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Air Raid Precautions in the United Kingdom

Air Raid Precautions refers to a number of organisations and guidelines in the United Kingdom dedicated to the protection of civilians from the danger of air raids. Government consideration for air raid precautions increased in the 1920s and 30s, with the Raid Wardens' Service set up in 1937 to report on bombing incidents; every local council was responsible for organising ARP wardens, ambulance drivers, rescue parties, liaison with police and fire brigades. From 1 September 1939, ARP wardens enforced the "blackout". Heavy curtains and shutters were required on all private residences, commercial premises, factories to prevent light escaping and so making them a possible target for enemy bombers to locate their targets. With increased enemy bombing during the Blitz, the ARP services were central in reporting and dealing with bombing incidents, they managed. Women were involved in ARP services through the Women's Voluntary Service; the Auxiliary Fire Service was set up in 1938 to support existing local fire services, which were amalgamated into a National Fire Service in 1941.

From 1941 the ARP changed its title to Civil Defence Service to reflect the wider range of roles it encompassed. During the war 7,000 Civil Defence workers were killed. In all some 1.5 million men and women served within the organisation during World War Two. Over 127,000 full-time personnel were involved at the height of the Blitz but by the end of 1943 this had dropped to 70,000; the Civil Defence Service was stood down towards the end of the war in Europe on 2 May 1945. Between 1949 and 1968 many of the duties of the Civil Defence Service were resurrected through the Civil Defence Corps. During the First World War Britain was bombed by Zeppelins and Gotha bombers and it was predicted that large-scale aerial bombing of the civilian population would feature prominently in any future war. In 1924, the Committee of Imperial Defence set up a subcommittee to look at what measure could be taken to protect the civil population from aerial attack; the new committee, known as Air Raid Precautions, was headed by the Lord Privy Seal, Sir John Anderson.

For the next ten years this committee looked into issues of new aerial weapons development and the possible impact on civilians. The use of gas attacks in the First World War played heavy on the decisions and protection via gas masks was a core decision taken by the committee; every single person would need a gas mask. Together with ideas around the building of air raid shelters, evacuations of people and blackout requirements these were all termed passive air defence. With the rise of Hitler during the 1930s, a further Home Office committee, the Air Raid Precautions Department, was created in March 1935; this department replaced the earlier subcommittees and took overall control of the British response to passive air defence. In April 1937, the Air Raid Wardens' Service was created which aimed to seek some 800,000 volunteers. Wardens gave ARP advice to the public and were responsible for reporting bombs and other incidents, were joined by the Women's Voluntary Service in May 1938. On 1 January 1938, the Air Raid Precautions Act came into force, compelling all local authorities to begin creating their own ARP services.

Air raid shelters were distributed from 1938. With the threat of war imminent in 1939, the Home Office issued dozens of leaflets advising people on how to protect themselves from the inevitable air war to follow; the ARP services were to include several specialist branches: ARP wardens ensured the blackout was observed, sounded air raid sirens, safely guided people into public air raid shelters and checked gas masks, evacuated areas around unexploded bombs, rescued people where possible from bomb damaged properties, located temporary accommodation for those, bombed out, reporting to their control centre about incidents, etc. and to call in other services as required. Central headquarters that received information from wardens and messengers and managed the delivery of the relevant services needed to deal with each incident. Boy Scouts or Boys' Brigade members aged between 14 and 18 as messengers or runners would take messages from air raid wardens and carry them to either the sector post or the control centre.

Bombing would sometimes cut telephone lines and messengers performed an important role in giving the ARP services a fuller picture of events. Trained to give first response first aid to those injured in bombing incidents. Casualties from bombing were taken to hospital by volunteer drivers. There were stretcher parties that carried the injured to posts; the rescue services were injured out of bombed premises. Specialists to deal with and clean up incidents involving chemical and gas weapons. Following the destruction caused by the bombing of the City of London in late December 1940, the Fire Watcher scheme was introduced in January 1941. All buildings in certain areas had to have a 24-hour watch kept. In the event of fire these fire watchers could call on the rescue services and ensure they could access the building to deal with incidents. Local councils were responsible for organising all the necessary ARP services in their areas. Although the standard procedures prescribed that the ideal warden should be at least 30 years old and women of all ages were wardens.

In certain instances, given special needs of communities teenagers were wardens. The role of ARP was open to both men and women but only men could serve in the gas contamination (teams that dealt with

2016 Challenge Tour graduates

This is a list of players who graduated from the Challenge Tour in 2016. The top 16 players on the Challenge Tour rankings in 2016 earned European Tour cards for 2017. * European Tour rookie in 2017 T = Tied The player retained his European Tour card for 2018. The player retained conditional status; the player did not retain his European Tour card for 2018. Ritthammer won three times on the Challenge Tour in 2016. A change before the season to the tour regulations allowed amateurs to earn ranking points, while dictating that any player within the top 15 who earned points as an amateur would be counted in addition to the usual 15 graduates. Anglès regained his card for 2018 through Q School. 2016 European Tour Qualifying School graduates Final ranking for 2016

1st Foreign Cavalry Regiment

The 1st Foreign Cavalry Regiment is the only cavalry regiment in the French Foreign Legion. As of 2009 it was the only armoured cavalry regiment of the 6th Light Armoured Brigade; the regiment moved camp after being stationed at Quartier Labouche for 47 years in Orange, France since it moved from Mers-el-Kébir, Algeria in October 1967. The 1st Foreign Cavalry Regiment was created on March 8, 1921 at Sousse from elements of the 2nd Foreign Infantry Regiment; the title of the 1er REC would not become official until January 20, 1922, under Decree n°6330-1/11 of January 20, 1922. The cadres of the new unit were drawn from existing French cavalry regiments. Only one junior officer had had previous Legion experience while one non-commissioned officer had been in service with the 1st Foreign Regiment 1er RE. Of the 156 other ranks of the newly formed 1er REC, 128 were Russians. A significant contingent hailed from the White Army of Wrangle; these included thirty officers. Most of the remainder had served as regular cavalrymen with the Wrangle forces.

Beginning in 1925, the 1er REC was engaged as mounted cavalry in Morocco. In both theatres of operations, the Foreign Cavalry Regiment served with distinction, notably in the Levant at Messifre and at Rachaya; the fanion of the 1er REC received the Croix de guerre des théâtres d'opérations extérieures with 2 palms, the fourragère of the colors of the Croix de Guerre and the 1st Class Lebanese Order of Merit Medal. From 1927 to 1934, the 1er REC saw active service in Morocco, followed by patrol work along the northern border of the Sahara. In 1934 the 5th squadron was equipped with Panhard armored cars; the remainder of the regiment retained sabers. In 1939 the two existing regiments of Foreign Cavalry were still only motorized. However, in 1940, the 1e REC was dispatched to France as part of the 97th Reconnaissance Group of the Infantry Division; as such it was engaged in combat from May 18 until the Armistice. A citation issued at the orders of the Armed Forces praised the heroism of the Legionnaires during this period.

Following the Battle of France the 1er REC took up garrison duties in Tunisia. In 1943, the regiment was re-equipped with U. S. material, consisted of one light tank squadron and four armored car squadrons. Its new role was that of divisional recce regiment of the newly raised 5th Armored Division. In 1943, the 1er REC was engaged against the Germans in Tunisia. In 1944, the 1er REC landed on the côtes de Provence as one of the French armored units participating in the Liberation of France. At the end of World War II, the regimental colors were decorated with two new palms and the fourragère of the Croix de Guerre. In 1946, the 1er REC embarked for Indochina; the regimental squadrons plus two autonomes groups served for nine years in Tonkin. Three new citations and the fourragère of the Croix de Guerre of TOE were added to the regimental colors, while the two autonomes groups earned 6 citations. After returning to French North Africa in 1954, the regiment was involved in the Algerian War for eight consecutive years of active service.

Following the Évian Accords and the independence of Algeria the 1er REC regrouped at the base of Mers El Kebir. It was reassigned, on October 17, 1967, to peacetime duty in metropolitan France for the first time; the 1er REC was now based at Orange in the Quartier Labouche garrison. Reattached to the 14th Infantry Division on January 1, 1976. In 1978 and 1979, the regiment participated in Opération Tacaud in Tchad where an Army citation was awarded. During this period, the regiment received new equipment, including the FAMAS service rifle, MILAN anti-tank guided missiles, VAB armored personnel carriers, the AMX-10RC armored car. From May to October 1983, the 1st Foreign Cavalry Regiment served in three separate deployment areas: within the ranks of the Multinational Force in Lebanon; the 1st Foreign Cavalry Regiment remained within the Force d'Action Rapide and was part of the Division Daguet. On July 1984, the Royal étranger was incorporated into the 6th Light Armoured Division. Engaged in operation Daguet starting September 15, 1990.

Following an initial preparatory phase, the regiment saw service as part of Operation Desert Storm. On February 23, 1991. Victorious, the 1st Foreign Cavalry Regiment intact from personnel or material loss, decorated a new palm on the regimental colors. From December 1992 to June 1993, the regiment served in Cambodia as part of the United Nations peacekeeping force; the 2nd Squadron of the Regiment served in Sarajevo as part of the United Nations Protection Force from October 1993 to February 1994, subsequently with the cadre of BATINF from January to June 1995. From 1995 to 1996, the 1st Foreign Cavalry Regiment was engaged in the former Yugoslavia within the cadre of the force de réaction rapide and in Chad as part of Opération Épervier. From May to September 1996, the 5th Squadron, recreated in

The Big Heat

The Big Heat is a 1953 American film noir crime film directed by Fritz Lang and starring Glenn Ford, Gloria Grahame and Jocelyn Brando. It centers on a cop; the film was written by former crime reporter Sydney Boehm, based on a serial by William P. McGivern that appeared in the Saturday Evening Post and was published as a novel in 1953; the film was selected for inclusion in the National Film Registry of the Library of Congress in 2011. Homicide detective Sergeant Dave Bannion of the Kenport Police Department investigates the suicide of a rogue fellow officer, Tom Duncan, whose wife, Bertha Duncan, says her husband had been in ill health. Officer Duncan leaves behind an envelope addressed to the district attorney, which Mrs. Duncan places in her safe-deposit box at the bank. Bannion is contacted by the late cop's mistress, Lucy Chapman, who claims Tom Duncan had not been in ill health. Bannion revisits Duncan's widow and asks for particulars about the couple's luxurious home, but she resents the implication.

The next day, Bannion is rebuffed by Lieutenant Ted Wilks, under pressure from "upstairs" to close the case. Lucy Chapman is found dead after being tortured and covered with cigarette burns. Bannion investigates, although the Chapman case is in the sheriff's jurisdiction and not his department's. After receiving threatening calls at his home, Bannion confronts Mike Lagana, the local mob boss who runs the city, finds that people are too scared to stand up to the crime syndicate; when warnings to Bannion go unheeded, his car is blown up, his wife, alone in the car, is killed. After accusing his superiors of corruption, Bannion resigns from the police department; when Lagana's second-in-command Vince Stone punishes a woman in a nightclub—by burning her hand with a cigar butt—Bannion stands up to him, which impresses Stone's girlfriend Debby Marsh. Debby tries to get friendly with Bannion, first offers to buy him a drink, but Bannion refuses, saying Debby gets her money from her boyfriend, a thief.

After he leaves the bar, Debby follows Bannion back to the hotel. When Debby innocently asks Bannion about his late wife, he sends her out of his hotel room. Since Debby had been seen with Bannion, when she returns to Stone's penthouse, he accuses her of talking to Bannion about his activities and throws a pot of boiling coffee in her face. Debby is taken to a hospital by Police Commissioner Higgins, playing poker with Stone and his group at the penthouse. With the left side of her face disfigured and half-covered in bandages, Debby returns to Bannion, who arranges for her a separate, unregistered room at his hotel. Debby identifies the man who had arranged the planting of the dynamite in Bannion's car as Larry Gordon, one of Stone's associates. Bannion forces Gordon to admit to the car bombing, as well as revealing that Duncan's widow has papers which could expose Stone and Lagana and is collecting blackmail payments from Lagana. Bannion refrains from killing Gordon, instead spreads word. Gordon is soon murdered by his body thrown in the river.

Bannion confronts Mrs. Duncan, accusing her of betraying Lucy Chapman, causing her death, of protecting Lagana and Stone. Bannion intends to kill Mrs. Duncan, figuring that her death will cause the incriminating evidence she has against Lagana to be revealed, but cops sent by Lagana arrive before Bannion can strangle Mrs. Duncan, he departs. Lagana tells Stone to kidnap Bannion's young daughter, staying with her aunt and uncle. At first they are under police guard, but when, at Lagana's behest, the police guard is called away, Joyce's uncle arranges for several army buddies from the war to provide protection. Satisfied that his daughter is in capable hands, Bannion sets off to deal with Stone; as he walks out of the home where his daughter is staying, Lieutenant Wilks arrives, not only to help protect Bannion's daughter, but because he's now prepared to make a stand against the mob. Debby Marsh goes to see Mrs. Duncan and notes that they are both wearing the same expensive mink coats and have benefited from an association with gangsters.

When Mrs. Duncan attempts to phone Lagana in order to get rid of Debby, Debby pulls out a gun and shoots her.. After Stone returns to his penthouse, Debby throws boiling coffee at him in revenge. Stone shoots her, but after a short gun battle with Bannion, who had followed him, Stone is captured; as Debby lies dying, Bannion describes his late wife to her in terms of their endearing relationship, rather than the colorless "police description" of his wife he had given to Debby earlier, tells Debby that she and his wife would have gotten along well. Stone is arrested for murder, the late Officer Duncan's damning evidence in the note he left behind for the D. A. is made public and Commissioner Higgins are indicted, Sgt. Bannion returns to his job at Homicide. Glenn Ford as Dave Bannion Gloria Grahame as Debby Marsh Jocelyn Brando as Katie Bannion Alexander Scourby as Mike Lagana Lee Marvin as Vince Stone Jeanette Nolan as Bertha Duncan Peter Whitney as Tierney Willis Bouchey as Lt. Ted Wilks Robert Burton as Gus Burke Adam Williams as Larry Gordon Howard Wendell as Commissioner Higgins The film was based on a serial by William P. McGivern, which appeared in the Saturday Evening Post from December 1952 and was published as a novel in 1953.

McGivern's novel was to be produced by Jerry Wald, who wanted either Paul Muni, George Raft or Edward G. Robinson (who worked with director Fritz Lang in Woman in the

Harmony Borax Works

The Harmony Borax Works is located in Death Valley at Furnace Creek Springs called Greenland. It is now located within Death Valley National Park in California, it is on the National Register of Historic Places. After discovery of Borax deposits here by Aaron and Rosie Winters in 1881, business associates William Tell Coleman and Francis Marion Smith subsequently obtained claims to these deposits, opening the way for "large-scale" borax mining in Death Valley; the Harmony operation became famous through the use, from 1883 to 1889, of large Twenty-mule teams and double wagons which hauled borax the long overland route to the closest railroad in Mojave, California. During the summer months, when it was too hot to crystallize borax in Death Valley, a smaller borax mining operation shifted to his Amargosa Borax Plant in Amargosa, near the present community of Tecopa, California; the Harmony Works remained under Coleman's operation until 1888. William Coleman's original holdings in the works were subsequently acquired by Frank M. "Borax" Smith in 1890, to become the Pacific Coast Borax Company with the 20 Mule Team Borax brand.

Activity at Harmony Borax Works ceased with the development of the richer Colemanite borax deposits at Borate in the Calico Mountains, where they continued until 1907. The Harmony Borax Works was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on December 31, 1974, they are part of the National Park Service historical site preservation program in Death Valley National Park. Eagle Borax Works "Borax" Smith is a character in the historical fiction novel Carter Beats the Devil by Glen David Gold. Media related to Harmony Borax Works at Wikimedia Commons NPS: Death Valley National Park - Harmony Borax Works of Death Valley NPS: History of the Twenty Mule Teams NPS: official Death Valley National Park

Anupam Mazumdar

Anupam Mazumdar is a theoretical physicist at the University of Groningen specialising in cosmology and quantum gravity. He has been affiliated to the Higgs Centre, at the University of Edinburgh, the Discovery Center at the Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen, his work has focused on multi field theories of inflation, such as assisted inflation, visible sector inflation such as MSSM inflation. He has worked on the ghost-free and singularity-free construction of infinite derivative theories of gravity, which can resolve the Schwarzschild singularity for mini black holes, yielding a non-singular compact object without event horizon, cosmological singularities, he has conjectured with Koshelev that astrophysical black hole has no curvature singularity and devoid of an event horizon, in infinite derivative theories of gravity, because the scale of non-locality in gravitational interaction can engulf the gravitational radius of the compact object. At time scales and at distances below the effective scale of non-locality the gravitational interaction weakens sufficiently enough that a finite pressure from normal matter satisfying null and weak energy conditions can avoid forming blackhole with event horizon and cosmological singularities.

Mazumdar has proposed a table-top experiment to test linearized quantum aspects of gravity via witnessing spin entanglement between two macroscopic superposition of masses, along with his colleagues from quantum optics and quantum information. A positive test of this phenomenon would establish that the graviton is quantum in nature