Aviation Cadet Training Program (USAAF)
The Flying / Aviation Cadet Pilot Training Program was created by the U. S. Army to train its pilots. Created in 1907 by the U. S. Army Signal Corps, it expanded. Candidates had to be between the ages of 19 and 25, honest. Two years of college or three years of a scientific or technical education were required. Cadets were pledged not to marry during training. From 1907 to 1920, pilot officers were considered part of the Signal Corps or the Signal Officer Reserve Corps. After 1920, they were considered part of their own separate organization, the U. S. Army Air Service; the U. S. Army Air Corps Training Center was at Duncan Field, San Antonio, Texas from 1926 to 1931 and Randolph Field from 1931 to 1939. Two more centers were activated on 8 July 1940: the West Coast Army Air Corps Training Center in Sunnyvale and the Southeast Army Air Corps Training Center in Montgomery, Alabama; the SAACTC was renamed the Gulf Coast Army Air Corps Center. In 1942, the Army moved the WCAACTC from Moffett Field to Santa Ana Army Air Base, located on West 8th Street in Santa Ana, California.
On January 23, 1942 the USAAF created the separate Air Corps Flying Training Command and the Air Corps Technical Training Command to control all aspects of technical and aviation training. Formed in Washington, D. C. they moved to facilities at Fort Texas in July. They were renamed the Army Air Forces Flight Training Command and Army Air Forces Technical Training Command in March, 1942, they were unified as the Army Air Forces Training Command. Gulf Coast Army Air Corps Center – Randolph Field, San Antonio, Texas. West Coast Army Air Corps Training Center – Moffett Field, California. Santa Ana Army Air Base. Southeast Army Air Corps Training Center – Maxwell Field, Alabama. From 1942, classification and pre-flight took place at Tennessee. From 1947, the Aviation Cadet program was run by the now-independent U. S. Air Force from Lackland, Randolph, or Brooks AFB, all located in San Antonio, Texas; the Air Force program stopped taking civilian and enlisted pilot candidates in 1961 and navigator candidates in 1965.
The first enlisted U. S. Army pilot was Corporal Vernon L. Burge, a crew chief at the U. S. Army's flight school in the Philippines; when Captain Frank P. Lahm, the school's commander, couldn't find enough commissioned officer applicants, he trained Burge, who received his FAI pilot's license on 14 June 1912. Although the practice was condemned, the Army relented, as Burge was a trained aviator; the second was Corporal William A. Lamkey. Lamkey entered the Army Signal Corps in 1913, but had received his FAI license from the Moisant Aviation School in 1912. Lamkey left the Army to work as a mercenary pilot; the third pilot was Sergeant William C. Ocker. Ocker was denied pilot training because he was an enlisted man, so he became an aircraft mechanic instead. In his off hours he exchanged work for flight lessons from the nearby Curtiss Flying School, he qualified for his FAI license on 20 April 1914, receiving certificate #293. Ocker did test pilot work to accrue flight hours and tested many experimental or early prototype aircraft.
He is famous for inventing "blind flying" training to teach pilots to fly by instruments in cloudy or dark conditions. Only 29 enlisted pilots were created by 1914 and most were commissioned as second lieutenants in 1917. From 1914 to 1918, sixty mechanics were trained as pilots, they did not fly in combat. Their primary job was to transfer new and repaired aircraft from rear areas to air bases and forward air fields, they would fly patched-up damaged aircraft back for more thorough repairs. The Army Air Corps Act of 1926 set certain standards as part of a five-year program to expand and improve the aviation arm of the U. S. Army, it set a quota that 20% of a tactical aviation unit's pilot billets must be manned by enlisted pilots by 1929. By 1930, only 4% of all pilots were enlisted. New pilots were commissioned to meet the need for pilot-rated officers in Air Corps administrative and command billets. Enlisted pilots didn't have a place in the hierarchy when they stopped flying and either reverted to their old pre-flying trade or were discharged.
In 1933, the training and creation of enlisted pilots was discontinued due to budget cuts and lack of funds. In 1939 there were only 55 enlisted pilots in the then-U. S. Army Air Corps. On 3 June 1941, Public Law 99 was enacted. Candidates had to be between the ages of 18 and 22, have a high school diploma with at least 1.5 credit hours worth of math, have graduated in the top half of their class. In November 1941, this was reduced to being at least 18 years old and possessing a high school diploma. After demand lifted in mid-1944, the requirements went back to college-educated or college graduate candidates. Enlisted pilots were called flying sergeants. Graduating enlisted pilots were graded as flight staff sergeants while pilots who graduated at the top of their class were graded as flight technical sergeants, they were assigned to flying transport and liaison aircraft. Their pilot status was only indicated by their pilot's wings leading to enlisted aviators being mistaken for air crew or harassed for impersonating a pilot.
This caused a lot of bad feelings between the enlisted pilots and the officer pilots (who received
Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps
The Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps is a federal program sponsored by the United States Armed Forces in high schools and in some middle schools across the United States and United States military bases across the world. The program was created as part of the National Defense Act of 1916 and expanded under the 1964 ROTC Vitalization Act. According to Title 10, Section 2031 of the United States Code, the purpose of the Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps is "to instill in students in secondary educational institutions the values of citizenship, service to the United States, personal responsibility and a sense of accomplishment." Additional objectives are established by the service departments of the Department of Defense. Under 542.4 of Title 32 of the Code of Federal Regulations, the Department of the Army has declared those objectives for each cadet to be: Developing citizenship and patriotism Developing self-reliance and responsiveness to all authority Improving the ability to communicate well both orally and in writing Developing an appreciation of the importance of physical fitness Increasing a respect for the role of the U.
S. Armed Forces in support of national objectives Developing a knowledge of team building skills and basic military skills Taking 1-3 years of the course grants cadets the ability to rank higher if they pursue a military career. Section 524.5 of the CFR National Defense title states in part that JROTC should "provide meaningful leadership instruction of benefit to the student and of value to the Armed Forces.... Students will acquire: An understanding of the fundamental concept of leadership, military art and science, An introduction to related professional knowledge, An appreciation of requirements for national security; the dual roles of citizen/soldier and soldier/citizen are studied.... These programs will enable cadets to better serve their country as leaders, as citizens, in military service should they enter it.... The JROTC and NDCC are not, of themselves, officer-producing programs but should create favorable attitudes and impressions toward the Services and toward careers in the Armed Forces."
The military has stated that JROTC will inform young Americans about the opportunities available in the military and "may help motivate young Americans toward military service." A 1999 Army policy memorandum stated that "While not designed to be a specific recruiting tool, there is nothing in existing law that precludes... facilitating the recruitment of young men and women into the U. S. Army," directing instructors to "actively assist cadets who want to enlist in the military emphasize service in the U. S. Army. In a February 2000 testimony before the House Armed Services Committee, the armed service chiefs of staff testified that 30%–50% of graduating JROTC cadets go on to join the military: General James L. Jones Commandant of the Marine Corps, testified that the value of the Marine JROTC program "is beyond contest. One-third of our young men and women who join a Junior ROTC program wind up wearing the uniform of a Marine." General Eric K. Shinseki Chief of Staff of the United States Army, testified that "Our indications are about 30 percent of those youngsters—we don't recruit them, as you know.
We are not permitted to do that. But by virtue of the things that they like about that experience, about 30 percent of them end up joining the Army, either enlisting or going on to ROTC and joining the officer population." General Michael E. Ryan Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force, testified that "almost 50 percent of the folks that go out of the Air Force Junior ROTC go into one of the Services by enlisting or going to ROTC or going to one of the academies." Admiral Jay L. Johnson Chief of Naval Operations, testified that "Even if the number is only 30 percent, a good number, but think about what we get out of the other 70 percent. They have exposure to us, they have exposure to the military. And the challenge of the education mandate that we all share in principals and school counselors and school districts that won't let us in, a powerful tool I think to educate whether or not they end up in the service. So it is a long way around saying it is well worth the investment for lots of different reasons."General Colin Powell said in his 1995 autobiography that "the armed forces might get a youngster more inclined to enlist as a result of Junior ROTC," but added that "Inner-city kids, many from broken homes, found stability and role models in Junior ROTC."
U. S. Congress found in the Recruiting and Reservist Promotion Act of 2000 that JROTC and similar programs "provide significant benefits for the Armed Forces, including significant public relations benefits." Former United States Secretary of Defense William Cohen referred to JROTC as "one of the best recruitment programs we could have." Five of the seven branches of the Uniformed services of the United States maintain a Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps, organized into units. As of June 2006, there are a total of 3,275 units: 1,600 Army AJROTC units 794 Air Force AFJROTC units 619 Navy NJROTC units 260 Marine Corps MCJROTC units 2 Coast Guard CGJROTC unitPrior to 1967 the number of units was limited to 1,200; the cap was increased to 1,600 units in 1967 and again to 3,500 units in 1992. Their goal is to reach 3,500 units by Feb. 2011 by encouraging program expansion into educationally and economically deprived areas. Units are set up according to the layout of their parent service
United States Army Air Forces
The United States Army Air Forces, informally known as the Air Force,or United States Army Air Force, was the aerial warfare service component of the United States Army during and after World War II, successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services. The AAF was a component of the United States Army, which in 1942 was divided functionally by executive order into three autonomous forces: the Army Ground Forces, the Services of Supply, the Army Air Forces; each of these forces had a commanding general. The AAF administered all parts of military aviation distributed among the Air Corps, General Headquarters Air Force, the ground forces' corps area commanders, thus became the first air organization of the U. S. Army to control its own installations and support personnel; the peak size of the AAF during the Second World War was over 2.4 million men and women in service and nearly 80,000 aircraft by 1944, 783 domestic bases in December 1943.
By "V-E Day", the Army Air Forces had 1.25 million men stationed overseas and operated from more than 1,600 airfields worldwide. The Army Air Forces was created in June 1941 to provide the air arm a greater autonomy in which to expand more efficiently, to provide a structure for the additional command echelons required by a vastly increased force, to end an divisive administrative battle within the Army over control of aviation doctrine and organization, ongoing since the creation of an aviation section within the U. S. Army Signal Corps in 1914; the AAF succeeded both the Air Corps, the statutory military aviation branch since 1926, the GHQ Air Force, activated in 1935 to quiet the demands of airmen for an independent Air Force similar to the Royal Air Force, established in the United Kingdom / Great Britain. Although other nations had separate air forces independent of their army or navy, the AAF remained a part of the Army until a defense reorganization in the post-war period resulted in the passage by the United States Congress of the National Security Act of 1947 with the creation of an independent United States Air Force in September 1947.
In its expansion and conduct of the war, the AAF became more than just an arm of the greater organization. By the end of World War II, the Army Air Forces had become an independent service. By regulation and executive order, it was a subordinate agency of the United States Department of War tasked only with organizing and equipping combat units, limited in responsibility to the continental United States. In reality, Headquarters AAF controlled the conduct of all aspects of the air war in every part of the world, determining air policy and issuing orders without transmitting them through the Army Chief of Staff; this "contrast between theory and fact is...fundamental to an understanding of the AAF." The roots of the Army Air Forces arose in the formulation of theories of strategic bombing at the Air Corps Tactical School that gave new impetus to arguments for an independent air force, beginning with those espoused by Brig. Gen. Billy Mitchell that led to his court-martial. Despite a perception of resistance and obstruction by the bureaucracy in the War Department General Staff, much of, attributable to lack of funds, the Air Corps made great strides in the 1930s, both organizationally and in doctrine.
A strategy stressing precision bombing of industrial targets by armed, long-range bombers emerged, formulated by the men who would become its leaders. A major step toward a separate air force came in March 1935, when command of all combat air units within the Continental United States was centralized under a single organization called the "General Headquarters Air Force". Since 1920, control of aviation units had resided with commanders of the corps areas, following the model established by commanding General John J. Pershing during World War I. In 1924, the General Staff planned for a wartime activation of an Army general headquarters, similar to the American Expeditionary Forces model of World War I, with a GHQ Air Force as a subordinate component. Both were created in 1933 when a small conflict with Cuba seemed possible following a coup d'état, but were not activated. Activation of GHQ Air Force represented a compromise between strategic airpower advocates and ground force commanders who demanded that the Air Corps mission remain tied to that of the land forces.
Airpower advocates achieved a centralized control of air units under an air commander, while the WDGS divided authority within the air arm and assured a continuing policy of support of ground operations as its primary role. GHQ Air Force organized combat groups administratively into a strike force of three wings deployed to the Atlantic and Gulf coasts but was small in comparison to European air forces. Lines of authority were difficult, at best, since GHQ Air Force controlled only operations of its combat units while the Air Corps was still responsible for doctrine, acquisition of aircraft, training. Corps area commanders continued to exercise control over airfields and administration of personnel, in the overseas departments, operational control of units as well. Between March 1935 and September 1938, the commanders of GHQ Air Force and the Air Corps, Major Generals Frank M. Andrews and Oscar Westover clash
United States Air Force Judge Advocate General's Corps
The Judge Advocate General's Corps known as the "JAG Corps" or "JAG" is the legal arm of the United States Air Force. The United States Air Force became a separate military service in September 1947. On June 25, 1948, the Congress established an office of The Judge Advocate General in the United States Air Force. On July 8, 1949, the Air Force Chief of Staff designated 205 attorneys Air Force Judge Advocates, thus there were Air Force judge advocates three months before there was an Air Force Judge Advocate General. Following the promulgation of enabling legislation, the Air Force Judge Advocate General's Department was established on January 25, 1949 by Department of the Air Force General Order No. 7. While this event was the birth of the department, it represented an interim step, providing the Air Force authority to administer its military justice system within the existing Air Force structure of the time until other legislation could be developed and enacted; the department was a part of the Air Force Personnel Branch, but became a separate entity reporting directly to the Air Force Chief of Staff in February 1950.
The first Air Force judge advocate general, Major General Reginald C. Harmon, believed it important for Air Force JAGs to remain a part of a functionally interconnected military department. For that reason, the concept of a separate corps was discarded in favor of the department that existed until 2003. In 2003, the Judge Advocate General's Department was renamed to the Judge Advocate General's Corps by order of the Secretary of the Air Force, Dr. James G. Roche. In December 2004, the Air Force Judge Advocate General, Thomas J. Fiscus, accepted non-judicial punishment under Article 15 of the UCMJ, for conduct unbecoming of an officer and obstruction of justice related to numerous unprofessional sexual relationships with subordinates. Upon his retirement, Fiscus was reduced two grades, to colonel. Major General Jack Rives, the Deputy Judge Advocate General, became the Air Force Judge Advocate General as of February 2006. On July 23, 2008, General Rives was confirmed as a lieutenant general, becoming the first TJAG to hold that rank.
On December 15, 2009, the President nominated Brigadier General Richard C. Harding to serve as the 16th Judge Advocate General. On February 2, 2010, the Senate Armed Services Committee endorsed the nomination and the Senate voted to confirm the nomination. Lieutenant General Rives retired on February 5, 2010, accepting the position of Executive Director and Chief Operating Officer of the American Bar Association, now-Lieutenant General Richard Harding became The 16th Judge Advocate General of the Air Force, his formal investiture and promotion ceremony occurred on February 23, 2010. General Harding's term as The Judge Advocate General ended on January 31, 2014. On May 22, 2014, the Senate confirmed Brigadier General Christopher F. Burne to serve as the 17th Judge Advocate General in the grade of lieutenant general, he began duties as The Judge Advocate General on the following day. Lieutenant General Burne's term as The Judge Advocate General ended on May 18, 2018. On January 30, 2018, the Senate confirmed Major General Jeffrey A. Rockwell, serving as Deputy Judge Advocate General, to serve as the 18th Judge Advocate General in the grade of lieutenant general.
That same day, the Senate confirmed Brigadier General Charles L. Plummer to serve as Deputy Judge Advocate General in the grade of major general. Lieutenant General Rockwell's formal investiture ceremony occurred on May 21, 2018; the Air Force Judge Advocate General's School was founded in 1950 and has been located in the William Louis Dickinson Law Center, at Maxwell Air Force Base in Montgomery, Alabama since 1993. The school provides instruction to new judge advocates and paralegals, in addition to offering 30 continuing legal education courses; the school publishes scholarly legal journals such as The Air Force Law Review and The Reporter online. The school produces The Military Commander and the Law, a publication, invaluable not only to judge advocates, but commanders and first sergeants in handling the myriad of legal issues that arise with a squadron or wing, for the continued enforcement of good order and discipline. Major General Reginald C. Harmon Major General Albert M. Kuhfeld Major General Robert W. Manss Major General James S. Cheney Major General Harold R. Vague Major General Walter D. Reed Major General Thomas B.
Bruton Major General Robert W. Norris Major General Keithe E. Nelson Major General David C. Morehouse Major General Nolan Sklute Major General Bryan G. Hawley Major General William A. Moorman Major General Thomas J. Fiscus. Rockwell General Counsel of the Air Force Air Force Court of Criminal Appeals U. S. Army Judge Advocate General's Corps U. S. Navy Judge Advocate General's Corps U. S. Marine Corps Judge Advocate Division U. S. Coast Guard Legal Division Judge Advocate General's Corps Judge Advocate General Military justice Air Force Office of Special Investigations United Kingdom Judge Advocate of the Fleet Judge Advocate General Canada Judge Advocate General Air Force JAG Corps Air Force Co
Jeanne M. Holm
Major General Jeanne Marjorie Holm was the first female one-star general of the United States Air Force and the first female two-star general in any service branch of the United States. Holm was a driving force behind the expansion of women's roles in the Air Force. Holm was born on June 1921, in Portland, Oregon, she enlisted in the Army in July 1942, soon after the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps was established by Congress. She attended Officer Candidate School at Fort Des Moines, in January 1943, received a commission as a "Third Officer," the WAAC equivalent of Second Lieutenant. During World War II, Holm was assigned to the Women's Army Corps Training Center at Fort Oglethorpe, where she first commanded a basic training company and a training regiment. At the end of the war, she commanded the 106th WAC Hospital Company at Newton D. Baker General Hospital, West Virginia, she left active military duty in 1946 and attended Lewis and Clark College for two years, returning in 1956 for her Bachelor of Arts degree.
In October 1948, during the Berlin Blockade, Holm was recalled to active duty with the Army and went to Camp Lee in Virginia, as a company commander within the Women's Army Corps Training Center. The following year she was sent to Erding Air Depot, Germany. There she served as assistant director of plans and operations for the 7200th Air Force Depot Wing, was War Plans Officer for the 85th Air Depot Wing, during the Berlin airlift and the early phases of the Korean War. Holm returned from overseas in 1952 and became the first woman to attend the Air Command and Staff College at Maxwell Air Force Base in Montgomery, Alabama, she was assigned to Headquarters U. S. Air Force in Washington, DC, as a personnel plans and programs officer in the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff, Personnel, her next assignment was as chief of manpower in Allied Air Forces Southern Europe, a North Atlantic Treaty Organization headquarters, in Naples, where she served for four years. She returned to Headquarters U. S. Air Force in 1961 and was assigned as congressional staff officer for the director of manpower and organization.
For her work in this assignment, she was awarded the Legion of Merit. In November 1965 Holm was appointed director of Women in the Air Force, in the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff, Personnel, her appointment was extended twice. She was responsible for overall staff cognizance of and advice on matters concerning military women in the Air Force. During her tenure, policies affecting women were updated, WAF strength more than doubled and assignment opportunities expanded, uniforms modernized, she was an active proponent for expanding the opportunities for women to serve in the Armed Forces and a catalyst for changing their roles and career opportunities within the Air Force. Historian Walter J. Boyne acknowledged her "enormous influence on the role of women in the Air Force". For her exceptionally meritorious service in this assignment, she was awarded the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal. Holm was promoted to the grade of brigadier general July 16, 1971 the first woman to be appointed in this grade in the Air Force.
She was promoted to the grade of major general effective June 1, 1973 with date of rank July 1, 1970 and was the first woman in the Armed Forces to serve in that grade. On March 1, 1973 Holm was appointed director of the Secretary of the Air Force Personnel Council. In this position, she was responsible for administration of the council and functioning of its boards and served as president of: the Air Force Discharge Review Board, Personnel Board, Board of Review, Physical Disability Appeal Board, Decorations Board and the Disability Review Board. Holm retired from the Air Force in 1975. After retiring, Holm consulted for the Defense Manpower Commission. In March, 1976 Holm was named special assistant to President Gerald Ford for the Office of Women's Programs. Holm helped Ford attract more female voters by reaching out to women's groups and making note of women's issues. Holm detailed for Ford a plan for presentation to the Justice Department which would authorize a full re-examination of the United States Code to determine whether the wording of any law was sex-based and not justified.
Ford directed the attorney general to begin the task and announced it to the public on July 1, 1976. At the polls, women voters favored Ford by a small percentage but were outnumbered by a larger male turnout. Males favored Jimmy Carter just enough to give him 50.1% of the popular vote. Holm was a member of the Board of Air Force Historical Foundation, she received the Distinguished Alumni Award from Lewis and Clark College in 1968. Holm was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 2000. In 2003, the Air Force Association conferred upon her their Lifetime Achievement Award. Holm was inducted into the International Women in Aviation Hall of Fame in 2006. A section of Air University was reorganized in 2008 and renamed the Jeanne M. Holm Officer Accession and Citizen Development Center. Military Decorations Holm wrote two books about women in the military, beginning with Women in the Military: An Unfinished Revolution in 1982. Holm updated the book in 1992–1994, filling in American women's combat and military experiences in the invasions of Grenada, Panama and in the Gulf War.
In 1998, Holm published a history of American women serving in World War II, entitled In Defense of a Nat
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term "officer" refers to commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers, warrant officers. However, when used without further detail, the term always refers to only commissioned officers, the more senior portion of a force who derive their authority from a commission from the head of state; the proportion of officers varies greatly. Commissioned officers make up between an eighth and a fifth of modern armed forces personnel. In 2013, officers were the senior 17% of the British armed forces, the senior 13.7% of the French armed forces. In 2012, officers made up about 18% of the German armed forces, about 17.2% of the United States armed forces. However, armed forces have had much lower proportions of officers. During the First World War, fewer than 5% of British soldiers were officers. In the early twentieth century, the Spanish army had the highest proportion of officers of any European army, at 12.5%, at that time considered unreasonably high by many Spanish and foreign observers.
Within a nation's armed forces, armies tend to have a lower proportion of officers, but a higher total number of officers, while navies and air forces have higher proportions of officers since military aircraft are flown by officers. For example, 13.9% of British army personnel and 22.2% of the RAF personnel were officers in 2013, but the army had a larger total number of officers. Having a command authority is one requirement for combatant status under the laws of war, though this authority need not have obtained an official commission or warrant. In such case, those persons holding offices of responsibility within the organization are deemed to be the officers, the presence of these officers connotes a level of organization sufficient to designate a group as being combatant. Commissioned officers receive training as leadership and management generalists, in addition to training relating to their specific military occupational specialty or function in the military. Many advanced militaries require university degrees as a prerequisite for commissioning from the enlisted ranks.
Others, including the Australian Defence Force, the British Armed Forces, Nepal Army, the Pakistani Armed Forces, the Swiss Armed Forces, the Singapore Armed Forces, the Israel Defense Forces, the Swedish Armed Forces, the New Zealand Defence Force, are different in not requiring a university degree for commissioning—although a significant number of officers in these countries are graduates. In the Israel Defense Forces, a university degree is a requirement for an officer to advance to the rank of lieutenant colonel; the IDF sponsors the studies for its majors, while aircrew and naval officers obtain academic degrees as a part of their training programmes. In the United Kingdom, there are three routes of entry for British Armed Forces officers; the first, primary route are those who receive their commission directly into the officer grades following completion at their relevant military academy. In the second method, an individual may gain their commission after first enlisting and serving in the junior ranks, reaching one of the senior non-commissioned officer ranks, as what are known as'direct entry' or DE officers.
The third route is similar to the second. LE officers, whilst holding the same Queen's commission work in different roles from the DE officers. In the infantry, a number of warrant officer class 1s are commissioned as LE officers. In the British Army, commissioning for DE officers occurs after a 44-week course at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst for regular officers or the Army Reserve Commissioning Course, which consists of four two-week modules for Army Reserve officers; the first two modules may be undertaken over a year for each module at an Officers' Training Corps, the last two must be undertaken at Sandhurst. For Royal Navy and Royal Air Force officer candidates, a 30-week period at Britannia Royal Naval College or a 24-week period at RAF College Cranwell, respectively. Royal Marines officers receive their training in the Command Wing of the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines during a gruelling 15-month course; the courses consist of not only tactical and combat training, but leadership, management and international affairs training.
Until the Cardwell Reforms of 1871, commissions in the British Army were purchased by officers. The Royal Navy, operated on a more meritocratic, or at least mobile, basis. Commissioned officers are the only persons, in an armed forces environment, able to act as the commanding officer of a military unit. A superior officer is an officer with a higher rank than another officer, a subordinate officer relative to the superior. Non-commissioned officers, to include naval and coast guard petty officers and chief petty officers, in positions of authority can be said to have control or charge rather than command per se. Most officers in the Armed Forces of the United States are commissioned through one of three major commissioning programs: United States Military Academy Unit
United States Army Air Service
The United States Army Air Service was the aerial warfare service of the United States between 1918 and 1926 and a forerunner of the United States Air Force. It was established as an independent but temporary branch of the U. S. War Department during World War I by two executive orders of President Woodrow Wilson: on May 24, 1918, replacing the Aviation Section, Signal Corps as the nation's air force, its life was extended for another year in July 1919, during which time Congress passed the legislation necessary to make it a permanent establishment. The National Defense Act of 1920 assigned the Air Service the status of "combatant arm of the line" of the United States Army with a major general in command. In France, the Air Service of the American Expeditionary Force, a separate entity under commanding General John J. Pershing that conducted the combat operations of U. S. military aviation, began field service in the spring of 1918. By the end of the war, the Air Service used 45 squadrons to cover 137 kilometers of front from Pont-à-Mousson to Sedan.
71 pursuit pilots were credited with shooting down five or more German aircraft while in American service. Overall the Air Service destroyed 76 balloons in combat. 17 balloon companies operated at the front, making 1,642 combat ascensions. 289 airplanes and 48 balloons were lost in battle. The Air Service was the first form of the air force to have an independent organizational structure and identity. Although officers concurrently held rank in various branches, after May 1918 their branch designation in official correspondence while on aviation assignment changed from "ASSC" to "AS, USA". After July 1, 1920, its personnel became members of the Air Service branch, receiving new commissions. During the war its responsibilities and functions were split between two coordinate agencies, the Division of Military Aeronautics and the Bureau of Aircraft Production, each reporting directly to the Secretary of War, creating a dual authority over military aviation that caused unity of command difficulties.
The seven-year history of the post-war Air Service was marked by a prolonged debate between adherents of airpower and the supporters of the traditional military services about the value of an independent Air Force. Airmen such as Brig. Gen. Billy Mitchell supported the concept; the Army's senior leadership from World War I, the United States Navy, the majority of the nation's political leadership favored integration of all military aviation into the Army and Navy. Aided by a wave of pacifism following the war that drastically cut military budgets, opponents of an independent air force prevailed; the Air Service was renamed the Army Air Corps in 1926 as a compromise in the continuing struggle. Although war in Europe prompted Congress to vastly increase the appropriations for the Aviation Section in 1916, it tabled a bill proposing an aviation department incorporating all aspects of military aviation; the declaration of war against Germany on April 6, 1917, putting the United States in World War I, came too to solve emerging engineering and production problems.
The reorganization of the Aviation Section had been inadequate in resolving problems in training, leaving the United States unprepared to fight an air war in Europe. The Aviation Section consisted of 131 officers, 1087 enlisted men, 280 airplanes; the administration of President Woodrow Wilson created an advisory Aircraft Production Board in May 1917, consisting of members of the Army and industry, to study the Europeans' experience in aircraft production and the standardization of aircraft parts. The Board dispatched Major Raynal C. Bolling, a lawyer and military aviation pioneer, together with a commission of over 100 members, to Europe in the summer of 1917 to determine American aircraft needs, recommend priorities for acquisition and production, negotiate prices and royalties. Congress passed a series of legislation in the next three months that appropriated huge sums for development of military aviation, including the largest single appropriation for a single purpose to that time, $640 million in the Aviation Act, passed July 24, 1917.
By the time the bill passed, the term Air Service was in widespread if unofficial usage to collectively describe all aspects of Army aviation. Although it considered creation of a separate aviation department to act as the centralized authority for decision-making, both the War and the Navy Departments opposed it, on October 1, 1917, Congress instead legalized the existence of the APB and changed its name to the "Aircraft Board", transferring its functions from the Council of National Defense to the secretaries of War and the Navy. So, the Aircraft Board in practice had little control over procurement contracts and functioned as an information provider between industrial and military entities. Nor did the "Equipment Division" of the Signal Corps exercise such control. Established by the Office of the Chief Signal Officer as one of the operating components of the Aviation Section, its task was to unify and coordinate the various agencies involved but its head was a commissioned former member of the APB who did nothing to create any effective coordination.
Moreover, the wood and fabric airframe designs of World War I did not lend themselves to being made with the mass production methods of the automotive industry, which