Air marshal is a three-star air-officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force. The rank is used by the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence, including the Commonwealth, it is sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in countries which have a non-English air force-specific rank structure. Air marshal is a three-star rank and has a NATO ranking code of OF-8, equivalent to a vice-admiral in the Royal Navy or a lieutenant-general in the British Army or the Royal Marines. In other NATO forces, such as the United States Armed Forces and the Canadian Armed Forces, the equivalent three-star rank is lieutenant general; the rank of air marshal is senior to the rank of air vice-marshal and subordinate to the rank of air chief marshal. Officers in the rank of air marshal hold senior appointments such as commander-in-chief of an air force or a large air force formation. Officers in the ranks of air chief marshal and air vice-marshal are referred to generically as air marshals.
Air force officers of marshal rank are considered to be air marshals. Prior to the adoption of RAF-specific rank titles in 1919, it was suggested that the RAF might use the Royal Navy's officer ranks, with the word "air" inserted before the naval rank title. For example, the rank that became air marshal would have been air vice-admiral; the Admiralty objected to any use of their rank titles, including this modified form, so an alternative proposal was put forward: air-officer ranks would be based on the term "ardian", derived from a combination of the Gaelic words for "chief" and "bird", with the term "second ardian" or "wing ardian" being used for the rank equivalent to a vice-admiral and lieutenant-general. However, air marshal was preferred and was adopted on 1 August 1919; the rank of air marshal was first used on 11 August 1919 when Sir Hugh Trenchard was promoted to the rank and it has been used since. The rank insignia consists of two narrow light blue bands over a light blue band on a broad black band.
This is worn on the lower sleeves of the dress uniform or on shoulders of the flying suit or working uniform. The command flag for an air marshal is defined by the single broad red band running in the centre of the flag; the vehicle star plate for an air marshal depicts three white stars on an air force blue background. The rank of air marshal is used in a number of the air forces in the Commonwealth, including the Bangladesh Air Force, Indian Air Force, Pakistan Air Force, Royal Australian Air Force and Royal New Zealand Air Force, it is used in the Nigerian Air Force, Ghana Air Force, Hellenic Air Force, Air Force of Zimbabwe and the Royal Thai Air Force. In the Indonesian Air Force, the equivalent rank is marsekal madya, translated as air marshal in English; the Brazilian Air Force does not use air marshal ranks as an equivalent to general ranks, rather it uses a number of ranks based on the word brigadier. However, its highest rank is the equivalent to a Brazilian Army marshal. Marechal-do-ar can be translated as air marshal of the air.
The Royal Malaysian Air Force's five-star rank of marshal udara translates as air marshal. The Australian Air Corps adopted the RAF rank system on 9 November 1920 and this usage was continued by its successor, the Royal Australian Air Force. However, the rank of air marshal was not used by the Australian Armed Forces until 1940 when Richard Williams, an RAAF officer, was promoted. In Australia, there are four appointments available for air marshals: the Chief of Air Force and, at times when they are occupied by an air force officer, the Vice Chief of Defence Force, the Chief of Joint Operations, the Chief of Capability Development Group. In New Zealand, the head of the air force holds the lower rank of air vice-marshal. However, when an air force officer holds the country's senior military appointment, Chief of the New Zealand Defence Force, he is granted the rank of air marshal; the current Chief of Defence Force is Air Marshal Kevin Short. Other officers to hold Air Marshal rank in New Zealand are: Sir Richard Bolt, promoted 1976, retired 1980 Sir Ewan Jamieson, promoted 1983 David Crooks, promoted 1986 Carey Adamson Sir Bruce Ferguson, promoted 2001 The Royal Canadian Air Force used the rank until the 1968 unification of the Canadian Forces, when army-type rank titles were adopted and an air marshal became a lieutenant-general.
In official French Canadian usage, the rank title was maréchal de l'air. The Canadian Chief of the Air Staff ordinarily held the rank of air marshal; the following RCAF officers held the rank: Billy Bishop, rank retained on retirement George Croil, rank retained on retirement Lloyd Samuel Breadner, subsequently promoted to air chief marshal Gus Edwards, rank retained on retirement Albert Cuffe, rank retained on retirement Robert Leckie, rank retained on retirement George Owen Johnson, rank retained on retirement Wilfred Curtis, rank retained on retirement Roy Slemon, rank retained on retirement Frank Robert Miller, subsequently promoted to air chief marshal Hugh Campbe
Wallace O. Stovall Sr. was the publisher of the Tampa Tribune. The Wallace Stovall building, built in 1926 according to designs by Tampa architect B. Clayton Bonfoey, was located at 416 Tampa Lafayette Street, it was used as a Works Progress Administration Headquarters during the Great Depression of the 1930s and was demolished. Col. Wallace Stovall Jr. was an editor at the Tribune in 1910. Stovall was married to Doris Knight Stovall, he was a FL Y2 USNRF World War I. His children included Wallace Oliver Stovall, he has a grandson named Wallace O. Stovall III. Stovall is buried in the Myrtle Hill Memorial Park cemetery in Tampa The Stovall House is Stovall's historic home in Tampa, Florida, it is located at 4621 Bayshore Boulevard. On September 4, 1974, it was added to the U. S. National Register of Historic Places. There was a Wallace Stovall III
Lt. Col.-Dr. John A. English is a writer on historical and military topics. English was educated at Royal Roads and the Royal Military College, he went on leave without pay to attain an MA in history from Duke University in 1963-64, he passed final promotion exams in 1966 and graduated from Canadian Forces Staff College in 1972. He first joined the King's Own Calgary Regiment and from 1962 served in the Queen's Own Rifles of Canada until 1970, when he moved to Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry. In 1980 he attained an MA in war studies from RMC, a Ph. D. from Queen's University in 1989 while still in service. During his career he saw service with Canadian and British regiments in England, Denmark, Cyprus and Alaska. English served as a NATO war plans officer, Chief of Tactics of the Combat Training Centre, instructor at the Canadian Land Forces Command and Staff College, curriculum director of the National Defence College. English retired from the Canadian army after 37 years of service in 1993.
In 1992 English accepted a $60,000 Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada fellowship and a professorship at Queen's University. Two years he was awarded a $31,000 SSHRCC research grant. For five years between 1997 and 2002 English served as a Professor of Strategy with the US Naval War College. On return to Canada he was employed until November 2003 as director of the Defence Minister's Monitoring Committee on Change. On 19 October 2004 the Minister appointed him Honorary Lieutenant-Colonel of the Brockville Rifles and from 2010-2013 he served as Honorary Colonel. English is the author of: A Perspective on Infantry republished in paperback as On Infantry The Canadian Army and the Normandy Campaign: A Study of Failure in High Command Marching through Chaos: The Descent of Armies in Theory and Practice Lament for an Army: The Decline of Canadian Military Professionalism Patton's Peers: The Forgotten Allied Field Army Commanders of the Western Front 1944-45 Surrender Invites Death: Fighting the Waffen SS in Normandy He was the co-author of On Infantry: Revised Edition and principal editor of The Mechanized Battlefield: A Tactical Analysis.
He has additionally produced numerous chapters for books and his articles have appeared in Military Affairs, Jane's Military Review, the Naval War College Review, Infantry magazine, the Marine Corps Gazette, the Canadian Defence Quarterly, the Canadian Military Journal and the proceedings of the Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies. He has been a member of the Royal Canadian Military Institute since 1971 and continues to write on military subjects. English, John. A Perspective on Infantry. Praeger. ISBN 978-0-03-059699-5. English, John; the Canadian Army and the Normandy Campaign. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-93019-6. English, John. On Infantry. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-94972-3. English, John. Marching Through Chaos: The Descent of Armies in Theory and Practice. Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-94657-9. English, John. Lament for an Army: The Decline of Canadian Military Professionalism. Irwin. ISBN 978-0-7725-2520-8. English, John. Patton's Peers: The Forgotten Allied Field Army Commanders of the Western Front, 1944–45.
Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-0501-1. Surrender Invites Death: Fighting the Waffen SS in Normandy
This is a list of notable Romani people and people of Romani descent. László Berényi – Hungarian politician Dávid Daróczi – Government Spokesperson of the Republic of Hungary Juan de Dios Ramírez Heredia – Spanish politician, former MP, ex-member of the European Parliament and founder of the Romani Union Damian Draghici – current Member of the European Parliament, former MP Romanian Parliament – senator, adviser of the Prime Minister on Roma issues Rajko Đurić – Serbian writer and academic, leader of Roma Union of Serbia Flórián Farkas – Hungarian politician James Farnell – Australian politician Bajram Haliti – Kosovar activist Ian Hancock – Romani scholar and activist, born in UK, living in USA, professor at the University of Texas Amber L. Hollibaugh – American writer and activist. Lívia Járóka – Hungarian Member of the European Parliament Orbán Kolompár – Hungarian politician and activist Ali Krasniqi – Albanian writer and activist Juscelino Kubitschek – Brazilian president, his mother was of Czech and Roma descent Ronald Lee –, Canadian Romani novelist, activist and U.
N. delegate Mihály Lukács – Hungarian politician Washington Luís – Brazilian president of Portuguese and Romani descent Alfonso Mejia-Arias – musician and politician, Mexico Viktória Mohácsi – Hungarian Member of the European Parliament Ágnes Osztolykán – Hungarian politician Talaat Pasha – former Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. Nicolae Păun – Romanian politician Soraya Post – Swedish politician for the Feminist Initiative party. Ştefan Răzvan – Prince of Moldavia, ruled Moldavia for four months Sani Rifati – Serbian activist Ernest Rogers – English communist Romani Rose – German Sinto activist Rudolf Sarközi – chairman of the Austrian Romani association Kulturverein József Varga – Hungarian politician Mădălin Voicu – Romanian politician. His father, Ion Voicu, is Romani Veijo Baltzar – Finnish writer Edward Dębicki – Polish poet Rajko Djuric – Serbian writer & activist Louise Doughty – British writer Karen Finley – American performance artist and poet Delia Grigore – Romanian writer and activist Caren Gussoff – American writer, claims Romani and mixed heritages.
Bajram Haliti – Kosovan author Lafcadio Hearn – Irish writer Usin Kerim – Bulgarian poet Menyhért Lakatos – Hungarian Romani writer Ronald Lee – Canadian writer, Romani activist and lecturer at the University of Toronto. Baja Saitovic Lukin – poet Oksana Marafioti – American writer of Armenian and Romani descent Matéo Maximoff – French writer Mehmed Merejan – Bulgarian poet David Morley – British poet, anthologist and ecologist Anton Pann – Romanian musicologist and poet Muharem Serbezovski – Macedonian singer and writer Charlie Smith – poet Ceija Stojka – Austrian author and painter Katarina Taikon – Swedish children's writer Bronisława Wajs – AKA "Papusza", Polish poet and singer Mikey Walsh – British author Carmen Amaya – Spanish flamenco dancer Remedios Amaya – Spanish flamenco singer Gitano Antón – Spanish rapper and member of La Excepción Azis – Bulgarian chalga singer. Elek Bacsik – Hungarian jazz violinist and guitarist, multiinstrumentalist Šaban Bajramović – Serbian singer Janika Balázs – was a Serbian musician Tonino Baliardo – Franco-Spanish guitar player.
RNA component of mitochondrial RNA processing endoribonuclease known as RMRP, is a human gene. Mitochondrial RNA-processing endoribonuclease cleaves mitochondrial RNA complementary to the light chain of the displacement loop at a unique site; the enzyme is a ribonucleoprotein. The RNA component is the first RNA encoded by a single-copy gene in the nucleus and imported into mitochondria; the RMRP gene is untranslated, i.e. it encodes an RNA not a protein. It is associated with cartilage–hair hypoplasia. RMRP,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Cartilage-Hair Hypoplasia - Anauxetic Dysplasia Spectrum Disorders
William Richard Maximilian Hugo Threlfall was a British-born German mathematician who worked on algebraic topology. He was a coauthor of the standard textbook Lehrbuch der Topologie. In 1933 he signed the Vow of allegiance of the Professors of the German Universities and High-Schools to Adolf Hitler and the National Socialistic State. Threlfall, W. "Gruppenbilder", Abh. Math.-Phys. Kl. Sächs. Akad. Wiss. Leipzig: Hirzel, 41: 1–59 Seifert, Threlfall: Lehrbuch der Topologie, Teubner 1934 Seifert, Threlfall: Variationsrechnung im Großen, Teubner 1938 Gabriele Dörflinger: William R. M. H. Threlfall William Threlfall at the Mathematics Genealogy Project