An electric aircraft is an aircraft powered by electric motors. Electricity may be supplied by a variety of methods including batteries, ground power cables, solar cells, fuel cells and power beaming. Electrically powered model aircraft have been flown since the 1970s, with one unconfirmed report as early as 1957, they have since developed into small battery-powered unmanned aerial vehicles or drones, which in the twenty-first century have become used for many purposes. Although manned flights in a tethered helicopter go back to 1917 and in airships to the previous century, the first manned free flight by an electrically powered aeroplane was not made until 1973 and most manned electric aircraft today are still only experimental demonstrators. Between 2015 and 2016, Solar Impulse 2 completed a circumnavigation of the Earth using solar power. All electric aircraft to date have been powered by electric motors driving thrust-generating propellers or lift-generating rotors; some of the propeller-driven types have been airships.
Mechanisms for storing and supplying the necessary electricity vary and each has distinct advantages and disadvantages. Mechanisms used include: Batteries can retain a significant electrical charge, although their weight still limits the range achievable. Power cables connect to a ground-based supply. Solar cells convert sunlight directly into electricity. Ultracapacitors can store a limited amount of energy for short bursts of high-power use Fuel cells are similar to batteries but draw their reactants from an external source. Microwave energy has been beamed from a ground-based source. Batteries are the most common energy carrier component of electric aircraft, due to their high capacity. Batteries were the earliest source of electricity, first powering airships in the nineteenth century; these early batteries were heavy and it was not until the arrival of technologies such as nickel-cadmium rechargeable types in the second half of the twentieth century, that batteries became a practicable power source.
Modern battery types include lithium-based and a number of other less used technologies. Such batteries remain a popular power source today, although they still have limited endurance between charges and hence limited range. Batteries are often used for temporary storage of electricity generated by another source. An electrical power cable may be connected to a ground-based supply, such as an electric generator. At low altitudes this can avoid carrying heavy batteries and was used by the experimental Petróczy-Kármán-Žurovec PKZ-1 observation helicopter of 1917; however such a craft must remain tethered to a ground facility, the higher it flies, the heavier the weight of cable it must lift with it. A solar cell converts sunlight directly into electricity, either for direct power or temporary storage; the power output of solar cells is small when many are connected together, which limits their use and is expensive. However their use of available sunlight makes them attractive for high-altitude, long-endurance applications.
For endurance flights, keeping the craft in the air all night requires a backup storage system, which supplies power during the hours of darkness and recharges during the day. An ultracapacitor can store a limited amount of energy for short bursts of high-power use, such as when taking off, but due to its small storage ability it is not suitable as a primary power source, its advantage over a small battery is the ability to charge and discharge much faster with higher peak currents. A fuel cell uses the reaction between two fluids such as oxygen to create electricity. Unlike a battery, the fluids are drawn in from outside; this offers the prospect of much greater range than batteries and experimental examples have flown, but the technology has yet to reach production. Power beaming of electromagnetic energy such as microwaves, like a power cable, requires a ground-based power source. However, compared to a power cable, power beaming carries much less weight penalty as altitude increases; the technology awaits practical development.
The use of electricity for aircraft propulsion was first experimented with during the development of the airship which took place in the latter part of the nineteenth century. On 8 October 1883, Gaston Tissandier flew the first electrically-powered airship; the following year, Charles Arthur Krebs flew La France with a more powerful motor. With the lifting capacity of an airship, the heavy accumulators needed to store the electricity limited the speed and range of such early airships. For a tethered device such as an air observation platform, it is possible to run the power up the tether. In an attempt to create a more practical solution than the clumsy balloons in use, the Austro-Hungarian Petróczy-Kármán-Žurovec PKZ-1 electric-powered helicopter was flown in 1917, it had a specially-designed 190 hp continuous-rated electric motor made by Austro-Daimler and received its power up a cable from a ground-based DC generator. However electric motors were not yet powerful enough for such applications and the motor burned out after only a few flights.
In 1909, an electric free flight model was claimed to have been flown eight minutes, but this claim was disputed by the builder of the first recorded electric Radio-Controlled model aircraft flight in 1957. Power density for electric flight is problematic for small models. In 1964, William C. Brown at Raytheon flew a model helicopter that received all of the power needed for flight by microwave power transmission. Success in a full-sized aeroplane would not be achieved until Nickel-cadmium batteries were developed, having a much hig
Cessna Citation X
The Cessna Citation X is an American business jet with 3,460 nmi of range produced by Cessna and part of the Citation family. Announced at the October 1990 NBAA convention, it made its maiden flight on December 21, 1993, received its type certification on June 3, 1996 and was first delivered in July 1996; the updated Citation X + was offered from 2012 with a 14 in upgraded systems. Keeping the Citation III fuselage cross section, it has a new 37° swept wing with an area of 527 ft² for a fast Mach 0.935 MMo and 36,600 lb MTOW, a T-tail and two 7,034 lbf AE3007 turbofans. After 338 deliveries, production ended in 2018; when the Citation X was announced, the Citation 650 series, the "family" at the top of the product line, which includes the Citations III, VI, VII, was eight years old. In 1990, Cessna made a proposition for an improved 650 model to their Customer Advisory Council; the council was interested in some new elements such as increased speed and a pressurized baggage compartment. This pushed Cessna toward the Citation X program.
Moreover, Cessna wanted to improve the image of the Citation family. The Citation models that emerged in the 1970s were intended to be practical and with good handling qualities, they turned out to be much slower than the competing Learjets. Cessna had difficulties in shedding of the popular image of the Citation as a slow airplane though their jets had become as fast as the competition; the development of the Citation X was first announced at the National Business Aviation Association Convention in New Orleans in October 1990, with the first prototype making its maiden flight on December 21, 1993. Scheduled for August 1995, the certification of the Cessna Citation X was delayed several times. First, failure of the airframe and engine to meet Federal Aviation Administration requirements caused the planned certification date postponement to late November 1995; the main delay reasons were troubles integrating the avionics and the engine to the aircraft, high-altitude and low-speed engine flame out, engines not meeting the bird strike criteria, directional stability challenges.
Efforts to increase the maximum take-off weight of the Citation X by about 800 pounds again delayed the FAA certification schedule, this time to April 1996. These changes were aimed at permitting a full-fuel payload of 1,400 pounds, but Cessna had difficulty achieving a balance between reducing Citation X cabin noise and minimizing the extra weight of sound-dampening materials; the certification, FAA FAR Part 25, Amendment 74, Certification 3, was achieved on June 3, 1996. The first Citation X was delivered in July 1996 to golfer and long-time Cessna customer Arnold Palmer. Once in use, the Citation X continued to set speed records. Arnold Palmer set one of them in September 1997: 473 knots on a 5,000 km closed course. In February 1997, the Citation X design team was awarded the National Aeronautic Association's Robert J. Collier Trophy; the Citation X was approved by Transport Canada on May 22, 1998, by the European Joint Aviation Authorities in 1999. In October 2000, Cessna announced an upgrade for all Citation Xs to be delivered after January 1, 2002.
The main characteristics of this upgraded version are a 5% increase in thrust, a 400 lb increase in maximum take-off weight and improved Honeywell avionics. In 2010, Cessna initiated a major update of the aircraft dubbed the Citation Ten, which included upgraded AE3007C2 engines with new fans, Garmin G5000 flight displays with three 14-inch screens, a heads-up display; the elliptical winglets that were available as an aftermarket option on the Citation X became standard, a stretch of 38 centimetres was incorporated to improve passenger comfort. Due to a 1.4% improvement in Specific Fuel Consumption and increased thrust, the Citation X+ can support an increase in payload of 97 kilograms, an increase in cruise speed at FL490 from 460 to 479 knots, a range increase of 190 nmi. First flight was completed on January 17, 2012; the height has been increased to 19 ft 3 in, length increased to 73 ft 7 in, wing span has been expanded to 69 ft 2 in, maximum takeoff weight has increased to 36,600 lb, maximum cruise speed has increased to 527 knots at FL350, maximum range has increased to 3,242 nautical miles.
Despite Cessna's long history of building business jets and the number of aircraft in the Citation family, the Citation X was in many ways a new aircraft. The wing, tail cone and systems are designed from scratch and not based on existing aircraft; the Citation X is the first aircraft from Cessna to use a Rolls-Royce engine and integrated avionics. Although the Citation X may look similar to its predecessors, it is entirely composed of new parts. Part commonality is limited to some cockpit controls, the windshield, the tail light bulb; the pressure bulkhead is similar to previous designs. The Citation X has the same fuselage diameter as the Citations VI and VII; the aircraft incorporates a number of innovative design features. One attribute, first noticed is the large diameter of the engine intakes; this feature, related to the high bypass ratio turbofan, reduces the noise from the engines and improves fuel efficiency. Another obvious characteristic is the swept wing with a supercritica
The turbofan or fanjet is a type of airbreathing jet engine, used in aircraft propulsion. The word "turbofan" is a portmanteau of "turbine" and "fan": the turbo portion refers to a gas turbine engine which achieves mechanical energy from combustion, the fan, a ducted fan that uses the mechanical energy from the gas turbine to accelerate air rearwards. Thus, whereas all the air taken in by a turbojet passes through the turbine, in a turbofan some of that air bypasses the turbine. A turbofan thus can be thought of as a turbojet being used to drive a ducted fan, with both of these contributing to the thrust; the ratio of the mass-flow of air bypassing the engine core divided by the mass-flow of air passing through the core is referred to as the bypass ratio. The engine produces thrust through a combination of these two portions working together. Most commercial aviation jet engines in use today are of the high-bypass type, most modern military fighter engines are low-bypass. Afterburners are not used on high-bypass turbofan engines but may be used on either low-bypass turbofan or turbojet engines.
Modern turbofans have either a smaller fan with several stages. An early configuration combined a low-pressure fan in a single rear-mounted unit. Turbofans were invented to circumvent an awkward feature of turbojets, that they were inefficient for subsonic flight. To raise the efficiency of a turbojet, the obvious approach would be to increase the burner temperature, to give better Carnot efficiency and fit larger compressors and nozzles. However, while that does increase thrust somewhat, the exhaust jet leaves the engine with higher velocity, which at subsonic flight speeds, takes most of the extra energy with it, wasting fuel. Instead, a turbofan can be thought of as a turbojet being used to drive a ducted fan, with both of those contributing to the thrust. Whereas all the air taken in by a turbojet passes through the turbine, in a turbofan some of that air bypasses the turbine; because the turbine has to additionally drive the fan, the turbine is larger and has larger pressure and temperature drops, so the nozzles are smaller.
This means. The fan has lower exhaust velocity, giving much more thrust per unit energy; the overall effective exhaust velocity of the two exhaust jets can be made closer to a normal subsonic aircraft's flight speed. In effect, a turbofan emits a large amount of air more whereas a turbojet emits a smaller amount of air, a far less efficient way to generate the same thrust; the ratio of the mass-flow of air bypassing the engine core compared to the mass-flow of air passing through the core is referred to as the bypass ratio. The engine produces thrust through a combination of these two portions working together. Most commercial aviation jet engines in use today are of the high-bypass type, most modern military fighter engines are low-bypass. Afterburners are not used on high-bypass turbofan engines but may be used on either low-bypass turbofan or turbojet engines; the bypass ratio of a turbofan engine is the ratio between the mass flow rate of the bypass stream to the mass flow rate entering the core.
A 10:1 bypass ratio, for example, means that 10 kg of air passes through the bypass duct for every 1 kg of air passing through the core. Turbofan engines are described in terms of BPR, which together with overall pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature and fan pressure ratio are important design parameters. In addition bpr is quoted for turboprop and unducted fan installations because their high propulsive efficiency gives them the overall efficiency characteristics of high bypass turbofans; this allows them to be shown together with turbofans on plots which show trends of reducing specific fuel consumption with increasing BPS. BPR can be quoted for lift fan installations where the fan airflow is remote from the engine and doesn't physically touch the engine core. Bypass provides a lower fuel consumption for the same thrust. If all the gas power from a gas turbine is converted to kinetic energy in a propelling nozzle, the aircraft is best suited to high supersonic speeds. If it is all transferred to a separate big mass of air with low kinetic energy, the aircraft is best suited to zero speed.
For speeds in between, the gas power is shared between a separate airstream and the gas turbine's own nozzle flow in a proportion which gives the aircraft performance required. The trade off between mass flow and velocity is seen with propellers and helicopter rotors by comparing disc loading and power loading. For example, the same helicopter weight can be supported by a high power engine and small diameter rotor or, for less fuel, a lower power engine and bigger rotor with lower velocity through the rotor. Bypass refers to transferring gas power from a gas turbine to a bypass stream of air to reduce fuel consumption and jet noise. Alternatively, there may be a requirement for an afterburning engine where the sole requirement for bypass is to provide cooling air; this sets the lower limit for bpr and these engines have been called "leaky" or continuous bleed turbojets and low bpr turbojets. Low bpr has bee
The Saab 2000 is a twin-engined high-speed turboprop airliner built by Saab. It is designed to carry 50 -- cruise at a speed of 665 km/h. Production took place in Linköping in southern Sweden; the Saab 2000 first flew in March 1992 and was certified in 1994. The last aircraft was delivered in a total of 63 aircraft being built. By July 2018, 24 Saab 2000s were in airline service. In December 1988, Saab decided to build a stretched derivative of its successful Saab 340 twin-turboprop regional airliner; the new aircraft was planned to meet a perceived demand for a high-speed 50-seat turboprop with good climb performance which could operate over short- and medium-range routes with similar block times to jet aircraft while retaining the efficiency provided by turboprop engines. The new airliner, called the Saab 2000, was formally launched in May 1989, with Saab having firm orders for 46 aircraft and options for a further 147; the aircraft was assembled at Saab's Linköping factory, with major subcontractors including CASA, who built the aircraft's wings, Short Brothers, who built the rear fuselage and Valmet who built the aircraft's tail surfaces.
The Saab 2000 first flew on 26 March 1992 and entered into scheduled airline service in September 1994, a few months after its certification by the Joint Aviation Authorities in March and the Federal Aviation Administration in April. The Saab 2000 has a 15% greater wingspan than the Saab 340, being 7.55 metres longer can carry up to 58 passengers in a high-density layout and 50 with a more comfortable 32 inches seat pitch. The 2000 was the first commercial aircraft to use the 4,591shp Rolls-Royce AE 2100 turboprop engines, driving slow turning six-bladed Dowty Rotol propellers. One engine was mounted on each wing, as in the 340, with the engines placed further from the fuselage than those of the 340 to reduce cabin noise. Sales of the Saab 2000 were limited; the major initial customer was a regional airline which had Swissair as a 56 % shareholder. Crossair took delivery of 34 aircraft and was still operating the type in 2005. Due to limited demand, Saab ceased production of the Saab 2000 in 1999, with the last aircraft being delivered to Crossair on 29 April of that year.
The primary reason for the low sales was the success of newly introduced regional jets such as the Bombardier CRJ and Embraer ERJ 145 family which provided better performance and passenger comfort for the same initial price. General Motors operated several corporate-configured Saab 2000s and was in talks with new startup air carrier Pro Air to have this airline operate them in scheduled service as Pro Air Express in the U. S.. Air Marshall Islands operated a Saab 2000 in the remote Micronesia island region of the Pacific Ocean; some smaller airlines, including Eastern Airways in the UK, have subsequently acquired 2000s at low cost and operated them on regional routes which experience lower passenger numbers as well on shuttle services in the U. K. for oil and gas personnel working in the North Sea. In June 2006, Pakistan completed the purchase of six Saab 2000 turboprop aircraft to be equipped with the Saab-Ericsson ERIEYE Airborne Early Warning system. Revised in May 2007 due to renegotiation with the Government of Pakistan, only five aircraft will be delivered, four of which will be equipped with the Erieye system.
On 3 April 2008, the first Saab 2000 Erieye AEW&C was rolled out and presented to Pakistan Air Force officials during a ceremony in Sweden. By July 2018, 24 Saab 2000s were in airline service; as of 2017, the only operator of the Saab 2000 in scheduled passenger operations in the U. S. is PenAir flying code sharing service on behalf of Alaska Airlines between Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport and several destinations in the state of Alaska. Saab 2000: 50–58 seat regional airliner. Saab 2000FI: Flight inspection aircraft for the Japan Civil Aviation Bureau, two produced. Saab 2000 AEW&C: Airborne early warning and control variant fitted with Erieye active electronically scanned array radar and associated mission systems. Saab 2000 Airtracer: SIGINT aircraft Saab 2000 MPA: Maritime patrol aircraft As of March 2019, a total of 16 Saab 2000s remained in civilian airline service, operated by: Eastern Airways Loganair PenAir Pakistan Air Force Royal Saudi Air Force Japan Civil Aviation Bureau The following airlines operated Saab 2000 aircraft in scheduled passenger service in the past: SkyWork Airlines Air France Air Marshall Islands Braathens Regional Carpatair Crossair Adria Airways Switzerland Deutsche BA Flybe FlyLAL Golden Air Malmo Aviation Moldavian Airlines OLT Express Germany PGA Portugália Airlines Polet Airlines Scandinavian Airlines Scandinavian Commuter Data from Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1999/2000General characteristics Crew: two Capacity: 50–58 passengers Payload: 5,900 kg Length: 27.28 m Wingspan: 24.76 m Height: 7.73 m Wing area: 55.7 m² Airfoil: NASA MS013 Aspect ratio: 11:1 Empty weight: 13,800 kg Max.
Takeoff weight: 22,800 kg Powerplant: 2 × Allison AE 2100A turboprop, 3,096 kW each Propellers: six blade constant speed Dowty propellers, 1 per enginePerformance Cruise speed: 665 km/h Range: 2,869 km at long range cruise Service ceiling: 9,450 m Rate of climb: 11.4 m/s Avionics Rockwell Collins Pro Line 4 avionics suite with integrated av
Trondheim is a city and municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway. It has a population of 193,501, is the third-most populous municipality in Norway, although the fourth largest urban area. Trondheim lies on the south shore of Trondheim Fjord at the mouth of the River Nidelva; the city is dominated by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, the Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research, St. Olavs University Hospital and other technology-oriented institutions; the settlement was founded in 997 as a trading post, it served as the capital of Norway during the Viking Age until 1217. From 1152 to 1537, the city was the seat of the Catholic Archdiocese of Nidaros, it was incorporated in 1838. The current municipality dates from 1964, when Trondheim merged with Byneset, Leinstrand and Tiller; the city functions as the seat of the County Mayor of Trøndelag county, but not as the administrative centre, Steinkjer. This is to make the county more efficient and not too centralized, as Trøndelag is the second largest county in Norway.
The city was given the name by Olav Tryggvason. It was for a long time called Niðaróss in the Old Norse spelling, but it was just called kaupangr or, more kaupangr í Þróndheimi. In the late Middle Ages people started to call the city just Þróndheimr. In the Dano-Norwegian period, during the years as a provincial town in the united kingdoms of Denmark–Norway, the city name was spelled Trondhjem. Following the example set by the renaming of the capital Kristiania to Oslo, Nidaros was reintroduced as the official name of the city for a brief period from 1 January 1930 until 6 March 1931; the name was restored in order to reaffirm the city's link with its glorious past, despite the fact that a 1928 referendum on the name of the city had resulted in 17,163 votes in favour of Trondhjem and only 1,508 votes in favour of Nidaros. Public outrage in the same year taking the form of riots, forced the Storting to settle for the medieval city name Trondheim; the name of the diocese was, changed from Trondhjem stift to Nidaros bispedømme in 1918.
Trondheim was named Drontheim during the Second World War, as a German exonym. Trondheimen indicates the area around Trondheim Fjord; the spelling Trondhjem was rejected, but many still prefer that spelling of the city's name. For the ecclesiastical history, see Archiepiscopate of NidarosTrondheim was named Kaupangen by Viking King Olav Tryggvason in 997. Shortly thereafter it came to be called Nidaros. In the beginning it was used as a military retainer of King Olav I, it was used as the seat of the king, was the capital of Norway until 1217. People have been living in the region for thousands of years as evidenced by the rock carvings in central Norway, the Nøstvet and Lihult cultures and the Corded Ware culture. In ancient times, the Kings of Norway were hailed at Øretinget in Trondheim, the place for the assembly of all free men by the mouth of the River Nidelva. Harald Fairhair was hailed as the king here, as was his son, Haakon I, called'the Good'; the battle of Kalvskinnet took place in Trondheim in 1179: King Sverre Sigurdsson and his Birkebeiner warriors were victorious against Erling Skakke.
Some scholars believe that the famous Lewis chessmen, 12th century chess pieces carved from walrus ivory found in the Hebrides and now at the British Museum, may have been made in Trondheim. Trondheim was the seat of the Archbishop of Nidaros for Norway from 1152, who operated from the Archbishop's Palace. Due to the introduction of Lutheran Protestantism in 1537, the last Archbishop, Olav Engelbrektsson, had to flee from the city to the Netherlands, where he died in present-day Lier, Belgium; the city has experienced several major fires. Since much of the city was made of wooden buildings, many of the fires caused severe damage. Great fires ravaged the city in 1598, 1651, 1681, 1708, twice in 1717, 1742, 1788, 1841 and 1842; the 1651 fire destroyed 90% of all buildings within the city limits. The fire in 1681 led to an total reconstruction of the city, overseen by General Johan Caspar von Cicignon from Luxembourg. Broad avenues like Munkegaten were created, with no regard for property rights, in order to stop the next fire.
At the time, the city had a population of 8000 inhabitants. After the Treaty of Roskilde on 26 February 1658, Trondheim and the rest of Trøndelag, became Swedish territory for a brief period, but the area was reconquered 10 months later; the conflict was settled by the Treaty of Copenhagen on 27 May 1660. During the Second World War, Trondheim was occupied by Nazi Germany from 9 April 1940, the first day of the invasion of Norway, until the end of the war in Europe, 8 May 1945; the German invasion force consisted of the German cruiser Admiral Hipper, 4 destroyers and 1700 Austrian Mountain troops. Other than a coastal battery opening fire, there was no resistance to the invasion on 9 April at 5 AM. On 14 and 17 April and French forces landed near Trondheim in a failed attempt to liberate Trondheim as part of the Namsos Campaign. During the occupation, Trondheim was the home of the notorious Norwegian Gestapo agent, Henry Rinnan, who operated from a nearby villa a
The European Commission is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU. Commissioners swear an oath at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg City, pledging to respect the treaties and to be independent in carrying out their duties during their mandate. Unlike in the Council of the European Union, where members are directly and indirectly elected, the European Parliament, where members are directly elected, the Commissioners are proposed by the Council of the European Union, on the basis of suggestions made by the national governments, appointed by the European Council after the approval of the European Parliament; the Commission operates with 28 members of the Commission. There is one member per member state, but members are bound by their oath of office to represent the general interest of the EU as a whole rather than their home state. One of the 28 is the Commission President proposed by the European Council and elected by the European Parliament.
The Council of the European Union nominates the other 27 members of the Commission in agreement with the nominated President, the 28 members as a single body are subject to a vote of approval by the European Parliament. The current Commission is the Juncker Commission, which took office in late 2014, following the European Parliament elections in May of the same year; the term Commission is variously used, either in the narrow sense of the 28-member College of Commissioners or to include the administrative body of about 32,000 European civil servants who are split into departments called directorates-general and services. The procedural languages of the Commission are English and German; the Members of the Commission and their "cabinets" are based in the Berlaymont building in Brussels. The European Commission derives from one of the five key institutions created in the supranational European Community system, following the proposal of Robert Schuman, French Foreign Minister, on 9 May 1950.
Originating in 1951 as the High Authority in the European Coal and Steel Community, the Commission has undergone numerous changes in power and composition under various presidents, involving three Communities. The first Commission originated in 1951 as the nine-member "High Authority" under President Jean Monnet; the High Authority was the supranational administrative executive of the new European Coal and Steel Community. It took office first on 10 August 1952 in Luxembourg City. In 1958, the Treaties of Rome had established two new communities alongside the ECSC: the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community; however their executives were called "Commissions" rather than "High Authorities". The reason for the change in name was the new relationship between the Council; some states, such as France, expressed reservations over the power of the High Authority, wished to limit it by giving more power to the Council rather than the new executives. Louis Armand led the first Commission of Euratom.
Walter Hallstein led the first Commission of the EEC, holding the first formal meeting on 16 January 1958 at the Château of Val-Duchesse. It achieved agreement on a contentious cereal price accord, as well as making a positive impression upon third countries when it made its international debut at the Kennedy Round of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade negotiations. Hallstein notably began the consolidation of European law and started to have a notable impact on national legislation. Little heed was taken of his administration at first but, with help from the European Court of Justice, his Commission stamped its authority solidly enough to allow future Commissions to be taken more seriously. In 1965, accumulating differences between the French government of Charles de Gaulle and the other member states on various subjects triggered the "empty chair" crisis, ostensibly over proposals for the Common Agricultural Policy. Although the institutional crisis was solved the following year, it cost Etienne Hirsch his presidency of Euratom and Walter Hallstein the EEC presidency, despite his otherwise being viewed as the most'dynamic' leader until Jacques Delors.
The three bodies, collectively named the European Executives, co-existed until 1 July 1967 when, under the Merger Treaty, they were combined into a single administration under President Jean Rey. Owing to the merger, the Rey Commission saw a temporary increase to 14 members—although subsequent Commissions were reduced back to nine, following the formula of one member for small states and two for larger states; the Rey Commission completed the Community's customs union in 1968, campaigned for a more powerful, European Parliament. Despite Rey being the first President of the combined communities, Hallstein is seen as the first President of the modern Commission; the Malfatti and Mansholt Commissions followed with work on monetary co-operation and the first enlargement to the north in 1973. With that enlargement, the Commission's membership increased to thirteen under the Ortoli Commission, which dealt with the enlarged community during economic and international instability at that time; the external representation of the Community took a step forward when President Roy Jenkins, recruited to the presidency in January 1977 from his role as Home Secretary of the United Kingdom's Labour government, became the first President to att
Rolls-Royce AE 2100
The Rolls-Royce AE 2100 is a turboprop developed by Allison Engine Company, now part of Rolls-Royce North America. A derivative of the Allison AE 1107C-Liberty turboshaft engine, the AE 2100 shares the same high-pressure core as that engine, as does the Rolls-Royce AE 3007 turbofan; the engine is a two-shaft design, was the first to use dual FADECs to control both engine and propeller. There are four variants of the engine: the civil AE2100A, the military variants which include the AE 2100D2/D2A, AE 2100D3, AE 2100J and AE 2100P; the engine uses new six-bladed Dowty propellers for use on the 50-seat Saab 2000 and the Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules military transport. Each engine develops 4,591 shaft horsepower. AE2100ASaab 2000 Indonesian Aerospace N-250 - Prototype onlyAE2100D2AAlenia C-27J SpartanAE2100JShinMaywa US-2AE2100D3Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules Lockheed P-3 Orion Data from Rolls-Royce product data sheet. Type: Turboprop Length: 118 in Diameter: 28.7 in Dry weight: 1,727 lb Compressor: 14-stage axial Turbine: 2-stage HP, 2-stage PT Maximum power output: 4,637 shp Overall pressure ratio: 16.6:1 Power-to-weight ratio: 2.7 shp/lb Related development Allison T56 Rolls-Royce AE 3007 Rolls-Royce T406 Related lists List of aircraft engines Leyes II, Richard A..
The History of North American Small Gas Turbine Aircraft Engines. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 1-56347-332-1. AE 2100 product page at rolls-royce.com Rolls-royce.com Lockheed Martin C-130J specification booklet Canadian C-130J site