge Awards and decorations of the United States military
Air Force Combat Action Medal
The Air Force Combat Action Medal is a new medal created for the United States Air Force in March 2007 to recognize Air Force members for active participation in ground or air combat. The AFCAM was first awarded on June 12, 2007 to six Air Force members who were engaged in air or ground combat off base in a combat zone during Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation Iraqi Freedom; the medal is retroactive from September 11, 2001 to a date to be determined and may be awarded posthumously. For an airman to wear the AFCAM, members must provide proper documentation to their commander which includes a narrative explanation of the airman's involvement in combat activities to the first O-6 in their operational chain of command on an AF Form 3994; the application will be processed through the chain of command and be approved or disapproved by the Commander of Air Force Forces. Nomination of the award of the AFCAM will be restricted to members of the U. S. Armed Forces who on or after 11 September 2001 were under any of the following conditions: Deliberately go into the enemy's domain to conduct official duties, either on the ground or in the air, have come under enemy fire by lethal weapons while performing those duties, are at risk of grave danger.
While defending the base, must have come under enemy fire and engage the enemy with direct and lethal fire, are at risk of grave danger. Are personnel in ground operations who engage the enemy with direct and lethal fires may qualify if no direct fire is taken, as long as there was risk of grave danger and meets other criteria. Retroactive awards prior to 11 September 2001 are not authorized; the AFCAM has no patch or badge equivalent for wear on the Airman Battle Uniform and other functional uniforms that are worn for daily duties and deployments. It is worn after the Air Force Achievement Medal and before the Air Force Presidential Unit Citation; the AFCAM may be awarded to members from the other Armed Forces and foreign military members serving in a U. S. Air Force unit, provided they meet the criteria for the award. According to USAF Memo, 25 June 2015, Air Force Instruction 36-2803, 18 December 2013: AFCAM, Authorized Device: A gold star will be worn to recognize subsequent operations when approved by the Chief of Staff of the Air Force.
However, in AFI36-2903, gold stars are not included in the AF list of authorized ribbon devices. No ribbon device is authorized for wear in AFI36-2803 to denote subsequent awards of the AFCAM, which would be oak leaf clusters; the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard authorizes a 5⁄16" gold star to denote subsequent awards of specific decorations and a 3⁄16" bronze service star is worn on the Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal to denote a subsequent operation. Note: This may be the beginning of a first time wearing of a gold star device by a member of the Air Force on any one of their awards: General Tod Wolters, U. S. A. F. Publicly wears a 3⁄16" gold star on an AFCAM service ribbon on his uniform since at least September 2013. Wolters has fought in Operation Iraqi Freedom. In conjunction with the Army Institute of Heraldry, the medal was designed by Susan Gamble, a professional artist and Master Designer for the U. S. Mint, wife of Mike Gamble, an Air Force colonel, she was quoted by the Washington Post as saying, "It was just a real pleasure to give this back to the Air Force that's been part of my life."Gamble based the silver medal's design and ribbon color from the circular insignia painted on planes which were piloted by Brigadier General William "Billy" Mitchell, including a French-built SPAD XVI fighter aircraft he piloted in France during World War I.
His SPAD 16 is displayed at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D. C. Mitchell is known as the father of the U. S. Air Force. A laurel wreath surrounds the medal's eagle emblem executed in a simple, linear Art Deco style; the eagle with a national flag shield with thirteen perpendicular stripes on its breast faces right, over the right talon clutching arrows, to reflect that this is a combat medal. The left talon clutches an olive branch; the eagle which symbolizes Mitchell's military rank insignia of colonel, has above it a five-pointed star which represents Mitchell's wartime promotion to the temporary rank of brigadier general in October, 1918. The reverse side of the medal contains two rows of words written on a scroll at the center of the eagle, "U. S. Air Force" and "Combat Action"; the ribbon's diagonal stripes at first could not be manufactured in the United States. S; this design problem was resolved when a mill in Bally, Bally Ribbon Mills, bought a new loom to weave the diagonal stripe.
A Rhode Island firm, Ira Green Inc. in Providence, made the metal parts. The AFCAM is the only U. S. military award to have a diagonally patterned ribbon, much like the British Distinguished Flying Cross and Netherlands Airman's Cross. The AFCAM service ribbon has five stripes; the AFCAM was presented for the first time to six Airmen by the Air Force Chief of Staff, General T. Michael Moseley, at the U. S. Air Force Mem
United States Secretary of the Air Force
The Secretary of the Air Force is the head of the Department of the Air Force, a component organization within the United States Department of Defense. The Secretary of the Air Force is appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate; the Secretary reports to the Secretary of Defense and/or the Deputy Secretary of Defense, is by statute responsible for and has the authority to conduct all the affairs of the Department of the Air Force. The Secretary works with his or her civilian deputy, the Under Secretary of the Air Force; the first Secretary of the Air Force, Stuart Symington, was sworn in on 18 September 1947 upon the re-organization of the Army Air Forces into a military department and a military service of its own, independent of the War Department/Army, with the enactment of the National Security Act. On 16 May 2017, Heather Wilson was sworn in as the next Secretary of the Air Force. Wilson was nominated by President Donald Trump on 23 January 2017, confirmed by the U.
S. Senate on 8 May 2017. On 9 March 2019, Secretary Wilson announced her resignation which will take effect on 31 May 2019; the Secretary is the head of the Department of the Air Force, analogous to that of a chief executive officer of a corporation. The Department of the Air Force is defined as a Military Department, it is not limited to the Washington headquarter staffs, rather it is an entity which includes all the components of the United States Air Force and the Air National Guard: The term'department', when used with respect to a military department, means the executive part of the department and all field headquarters, reserve components, installations and functions under the control or supervision of the Secretary of the department. The exclusive responsibilities of the Secretary of the Air Force are enumerated in Title 10 Section 9013 of the United States Code, they are not limited to: Recruiting. Organizing. Supplying. Equipping. Training. Servicing. Mobilizing. Demobilizing. Administering.
Maintaining. The construction and repair of military equipment; the construction and repair of buildings and utilities and the acquisition of real property and interests in real property necessary to carry out the responsibilities specified in this section. By direction of the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Air Force assigns military units of the Department of the Air Force, other than those who carry out the functions listed in 10 USC 8013, to the Unified and Specified Combatant Commands to perform missions assigned to those commands. Air Force units while assigned to Combatant Commands may only be reassigned by authority of the Secretary of Defense. However, the chain of command for Air Force units for other purposes than the operational direction goes from the President to the Secretary of Defense to the Secretary of the Air Force to the Commanders of Air Force Commands. Air Force Officers have to report on any matter to the Secretary, or the Secretary's designate, when requested.
The Secretary has the authority to detail, prescribe the duties, to assign air force service members and civilian employees, may change the title of any activity not statutorily designated. The Secretary has several responsibilities under the Uniform Code of Military Justice with respect to Air Force service members, including to authority to convene General Courts Martial and to commute sentences; the Secretary of the Air Force may be assigned additional responsibilities by the President or the Secretary of Defense, e.g. the Secretary is designated as the "DoD Executive Agent for Space", as such:... shall develop and integrate plans and programs for space systems and the acquisition of DoD Space Major Defense Acquisition Programs to provide operational space force capabilities to ensure the United States has the space power to achieve its national security objectives. The Secretary of the Air Force's principal staff element, the Office of the Secretary of the Air Force, has responsibility for acquisition and auditing, comptroller issues, inspector general matters, legislative affairs, public affairs within the Department of the Air Force.
The Office of the Secretary of the Air Force is one of the Department of the Air Force's two headquarter staffs at the seat of government, the other one is the Air Staff. The Office of the Secretary of the Air Force is composed of: Under Secretary of the Air Force The Deputy Under Secretary of the Air Force for International Affairs The Deputy Under Secretary of the Air Force for Space Programs Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Acquisition Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Financial Management and Comptroller Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Installations and Logistics Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Manpower and Reserve Affairs General Counsel of the Department of the Air Force Inspector General of the Air Force Chief of Legislative Liaison Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Air Force Auditor General of the Department of the Air Force Air Reserve Forces Policy Committee Air Force Cross Department of the Air Force Decoration for Exceptional Civilian Service Title 10 United States Code Subtitle A – General Military Law CHAPTER 1 – DEFINITIONS § 101.
Definitions Subtitle D – Air Force CHAPTER 6 – COMBATANT COMMANDERS § 162. Combatant command: assigned forces.
The Commendation Medal is a mid-level United States military decoration, presented for sustained acts of heroism or meritorious service. For valorous actions in direct contact with an enemy, but of a lesser degree than required for the award of the Bronze Star Medal, a Commendation Medal with "V" Device or Combat "V" is awarded. On January 7 2016, The "C" Device or Combat "C” was created and may be authorized for wear on the service and suspension ribbon of the Commendation Medal to distinguish an award for meritorious service or achievement under the most arduous combat conditions. A Commendation Medal with Combat Device is unofficially named the “Combat Commendation” and is considered to be a higher level form of the Commendation Medal, regardless of the Awarding Branch. Retroactive award of the “C” device is not approved for medals awarded before 7 January 2016; each branch of the United States Armed Forces issues its own version of the Commendation Medal, with a fifth version existing for acts of joint military service performed under the Department of Defense.
The Commendation Medal was only a service ribbon and was first awarded by the U. S. Navy and U. S. Coast Guard in 1943. An Army Commendation Ribbon followed in 1945, in 1949, the Navy, Coast Guard, Army Commendation ribbons were renamed the "Commendation Ribbon with Metal Pendant". By 1960, the Commendation Ribbons had been authorized as full medals and were subsequently referred to as Commendation Medals. Additional awards of the Army and Air Force Commendation Medals are denoted by bronze and silver oak leaf clusters; the Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal and Coast Guard Commendation Medal are authorized gold and silver 5/16 inch stars to denote additional awards. The Operational Distinguishing Device is authorized for wear on the Coast Guard Commendation Medal upon approval of the awarding authority. Order of Precedence is following the Air Medal but before the Prisoner of War Medal and all campaign medals; each of the military services awards separate Achievement Medals which are below the Commendation Medals in precedence.
The Joint Service Commendation Medal was authorized on 25 June 1963 and is awarded in the name of the Secretary of Defense to members of the Armed Forces of the United States who, after 1 January 1963, distinguished themselves by meritorious achievement or service in a joint duty capacity. This award is intended for senior service on a joint military staff and is senior in precedence to service-specific Commendation Medals; as such, it is worn above the service Commendation Medals on a military uniform. DevicesOak leaf cluster "V" Device The Army Commendation Medal is awarded to any member of the Armed Forces of the United States other than General Officers who, while serving in any capacity with the U. S. Army after December 6, 1941, distinguished themselves by heroism, meritorious achievement or meritorious service; the medal may be awarded to a member of another branch of the U. S. Armed Forces or of a friendly foreign nation who, after June 1, 1962, distinguishes themselves by an act of heroism, extraordinary achievement, or significant meritorious service, of mutual benefit to the friendly nation and the United States.
Criteria and appearanceThe Army Commendation Medal is awarded to American and foreign military personnel in the grade of O-6 and below who have performed noteworthy service in any capacity with the United States Army. Qualifying service for the award of the medal can be for distinctive meritorious achievement and service, acts of courage involving no voluntary risk of life, or sustained meritorious performance of duty. Approval of the award must be made by an officer in the grade of higher; the medallion of the Army Commendation Medal is a bronze hexagon, 13⁄8 inches wide. On the medallion is an American bald eagle with wings spread horizontally, grasping in its talons three crossed arrows. On its breast is a shield paly of thirteen pieces and a chief; the reverse bears a panel for naming between the words FOR MILITARY above and MERIT below, all placed above a laurel sprig. The ribbon is 13⁄8 inches wide of myrtle green, it is edged in white and in the center are five thin white stripes spaced apart.
DevicesOak leaf cluster "V" Device "C" Device "R" Device The U. S. Air Force began issuing its own Air Force Commendation Medal in 1958 with additional awards denoted by oak leaf clusters. Prior to this time, USAF recipients received the Army Commendation Medal, it was not until 1996. On January 7, 2016, the "C" device and "R" device was authorized on the Air Force Commendation Medal as well. For USAF enlisted personnel, the Air Force Commendation Medal is worth three points under the Air Force enlisted promotion system. Criteria and appearanceThe Air Force Commendation Medal is awarded to both American and foreign military personnel of any service branch in the U. S. military grade of O-6 and below
Presidential Unit Citation (United States)
The Presidential Unit Citation called the Distinguished Unit Citation, is awarded to units of the Uniformed services of the United States, those of allied countries, for extraordinary heroism in action against an armed enemy on or after 7 December 1941. The unit must display such gallantry and esprit de corps in accomplishing its mission under difficult and hazardous conditions so as to set it apart from and above other units participating in the same campaign. Since its inception by Executive Order on 26 February 1942, retroactive to 7 December 1941, to 2008, the Presidential Unit Citation has been awarded in conflicts such as World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, Iraq War, the War in Afghanistan; the collective degree of valor against an armed enemy by the unit nominated for the PUC is the same as that which would warrant award of the individual award of the Distinguished Service Cross, Air Force Cross or Navy Cross. In some cases, one or more individuals within the unit may have been awarded individual awards for their contribution to the actions for which their entire unit was awarded a Presidential Unit Citation.
The unit with the most Presidential Unit Citations is the USS Parche with 9 citations. The Army citation was established by Executive Order 9075 on 26 February 1942, superseded by Executive Order 9396 on Dec. 2, 1943, which authorized the Distinguished Unit Citation. As with other Army unit citations, the PUC is in a larger frame than other ribbons, is worn above the right pocket. All members of the unit may wear the decoration, whether or not they participated in the acts for which the unit was cited. Only those assigned to the unit at the time of the action cited may wear the decoration as a permanent award. For both the Army and Air Force, the emblem is a solid blue ribbon enclosed in a gold frame; the Air Force PUC was adopted from the Army Distinguished Unit Citation after the Air Force became a separate military branch in 1947. By Executive Order 10694, dated Jan. 10, 1957 the Air Force redesignated the Distinguished Unit Citation as the Presidential Unit Citation. The Air Force PUC is the same color and design as the Army PUC but smaller, so that it can be worn in alignment with other Air Force ribbons on the left pocket following personal awards.
As with the Army, all members of a receiving unit may wear the decoration while assigned to it, but only those assigned to the unit at the time of the action cited may wear the decoration as a permanent award or if any member of a receiving unit had it their last duty station prior to being either discharged or retired they may continue to wear the decoration as prescribed. The Citation is carried on the receiving unit's colors in the form of a blue streamer, 4 ft long and 2.75 in wide. For the Army, only on rare occasions will a unit larger than battalion qualify for award of this decoration. Citations "to Naval and Marine Corps Units for Outstanding Performance in Action" was established by Executive Order 9050 on 6 February 1942; the Navy version has navy blue and red horizontal stripes, is the only Navy ribbon having horizontal stripes. To distinguish between the two versions of the Presidential Unit Citation, the Navy version, more referred to as the Presidential Unit Citation, is referred to as the Navy Presidential Unit Citation and sometimes as the "Navy and Marine Corps Presidential Unit Citation", the Army and Air Force version is referred to by the Army and Air Force as the Army Presidential Unit Citation and Air Force Presidential Unit Citation.
The ribbon is worn by only by those Navy and Marine service members who were assigned to the unit for the "award period" of the award. In the Army, those who join the unit after the "award period" may wear it while assigned to the unit. ALNan 137-43 states that the first award has a blue enameled star on the ribbon and additional stars for subsequent awards. In 1949, the award changed with no star for bronze stars for subsequent awards. To commemorate the first submerged voyage under the North Pole by the nuclear-powered submarine USS Nautilus in 1958, all members of her crew who made that voyage were authorized to wear their Presidential Unit Citation ribbon with a special clasp in the form of a gold block letter N. Currently, US Navy sailors assigned to the USS Nautilus memorial at the Submarine Force Museum in Groton, are permitted to wear the Navy Presidential Unit Citation; as of 2014, the same device may be awarded for the Nuclear Deterrence Operations Service Medal for those personnel who work in direct support of ICBM operations who serve 179 non-consecutive days dispatched to a missile complex.
To commemorate the first submerged circumnavigation of the world by the nuclear-powered submarine Triton during its shakedown cruise in 1960, all members of her crew who made that voyage were authorized to wear their Presidential Unit Citation ribbon with a special clasp in the form of a golden replica of the globe. United States Coast Guard units may be awarded either the Navy or Coast Guard version of the Presidential Unit Citation, depending on which service the Coast Guard was supporting when the citation action was performed; the current decoration is known as the "Department of Homeland Security Presidential Unit Citation". The original Coast Guard Presidential Unit Citation was established under the authority of Executive Order 10694, amended by Section 74 of Executive Order 13286 to transfer the award of the USCG PUC to the Secr
Outstanding Airman of the Year Ribbon
The Outstanding Airman of the Year Ribbon is a military award of the United States Air Force, created on February 21, 1968 by order of Secretary of the Air Force Harold Brown. The first presentation of the award was in June 1970; the Outstanding Airman of the Year Ribbon is the highest personal ribbon award of the United States Air Force. The Outstanding Airman of the Year Ribbon is awarded to any enlisted member of the U. S. Air Force, nominated by their Major Command, Field Operating Agency, or Direct Reporting Unit for competition in the 12 Outstanding Airmen of the Year Program; the Outstanding Airman of the Year program recognizes 12 enlisted members from a cross section of Air Force Career fields. Nominated personnel compete in one of three categories Airman, Non-commissioned Officer, Senior Non-commissioned Officer. Nominations are based only on the member's achievement for the prior calendar year. Though only the prior year is used for nominations, nominees must pass a certain level of scrutiny for their total life and career since nominees are expected to be the most outstanding representatives of the Air Force enlisted force.
The Outstanding Airman of the Year Ribbon is light blue with a center stripe of white, flanked on either side by thin stripes of dark blue and red. Airmen selected as one of the 12 Outstanding Airmen of the Year are authorized to wear the Outstanding Airman badge for one year, are awarded the ribbon with a bronze service star. All other nominated competitors are authorized to wear the ribbon without the service star. Subsequent awards of the ribbon are represented by oak leaf clusters, with the service star being worn to the wearers right. 12 Outstanding Airmen of the Year Program Complete listing of all recipients since the Award's inception Link
Air Force Expeditionary Service Ribbon
The Air Force Expeditionary Service Ribbon is a military award of the United States Air Force, first created in June 2003. The ribbon is awarded to any member of the Air Force who completes a standard contingency deployment; the regulations of the Air Force Expeditionary Service Ribbon define a deployment as either forty-five consecutive days or ninety non-consecutive days in a deployed status. Temporary duty orders qualify towards the ninety-day time requirement. For deployments exceeding 45–90 days, a single Air Force Expeditionary Service Ribbon will be awarded for the entire time frame rather than issuing multiple awards for the same period of deployed service. For those service members who serve in designated combat zones while deployed, a gold frame, which the Air Force refers to as a gold border, may be attached to the AFESR basic ribbon; the gold border is issued as a one-time award only, regardless of the number of combat operations in which a service member is involved. The Air Force Expeditionary Service Ribbon with gold border may be awarded to certain "over-the horizon" combat assignments, such as remotely piloted vehicle operators for employing a long-range weapon into a combat zone.
It is therefore possible to earn the gold border when stationed at a secure military installation in the United States geographically separated from the battlefield by thousands of miles. Such personnel, must have first earned the Air Force Expeditionary Service Ribbon before the ribbon can be upgraded with a gold border. Additional awards of the Air Force Expeditionary Service Ribbon are denoted by oak leaf clusters and the award is retroactive to October 1, 1999; the center stripe is light blue and stands for Air Force capability. From this center stripe outward on each side, the narrow white stripe stands for integrity. Air Force Expeditionary Service Ribbon Air Force Personnel Center New ribbon recognizes deployed airmen, Air Force Personnel Center Public Affairs, 9/26/2003