Musée de l’air et de l’espace
The Musée de l'air et de l'espace, is a French aerospace museum, located at the south-eastern edge of Le Bourget Airport, north of Paris, in the commune of Le Bourget. It was inaugurated in 1919 after a proposal by the celebrated aeronautics engineer Albert Caquot. Occupying over 150,000 square metres of land and hangars, it is one of the oldest aviation museums in the world; the museum's collection contains more than 19,595 items, including 150 aircraft, material from as far back as the 16th Century. Displayed are more modern air and spacecraft, including the prototype for Concorde, Swiss and Soviet rockets; the museum has the only known remaining piece — the jettisoned main landing gear — of the L'Oiseau Blanc, the 1927 aircraft which attempted to make the first Transatlantic crossing from Paris to New York. On May 8, 1927, Charles Nungesser and François Coli aboard L'Oiseau blanc, a 450-hp Lorraine-powered Levasseur biplane took off from Le Bourget; the aircraft jettisoned its main landing gear, which it was designed to do as part of its trans-Atlantic flight profile, but disappeared over the Atlantic, only two weeks before Lindbergh's monoplane completed its successful non-stop trans-Atlantic flight to Le Bourget from the United States.
Other items of interest range include: gilded bronze medallion of the Montgolfier brothers, created in 1783 by Jean-Antoine Houdon the Biot-Massia glider an 1884 electric motor by Arthur Constantin Krebs the rear gondola of the 1915 Zeppelin LZ 113, equipped with 3 Maybach type HS engines a 1916 SPAD VII aircraft by Blériot-SPAD and flown by French flying ace Georges Guynemer in World War I a 1917 Airco DH.9 aircraft by Geoffrey de Havilland a 1918 Junkers D. I aircraft by Hugo Junkers a 1961 Dassault Mirage IIIC by Marcel Dassault an SSBS S3 surface-to-surface ballistic missile commissioned in 1981 a 2002 Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard model. Antoinette VII Blériot XI Voisin-Farman No 1 Santos-Dumont Demoiselle Farman Goliath Oiseau Blanc Bücker Bü 181Dewoitine D.520 Douglas C-47 Skytrain Douglas DC-3 cockpit Focke-Wulf Fw 190 North American P-51 Mustang Republic P-47 Thunderbolt Supermarine Spitfire Mk XVI V-1 flying bomb Douglas A-1 Skyraider Dassault Ouragan Dassault Mirage III Dassault Mystère IV North American F-86D Sabre North American F-100 Super Sabre Republic F-84 Thunderjet Dassault Balzac V Leduc 0.10 Nord 1500 Griffon SNCASO Trident Sud-Ouest SO.6000 Triton Concorde Concorde 001 is featured in its 1973 Solar Eclipse mission livery, with the special rooftop portholes visible.
Dassault Mirage IV Dassault Mirage 4000 Eurocopter X3 Boeing 747 Ariane 1 Ariane 5 Airbus A380 Douglas DC-8 Canadair CL-215 Lockheed P-2 Neptune Breguet Atlantic Dassault Mercure Transall C-160 Dassault Super Etendard SEPECAT Jaguar Super Mirage 4000 Dassault Rafale A List of aerospace museums List of museums in Paris Official website Official website in English not translated
Farman F.60 Goliath
The Farman F.60 Goliath was a French airliner and bomber produced by the Farman Aviation Works from 1919. It was instrumental in the creation of early airlines and commercial routes in Europe after World War I; the Goliath was designed in 1918 as a heavy bomber capable of carrying 1,000 kg of bombs with a range of 1,500 km. It was a fixed-undercarriage three-bay biplane of fabric-covered wood construction, powered by two Salmson Z.9 engines. It had a yet light structure; the wings were rectangular with a constant profile with aerodynamically balanced ailerons fitted to both upper and lower wings. It was undergoing initial testing when World War I came to an end and Farman realized there would be no orders for his design. Nonetheless he was quick to understand that the big, box-like fuselage of the Goliath could be modified to convert the aircraft into an airliner. Commercial aviation was in need of purpose-built aircraft. With the new passenger cabin arrangement, the Goliath could carry up to 14 passengers.
It had large windows to give the passengers a view of the surroundings. The Salmson engines could be replaced by other types. 60 F.60 Goliaths were built. Between 1927 and 1929, eight Goliaths with various engines were built under licence in Czechoslovakia, four by Avia and four by Letov. Farman made several publicity flights. On 8 February 1919, the Goliath flew 12 passengers from Toussus-le-Noble to RAF Kenley, near Croydon. Since non-military flying was not permitted at that date, Lucien Bossoutrot and his passengers were all ex-military pilots who wore uniforms and carried mission orders for the circumstances; the flight went well, taking 30 minutes. The pilot and passengers were well received in England; the return flight took 2 hours and 10 minutes. Other flights were made to publicize the Goliath. On 3 April 1919, 14 passengers were flown to an altitude of 6,200 m. On 11 August 1919, an F.60 flew eight passengers and a ton of supplies from Paris via Casablanca and Mogador to Koufa, 180 km north of Saint-Louis, flying more than 4,500 km.
Airlines, which were appearing quickly all over Europe, were quick to acquire the F.60. In 1920, the Compagnie des Grands Express Aériens began scheduling regular flights between Le Bourget and Croydon; the Compagnie des Messageries Aériennes soon followed suit. The Société Générale de Transports Aérien opened a Paris-Brussels route in July 1920, flown by the Goliath. In May 1921, this route was extended to Amsterdam; the Belgian airline Société Nationale pour l'Etude des Transports Aériens opened a Brussels-London route in April 1921. FF.60 Designation of the first three prototypes. F.60 Civil passenger transport version, powered by two 190 kW Salmson CM.9 radial piston engines, sixty built. F.60bis This designation was given to the transport version, powered by two 220 kW Salmson 9Az engines. F.60 Bn.2 Three-seat night bomber evolved from the F.60 Goliath. It was equipped with two 190 kW Salmson 9Zm engines, 210 were delivered to French naval and army aviation. F.60 Torp Torpedo-bomber floatplane, powered by two Gnome-Rhône 9A Jupiter radial piston engines.
F.60M Blunt-nose version in 1924, powered by two 230 kW Renault 12Fy engines. F.61 Two aircraft equipped with two 220 kW Renault 12Fe engines. F.62 A record-breaking aircraft, derived from the F.60, powered by a single 370 kW Farman 12We. First flown on 7 August 1925, the F.62, piloted by Landry and Drouhin, broke the world record 4,400 km closed-circuit in 45 hours 11 minutes and 59 seconds. F.62 BN.4 Export version for the Soviet Union, powered by two 340 kW Lorraine-Dietrich V-12 engines. F.62 BN.5 A 5-seat night bomber version, powered by 2x 300 kW Lorraine 12Db engines. F.63 BN.4 Similar to the F.62 BN.4 export version, powered by two 340 kW Gnome-Rhône 9A Jupiter radial piston engines, 42 built for the Aéronautique militaire francaise. F.63bis A single airliner, powered by 2x 272 kW Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar IIIA engines. Ten more were built powered by 2x 280 kW Gnome-Rhône 9Aa Jupiter engines. F.63ter Three airliners, powered by 2x 280 kW Gnome-Rhône 9Aa Jupiter engines. F.65 Sixty floatplane torpedo-bombers built for the Aéronautique navale, fitted with interchangeable float or landing gear and powered by 2x 280 kW Gnome-Rhône 9Aa Jupiter engines.
F.66 Two torpedo-bombers built for the Aéronautique navale, powered by 2x 190 kW Salmson CM.9 engines. F.66 BN.3 One Gnome-Rhône 9A Jupiter-powered aircraft was built, intended to be exported to Romania. F.68 BN.4 Thirty-two bomber aircraft, powered by 2x 310 kW Gnome-Rhône 9Ab Jupiter, exported to Poland. F.140 Super Goliath Super-heavy bomber prototype, powered by four 370 kW Farman 12We W-12 engines in tandem pairs. BelgiumSociéte Anonyme Belge pour l'Exploitation de la Navigation Aérienne. Société Colombophile de Transport Aériens. Syndicat National pour l'Etude des Transports Aérienne. ColombiaCompañía Colombiana de Navegación Aérea CzechoslovakiaČeskoslovenské státní aerolinie. FranceAir Union. Compagnie Aérienne Française. Compagnie des Grands Express Aériens. Compagnie des Messageries Aériennes. Enterprise de la Photo-Aérienne. Farman Airlines. RomaniaLiniile Aeriene Române Exploatate de Stat. BelgiumBelgian Air Force CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovak Air Force FranceFrench Air Force French Navy Commission d'Etudes Pratiques d'Aéronautique
Air France, stylized as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France. It is a subsidiary of the Air France–KLM Group and a founding member of the SkyTeam global airline alliance; as of 2013 Air France serves 36 destinations in France and operates worldwide scheduled passenger and cargo services to 168 destinations in 78 countries and carried 46,803,000 passengers in 2015. The airline's global hub is at Charles de Gaulle Airport with Orly Airport as the primary domestic hub. Air France's corporate headquarters in Montparnasse, are located on the grounds of Charles de Gaulle Airport, north of Paris. Air France was formed on 7 October 1933 from a merger of Air Orient, Air Union, Compagnie Générale Aéropostale, Compagnie Internationale de Navigation Aérienne, Société Générale de Transport Aérien. During the Cold War, from 1950 until 1990, it was one of the three main Allied scheduled airlines operating in Germany at West Berlin's Tempelhof and Tegel airports. In 1990, it acquired the operations of French domestic carrier Air Inter and international rival UTA – Union de Transports Aériens.
It served as France's primary national flag carrier for seven decades prior to its 2003 merger with KLM. Between April 2001 and March 2002, the airline carried 43.3 million passengers and had a total revenue of €12.53bn. In November 2004, Air France ranked as the largest European airline with 25.5% total market share, was the largest airline in the world in terms of operating revenue. On 25 July 2000, a Concorde that Air France owned crashed on a hotel in Gonesse. Air France operates a mixed fleet of Airbus and Boeing widebody jets on long-haul routes, uses Airbus A320 family aircraft on short-haul routes. Air France introduced the A380 on 20 November 2009 with service to New York City's JFK Airport from Paris' Charles de Gaulle Airport; the carrier's regional airline subsidiary, HOP!, operates the majority of its regional domestic and European scheduled services with a fleet of regional jet aircraft. Air France was formed on 7 October 1933, from a merger of Air Orient, Air Union, Compagnie Générale Aéropostale, Compagnie Internationale de Navigation Aérienne and Société Générale des Transports Aériens.
Of these airlines, SGTA was the first commercial airline company in France, having been founded as Lignes Aériennes Farman in 1919. The constituent members of Air France had built extensive networks across Europe, to French colonies in North Africa and farther afield. During World War II, Air France moved its operations to Casablanca. In 1936, Air France added French-built twin engine Potez 62 aircraft to its fleet featuring a two compartment cabin that could accommodate 14 to 16 passengers. A high wing monoplane, it had a wooden fuselage with composite coating while the wings were fabric covered with a metal leading edge. Equipped with Hispano-Suiza V-engines, they were used on routes in Europe, South America and the Far East. Although cruising at only 175 miles per hour, the Potez 62 was a robust and reliable workhorse for Air France and remained in service until the Second World War with one used by the Free French Air Force. On 26 June 1945 all of France's air transport companies were nationalised.
On 29 December 1945, a decree of the French Government granted Air France the management of the entire French air transport network. Air France appointed its first flight attendants in 1946; the same year the airline opened its first air terminal at Les Invalides in central Paris. It was linked to Paris Le Bourget Airport, Air France's first operations and engineering base, by coach. At that time the network covered 160,000 km, claimed to be the longest in the world. Société Nationale Air France was set up on 1 January 1946. European schedules were operated by a fleet of Douglas DC-3 aircraft. On 1 July 1946, Air France started direct flights between Paris and New York via refuelling stops at Shannon and Gander. Douglas DC-4 piston-engine airliners covered the route in just under 20 hours. In September 1947 Air France's network stretched east from New York, Fort de France and Buenos Aires to Shanghai. By 1948 Air France operated one of the largest fleets in the world. Between 1947 and 1965 the airline operated Lockheed Constellations on passenger and cargo services worldwide.
In 1946 and 1948 the French government authorised the creation of two private airlines: Transports Aériens Internationaux – Transports Aériens Intercontinentaux – and SATI. In 1949 the latter became part of Union Aéromaritime de Transport, a private French international airline. Compagnie Nationale Air France was created by act of parliament on 16 June 1948; the government held 70%. In subsequent years the French state's direct and indirect shareholdings reached 100%. In mid-2002 the state held 54%. On 4 August 1948 Max Hymans was appointed the president. During his 13-year tenure he would implement modernisation practices centred on the introduction of jet aircraft. In 1949 the company became a co-founder of Société Internationale de Télécommunications Aéronautiques, an airline telecommunications services company. In 1952 Air France moved its operations and engineering base to the new Paris Orly Airport South terminal. By the network covered 250,000 km. Air France entered the jet age in 1953 with the original, short-lived de Havilland Comet series 1, the world's first jetliner.
During the mid-1950s it operated the Vickers Viscount turboprop, with twelve entering services between May 1953 and August 1954 on the European routes. On 26 September1953z the government instructed Air France to share long-distance
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west; the county shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames, with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. The county town is Maidstone. Canterbury Cathedral in Kent has been the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, leader of the Church of England, since the Reformation. Prior to that it was built by Catholics, dating back to the conversion of England to Catholicism by Saint Augustine that began in the 6th century. Before the English Reformation the cathedral was part of a Benedictine monastic community known as Christ Church, Canterbury, as well as being the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury; the last Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury was Reginald Pole. Rochester Cathedral is in Kent, in Medway, it is the second-oldest cathedral in England, with Canterbury Cathedral being the oldest. Between London and the Strait of Dover, which separates it from mainland Europe, Kent has seen both diplomacy and conflict, ranging from the Leeds Castle peace talks of 1978 and 2004 to the Battle of Britain in World War II.
England relied on the county's ports to provide warships through much of its history. France can be seen in fine weather from Folkestone and the White Cliffs of Dover. Hills in the form of the North Downs and the Greensand Ridge span the length of the county and in the series of valleys in between and to the south are most of the county's 26 castles; because of its relative abundance of fruit-growing and hop gardens, Kent is known as "The Garden of England". Kent's economy is diversified. In northwest Kent industries include extraction of aggregate building materials and scientific research. Coal mining has played its part in Kent's industrial heritage. Large parts of Kent are within the London commuter belt and its strong transport connections to the capital and the nearby continent makes Kent a high-income county. Twenty-eight per cent of the county forms part of two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty: the North Downs and The High Weald; the name Kent is believed to be of British Celtic origin and was known in Old English as Cent, Cent lond, Centrice.
In Latin sources Kent is mentioned as Canticum. The meaning is explained by some researchers as "coastal district," or "corner-land, land on the edge". If so, the name could be etymologically related to the placename Cantabria a Celtiberian-speaking coastal region in pre-Roman Iberia, today a province of Spain; the area has been occupied since the Palaeolithic era, as attested by finds from the quarries at Swanscombe. The Medway megaliths were built during the Neolithic era. There is a rich sequence of Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman era occupation, as indicated by finds and features such as the Ringlemere gold cup and the Roman villas of the Darent valley; the modern name of Kent is derived from the Brythonic word kantos meaning "rim" or "border", or from a homonymous word kanto "horn, hook". This describes the eastern part of the current county area as coastal district. Julius Caesar had described the area as um, or home of the Cantiaci in 51 BC; the extreme west of the modern county was by the time of Roman Britain occupied by Iron Age tribes, known as the Regnenses.
Caesar wrote that the people of Kent are'by far the most civilised inhabitants of Britain'. East Kent became a kingdom of the Jutes during the 5th century and was known as Cantia from about 730 and recorded as Cent in 835; the early medieval inhabitants of the county were known as the Kent people. These people regarded the city of Canterbury as their capital. In 597, Pope Gregory I appointed the religious missionary as the first Archbishop of Canterbury. In the previous year, Augustine converted the pagan King Æthelberht of Kent to Christianity; the Diocese of Canterbury became England's first Episcopal See with first cathedral and has since remained England's centre of Christianity. The second designated English cathedral was in Kent at Rochester Cathedral. In the 11th century, the people of Kent adopted the motto Invicta, meaning "undefeated" or "unconquered"; this naming followed the invasion of Britain by William of Normandy. The Kent people's continued resistance against the Normans led to Kent's designation as a semi-autonomous county palatine in 1067.
Under the nominal rule of William's half-brother Odo of Bayeux, the county was granted similar powers to those granted in the areas bordering Wales and Scotland. Kent was traditionally partitioned into East and West Kent, into lathes and hundreds; the traditional border of East and West Kent was the Medway. Men and women from east of the Medway are Men of Kent, those from the west are Kentishmen or Kentish Maids. During the medieval and early modern period, Kent played a major role in several of England's most notable rebellions, including the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, led by Wat Tyler,Jack Cade's Kent rebellion of 1450, Wyatt's Rebellion of 1554 against Queen Mary I; the Royal Navy first used the River Medway in 1547. By the reign of Elizabeth I a small dockyard had been established at Chatham. By 1618, storehouses, a ropewalk, a drydock, houses for officials had
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In its purest form, it is a bright reddish yellow, soft and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a group 11 element, it is solid under standard conditions. Gold occurs in free elemental form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, in alluvial deposits, it occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver and naturally alloyed with copper and palladium. Less it occurs in minerals as gold compounds with tellurium. Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, which forms a soluble tetrachloroaurate anion. Gold is insoluble in nitric acid, which dissolves silver and base metals, a property that has long been used to refine gold and to confirm the presence of gold in metallic objects, giving rise to the term acid test. Gold dissolves in alkaline solutions of cyanide, which are used in mining and electroplating.
Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys. A rare element, gold is a precious metal, used for coinage and other arts throughout recorded history. In the past, a gold standard was implemented as a monetary policy, but gold coins ceased to be minted as a circulating currency in the 1930s, the world gold standard was abandoned for a fiat currency system after 1971. A total of 186,700 tonnes of gold exists above ground, as of 2015; the world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, 10% in industry. Gold's high malleability, resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions, conductivity of electricity have led to its continued use in corrosion resistant electrical connectors in all types of computerized devices. Gold is used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, tooth restoration. Certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine; as of 2017, the world's largest gold producer by far was China with 440 tonnes per year.
Gold is the most malleable of all metals. It can be drawn into a monoatomic wire, stretched about twice before it breaks; such nanowires distort via formation and migration of dislocations and crystal twins without noticeable hardening. A single gram of gold can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, an avoirdupois ounce into 300 square feet. Gold leaf can be beaten thin enough to become semi-transparent; the transmitted light appears greenish blue, because gold reflects yellow and red. Such semi-transparent sheets strongly reflect infrared light, making them useful as infrared shields in visors of heat-resistant suits, in sun-visors for spacesuits. Gold is a good conductor of electricity. Gold has a density of 19.3 g/cm3 identical to that of tungsten at 19.25 g/cm3. By comparison, the density of lead is 11.34 g/cm3, that of the densest element, osmium, is 22.588±0.015 g/cm3. Whereas most metals are gray or silvery white, gold is reddish-yellow; this color is determined by the frequency of plasma oscillations among the metal's valence electrons, in the ultraviolet range for most metals but in the visible range for gold due to relativistic effects affecting the orbitals around gold atoms.
Similar effects impart a golden hue to metallic caesium. Common colored gold alloys include the distinctive eighteen-karat rose gold created by the addition of copper. Alloys containing palladium or nickel are important in commercial jewelry as these produce white gold alloys. Fourteen-karat gold-copper alloy is nearly identical in color to certain bronze alloys, both may be used to produce police and other badges. White gold alloys can be made with nickel. Fourteen- and eighteen-karat gold alloys with silver alone appear greenish-yellow and are referred to as green gold. Blue gold can be made by alloying with iron, purple gold can be made by alloying with aluminium. Less addition of manganese, aluminium and other elements can produce more unusual colors of gold for various applications. Colloidal gold, used by electron-microscopists, is red. Gold has only one stable isotope, 197Au, its only occurring isotope, so gold is both a mononuclidic and monoisotopic element. Thirty-six radioisotopes have been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 169 to 205.
The most stable of these is 195Au with a half-life of 186.1 days. The least stable is 171Au. Most of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses below 197 decay by some combination of proton emission, α decay, β+ decay; the exceptions are 195Au, which decays by electron capture, 196Au, which decays most by electron capture with a minor β− decay path. All of gold's radioisotopes with atomic masses above 197 decay by β− decay. At least 32 nuclear isomers have been characterized, ranging in atomic mass from 170 to 200. Within that range, only 178Au, 180Au, 181Au, 182Au, 188Au do not have isomers. Gold's most stable isomer is 198m2Au with a half-life of 2.27 days. Gold's least stable isomer is 177m2Au with a half-life of only 7 ns. 184m1Au has three decay paths: β+ decay, isomeric
The FBA 19 was a flying boat bomber developed in France in 1924 by Franco-British Aviation. Similar in configuration to FBA's wartime designs, it was a conventional biplane flying boat with open cockpits for the three crewmembers. Unlike the firm's earlier designs, the engine was mounted tractor-fashion in a streamlined nacelle mounted in the interplane gap; the prototype set a world altitude record for its class with a 500 kg payload, but despite this performance, the French Navy did not order it, either in its original form or when it was offered as an amphibian. Another version was built as a commercial transport, but the only example built was sold to Air Union. FBA 19 HB.2 - 2-seat reconnaissance bomber. FBA 19 HMB.2 - 2-seat amphibian reconnaissance bomber. FBA 19 HMT.3 - 3-seat amphibian transport. FranceAir Union Data from Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1928, Aviafrance:FBA19General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 9.45 m Wingspan: 14.4 m Height: 3.8 m Wing area: 45.7 m2 Empty weight: 1,350 kg Gross weight: 1,920 kg Powerplant: 1 × Hispano-Suiza 8Fb V-8 water-cooled piston engine, 220 kW Propellers: 2-bladed fixed-pitch propellrPerformance Maximum speed: 175 km/h Range: 400 km Service ceiling: 6,000 m Time to altitude: 2,000 m in 10 minutes 25 seconds Wing loading: 42 kg/m2 Power/mass: 0.13699 kW/kg Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft Taylor, Michael J. H..
Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. P. 382. Уголок неба
The Blériot 155 was a French airliner of the 1920s. It was a four-engined biplane developed from the Blériot 115 and 135, but larger than these aircraft. Two were built for use by Air Union on their Paris-London route. Both were lost in accidents in 1926. In 1926, Robert Bajac piloted one of the 155s to break the world absolute aerial duration records for powered aircraft. On 26 March, he stayed aloft 3 hours 46 minutes 35 seconds with a 1,500 kg payload aboard, thereby not only breaking the record for this weight payload, but the record for 1,000 kg payload. On 24 July, he broke the equivalent record in the 2,000 kg payload class. On 18 August 1926, Blériot 155 F-AIEB Wilbur Wright crashed due to engine failure in bad weather at Hurst, near Lympne Airport. One crewmember and two of the thirteen passengers aboard were killed. On 2 October 1926, Blériot 155 F-AICQ Clement Ader of Air Union crashed at Leigh, Kent following an in-flight fire, killing all seven people on board; the pilot was trying to make an emergency landing at Penshurst Airfield.
Blériot 155 Four-engined airliner. Blériot 113 Projected bomber version. Not built. FranceAir Union General characteristics Crew: Two pilots and one radio operator Capacity: 17 passengers Length: 14.75 m Wingspan: 26.00 m Height: 5.23 m Wing area: 135.0 m2 Empty weight: 3,650 kg Gross weight: 6,350 kg Powerplant: 4 × Renault 8Fg piston engine, 172 kW eachPerformance Maximum speed: 175 km/h Range: 500 km Service ceiling: 4,000 m Armament Notes BibliographyTaylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. P. 162. Aviafrance.com planecrashinfo.com for 1926 FAI records set with the Blériot 115