Gucci is an Italian luxury brand of fashion and leather goods. Gucci was founded by Guccio Gucci in Florence, Tuscany, in 1921. Gucci generated about €4.2 billion in revenue worldwide in 2008 according to BusinessWeek and climbed to 41st position in the magazine's annual 2009 "Top Global 100 Brands" chart created by Interbrand. Gucci is the highest-selling Italian brand. Gucci operates about 278 directly operated stores worldwide as of September 2009, it wholesales its products through franchisees and upscale department stores. In the year 2013, the brand was valued with sales of US$4.7 billion. In the Forbes World's Most Valuable Brands list, Gucci is ranked the 38th most valuable brand, with a brand value of $12.4 billion as of May 2015. As of January 2015, the creative director is Alessandro Michele. With beginnings at the end of the 19th century, the Gucci company became one of the world’s most successful manufacturers of high-end leather goods and other fashion products; as an immigrant hotel worker in Paris and London, young Guccio Gucci was impressed with the luxurious luggage he saw urbane guests bring with them at the Savoy Hotel.
Before leaving, he visited the manufacturer, H. J. Cave & Sons. Upon returning to his birthplace of Florence, a city distinguished for high-quality materials and skilled artisans, he established a shop in 1920 that sold fine leather goods with classic styling. Although Gucci organized his workrooms for industrial methods of production, he maintained traditional aspects of fabrication. Gucci employed skilled workers in basic Florentine leather crafts, attentive to finishing. With expansion, machine stitching was a production method. Together with three of his sons, Aldo Gucci, Vasco Gucci, Rodolfo Gucci, Gucci expanded the company to include stores in Milan and Rome as well as additional shops in Florence. Gucci's stores featured such finely crafted leather accessories as handbags and his iconic ornamented loafer as well as silks and knitwear in a signature pattern; the company made handbags of cotton canvas rather than leather during World War II as a result of material shortages. The canvas, was distinguished by a signature double-G symbol combined with prominent red and green bands.
After the war, the Gucci crest, which showed a shield and armored knight surrounded by a ribbon inscribed with the family name, became synonymous with the city of Florence. Aldo and Rodolfo Gucci further expanded the company's horizons in 1953 by establishing offices in New York City. Film stars and jet-set travelers to Italy during the 1950s and 1960s brought their glamour to Florence, turning Gucci's merchandise into international status symbols. Movie stars posed in Gucci's clothing and footwear for lifestyle magazines around the world, contributing to the company’s growing reputation. Gucci's distinctive lines made its products among the most copied in the world in the early 2000s. Pigskin and imported exotic animal skins were subjected to various methods of fabrication. Waterproof canvas and satin were used for evening bags. Bamboo was first used to make handbag handles by a process of heating and molding in 1947, purses made with a shoulder strap and snaffle-bit decoration were introduced in 1960.
In 1964 Gucci’s lush butterfly pattern was custom-created for silk foulards, followed by luxuriant floral patterns. The original Gucci loafer was updated by a distinctive snaffle-bit ornament in 1966, while the "Rolls-Royce" luggage set was introduced in 1970. Watches, jewelry and eyewear were added to the company's product lines. A iconic touch, introduced in 1964, was the use of the double-G logo for belt buckles and other accessory decorations; the company prospered through the 1970s, but the 1980s were marked by internal family disputes that brought Gucci to the brink of disaster. Rodolfo’s son Maurizio Gucci took over the company’s direction after his father’s death in 1983 and dismissed his uncle Aldo—who served a prison term for tax evasion. Maurizio proved to be an unsuccessful president. Maurizio disposed of his remaining stock in 1993. Maurizio was murdered by a hitman in Milan in 1995, his former wife, Patrizia Reggiani, was convicted of hiring his killer. Meanwhile, the new investors promoted the American-educated Domenico De Sole from the position of family attorney to president of Gucci America in 1994 and chief executive in 1995.
The company had brought in Dawn Mello in 1989 as editor and ready-to-wear designer in order to reestablish its reputation. Well aware of Gucci’s tarnished image and the value of its name brand, Mello hired Tom Ford in 1990 to design a ready-to-wear line, he was promoted to the position of creative director in 1994. Before Mello returned to her post as president of the American retailer Bergdorf Goodman, she initiated the return of Gucci’s headquarters from the business center of Milan to Florence, where its craft traditions were rooted. There she and Ford reduced the number of Gucci products from 20,000 to 5,000. Steinunn Sigurdardóttir was the Director and Senior Designer for Gucci from 1995 to 2000. There were seventy-six Gucci stores around the world in 1997, along with numerous licensing agreements. Ford was instrumental in the process of decision-making with De Sole when the Gucci Group acquired Yves Saint Laurent Rive Gauche, Bottega Veneta, Sergio Rossi, and, in part-ownership with Stella McCartney, Alexander McQueen and Balenciaga.
By 2001 Ford and De Sole shared the responsibility
An upturned collar is an otherwise flat, protruding collar of either a shirt, jacket, or coat, turned upward. Before the early 20th century, most shirt collars were turned up in some manner. Men and women alike wore tall, stiff collars, not unlike a taller version of a clerical collar, made either of starched linen, cotton, or lace; the writer H. G. Wells remarked in his 1902 book Kipps that these "made neck quite sore and left a red mark under ears." Between the late 19th and mid-20th centuries, men's collars were detachable from their shirts, connected only by two removable collar studs. Detachable collars were stiff, either stood straight up or were pressed over at an ironed-in, starched crease. After World War II, mass-production phased out detachable collars from ordinary dress shirts. One can still find detachable collar formal shirts, designed to be worn with a tuxedo or evening dress. Lapels on jackets and coats, which resemble a longer collar and are occasionally worn turned up; the frock coat of the 18th and 19th century had a solid lapel, always turned up.
Toward the mid-to-late 19th century, lapels became folded down and "pieced out," in the peak, notched, or shawl lapel that one sees to this day. Today, however, a jacket lapel's ability to be turned up helps to provide an extra modicum of warmth when weather is cold or windy. With the advent of the tennis shirt, the upturned collar took on a whole new purpose. In 1929 René Lacoste, the French 7-time Grand Slam champion, decided that the stiff dress shirts and ties worn by tennis players were too cumbersome and uncomfortable for the tennis court. Instead, he designed a loosely-knit pique cotton shirt with an unstarched, flat protruding collar and a longer shirt-tail in back than in front; this came to be known as the tennis shirt. Lacoste's design called for a thick piqué collar that one would wear turned up in order to block the sun from one's neck skin. Thus, the tennis shirt's upturned collar was designed by the inventor of the tennis shirt, for ease and comfort on the tennis court, aiding the player by helping to prevent sunburn.
As tennis shirts became more popular and were produced more their use transcended tennis and was adopted for golf, other sports, everyday life. As the tennis shirt entered the popular culture, wearers were less apt to turn up their collar to block the sun if not wearing the shirt during sport or outdoor activity. Thus, most people began to wear a tennis shirt without the collar turned up, or turning them up only when involved in sport; the professional golfer Fuzzy Zoeller is known for this practice today. In 1980, Lisa Birnbach published The Official Preppy Handbook, in which she extolled the "virtues of the upturned collar". According to Ms. Birnbach, rather than being a sports innovation, the upturned collar on a tennis shirt was a signal that the wearer is a "preppy". Despite this tongue-in-cheek characterization, Ms. Birnbach did identify that one was more to view an upturned collar on the beaches of Nantucket than one would in middle America; the book was a bestselling sensation. As a result, many people outside of the "preppy" enclaves of New England began emulating the style espoused in and categorized by Ms. Birnbach.
As such, ordinary people in middle America who would not otherwise have done so began to wear the collars of their tennis shirts turned up as a popular culture trend, but not because of the collar's utilitarian purpose of blocking the sun. During the 1980s, many celebrities wore upturned collars. Joan Jett upturned the collar of her leather jacket, as did Tiffany; this style seemed to pass out of popular culture fashion by the middle of the 1990s. In the early 2000s,however, the upturned collar has undergone a resurgence in popularity as a trend in the popular culture in the United States, where some people began to refer to it as a "popped collar", it gained popularity as a trend in Europe. Although the upturned collar no longer seems to be in vogue with the majority of European youth, older people still wear upturned collars. Certain Americans still perceive the upturned collar to be a "preppy" status symbol; this trend seems no longer to be limited to tennis shirts, as some people turn up the collars of shirts not designed to be worn that way.
Today, some Americans regard the trend as having worn out, thus the wearer of an upturned collar can be the object of mockery and scorn. Still, others continue to turn up their collars as a popular culture fashion; this has been bolstered by publicity from retailers with a middle-class clientele, such as Abercrombie & Fitch and American Eagle Outfitters. The upturned collar fashion has remained popular over the years and decades, by celebrities who and sometimes wear their shirts this way; this includes celebrities such as Jane Fonda, Goldie Hawn, Sharon Stone, Kanye West, Oprah Winfrey, Michelle Obama, Diane Sawyer, Suze Orman, Wendie Malick, Morgan Pressel, Aishwarya Rai. Characters in many films set in th
In the United Kingdom, a Sloanie is a stereotypical young upper-middle or upper class person who pursues a distinctive fashionable lifestyle, is thought to be an embodiment of the tv character Tim Nice-But-Dim, an Old Ardinian. The term is a portmanteau of "Sloane Square", a location in Chelsea, London famed for the wealth of residents and frequenters, the television character The Lone Ranger; the term dates from 1975, when aspiring writer Peter York had conversations with Ann Barr about what had become a recognisable tribe of young people living in Chelsea and parts of Kensington. This led to an article for the magazine, defining the characteristics of this slice of English society. Female Sloanes those involved in equestrian activities, were seen in the 1970s around London wearing Hermès or Liberty silk head scarves distinctively tied between the tip of the chin and the bottom lip, masking the lower part of the face, which furthered the "Lone Ranger" jest. Several years passed before York and Barr collaborated on the Official Sloane Ranger Handbook, which became a global bestseller in 1982.
The innovatory journalistic format and techniques from the 1975 article had by become well established. Ann Barr and her editorial team at Harpers & Queen spent much time working on the original draft of the 1975 article; the potential of the piece, to become a talking point and to define a new form of social comment, was seen from the start. Barr and the sub-editors at the magazine devised many of the'attributes' of a Sloane, added as boxes to the main text, in what became a imitated format; these delineated the habits and customs of the social group in question, from clothes, to shopping, to holiday venues, to choice of marital partner. The Sloane Ranger proposal came from Martina Margetts, a sub-editor on Harpers & Queen who worked on the 1975 article. In her early twenties she had found herself amongst this social group while undertaking a course on fine art at the Victoria and Albert Museum; the term "Sloane Ranger" was used in reference to women, a particular archetype being Diana, Princess of Wales.
However, the term now includes men. A male Sloane has been referred to as a "Rah" and by the older term "Hooray Henry"; the term Sloane Ranger has equivalent terms in other countries: in France they are called'BCBG', while a near analogue in the United States is the preppy subculture. Sloane Ranger, a commonplace term in 1980s London, was popularised by the British writers Peter York and Ann Barr in the book Style Wars, followed by The Official Sloane Ranger Handbook and its companion The Official Sloane Ranger Diary; the books were published by the British society-watcher magazine Harpers & Queen, for whom Peter York was Style Editor and "was responsible for identifying the cult phenomena of "Sloane Rangers" and "Foodies". The exemplar female Sloane Ranger was considered to be Lady Diana Spencer before marrying the Prince of Wales, when she was a member of the aristocratic Spencer family. However, most Sloanes were not aristocrats. Considered typical of SRs was patriotism and traditionalism, a belief in the values of upper class and upper-middle class culture, confidence in themselves and their given places in the world, a fondness for life in the countryside, country sports in particular and anti-intellectualism.
The title of the Sloane Ranger handbook lists the subheading "the problem of Hampstead", in reference to the stereotypical Sloane Ranger's supposed antipathy to the champagne socialist stereotype of the Hampstead liberal. Although Sloanes are nowadays more spread and amorphous than in the past, they are still perceived to socialise in the expensive areas of west London, most notably Kings Road, Fulham Road, Kensington High Street, other areas of Kensington and Fulham; the pubs and nightclubs in these areas are popular with Sloanes, in particular the White Horse pub, known as the "Sloaney Pony" in Fulham, the Admiral Codrington, known as "The Cod", in Chelsea. Sloanes are associated with being educated at top-tier private schools, known as public schools in England; the most well-known schools for Sloane Ranger boys are Eton, Harrow, St Paul's, Sherborne School and Radley. For girls, it's St George's School, Downe House, St Mary's School, Calne, St Paul's Girls' School, Francis Holland School, Wycombe Abbey and Benenden School.
For co-educational schools, it's Worth School and Ampleforth College. Other Sloanes include Alex Sloane, known to terrorise the streets of Melbourne during a stint there in the 2010s. Young Sloanes aspire to attend the ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridge, or Durham, which have a reputation for upper class attendance. A number of other universities, have established reputations as havens for Sloanes, notably St Andrews, Leeds, the University of London, Exeter, Bristol and Newcastle. Sloane careers include banking, finance, PR, certain regiments of the British Army, chartered surveyors or journalism. In 2015, Peter York argued that the Sloane population has been winnowed and that Sloanes were more to be leading the British trend to downward social mobility; the following people have been considered as past and current Sloanes: Jemima Goldsmith James Hewitt, Army Officer and lover of Diana, Princess of Wales Tara Palmer-Tomkinson Diana, Princess of Wales Trinny and Susannah Sienna Miller The Duchess of Cambridge Sarah, Duchess of York Trixie Bon chic bon genre Sloane Street International Debutante Ball Young fogey Bourgeois personality
Prada S.p. A. is an Italian luxury fashion house, specializing in leather handbags, travel accessories, ready-to-wear and other fashion accessories, founded in 1913 by Mario Prada. The company was started in 1913 by Mario Prada and his brother Martino as a leather goods shop – Fratelli Prada – in Milan, Italy; the shop sold animal goods and imported English steamer trunks and handbags. Mario Prada did not believe that women should have a role in business, so he prevented female family members from entering his company. Mario's son harbored no interest in the business, so it was his daughter Luisa Prada who took the helm of Prada as his successor, ran it for twenty years, her own daughter, Miuccia Prada, joined the company in 1970 taking over for her mother in 1978. Miuccia began making waterproof backpacks out of a nylon fabric, she met Patrizio Bertelli in 1977, an Italian who had begun his own leather goods business at the age of 24, he joined the company soon after. He advised Miuccia on company business.
It was his advice to change the existing luggage. Miuccia inherited the company in 1978 by which time sales were up to U. S. $450,000. With Bertelli alongside her as business manager, Miuccia was allowed time to implement her creativity in the company's designs, she would go on to incorporate her ideas into the house of Prada. She released her first set of backpacks and totes in 1979, they were made out of a tough military spec black nylon that her grandfather had used as coverings for steamer trunks. Initial success was not instant, as they were hard to sell due to the lack of advertising and high prices, but the lines would go on to become her first commercial hit. Next and Bertelli sought out wholesale accounts for the bags in upscale department stores and boutiques worldwide. In 1983, Prada opened a second boutique in the centre of the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele in Milan's shopping heart, on the site of the previous historic "London House" emporium run by Felice Bellini from 1870 to the 1960s, reminiscent of the original shop, but with a sleek and modern contrast to it.
The next big release was a nylon tote. That same year, the house of Prada began expansion across continental Europe and the United States by opening locations in prominent shopping districts within Florence, Paris and New York City. A shoe line was released in 1984. In 1985 Miuccia released the "classic Prada handbag". Although practical and sturdy, its sleek lines and craftsmanship had a luxury that has become the Prada signature. In 1987 Miuccia and Bertelli married. Prada launched its women's ready-to-wear collection in 1989, the designs came to be known for their dropped waistlines and narrow belts. Prada's popularity increased when the fashion world took notice of its clean lines, opulent fabrics, basic colors; the logo for the label was not as obvious a design element as those on bags from other prominent luxury brands such as Louis Vuitton. It tried to market its lack of prestigious appeal, including of its apparel, by projecting an image of "anti-status" or "inverse snobbery". Prada's originality made it one of the most influential fashion houses, the brand became a premium status symbol in the 1990s.
Sales were reported at L 70 billion, or US$31.7 million, in 1998. Partrizio di Marco took charge of the growing business in the United States after working for the house in Asia, he was successful in having the Prada bags prominently displayed in department stores, so that they could become a hit with fashion editors. Prada's continued success was attributed to its "working-class" theme which, Ginia Bellafante at The New York Times Magazine proclaimed, "was becoming chic in the high-tech, IPO-driven early 1990s." Furthermore, now husband and wife and Bertelli led the Prada label on a cautious expansion, making products hard to come by. In 1992, the high fashion brand Miu Miu, named after Miuccia's nickname, launched. Miu Miu catered to younger consumers, such as celebrities. By 1993 Prada was awarded the Council of Fashion Designers of America award for accessories. Men's ready-to-wear collections were launched in the mid-1990s. By 1994, sales were at US$210 million, with clothing sales accounting for 20%.
Prada won another award from the CFDA, in 1995 as a "designer of the year" 1996 witnessed the opening of the 18,000 ft² Prada boutique in Manhattan, New York, the largest in the chain at the time. By now the House of Prada operated in 40 locations worldwide; the company subcontracted work from 84 other manufacturers in Italy. Miuccia's Prada and Bertelli company were merged to create Prapar B. V. in 1996. The name, was changed to Prada B. V. and Patrizio Bertelli was named Chief Executive Officer of the Prada luxury company. In 1997, Prada posted revenue of US$674 million. Another store in Milan opened that same year. According to the Wall Street Journal, Bertelli smashed the windows of the store a day before the opening, after he had become unsatisfied with the set-up. Prada acquired shares in the Gucci group, blamed Gucci for "aping his wife's designs." In June 1998, Bertelli gained 9.5% interests at US$260 million. Analysts began to speculate; the proposition seemed unlikely, because Prada was at the time still a small company and was in debt.
Funding Universe states that "At the least, Prada had a voice as one of Gucci's largest shareholders and would stand to profi
Slut-shaming is the practice of criticizing people women and girls, who are perceived to violate expectations of behavior and appearance regarding issues related to sexuality. The term is used to reclaim the word slut and empower women and girls to have agency over their own sexuality, it may be used in reference to gay men, who may face disapproval for sexual behaviors considered promiscuous. Slut-shaming happens to heterosexual men. Examples of slut-shaming include being criticized or punished for violating dress code policies by dressing in perceived sexually provocative ways, requesting access to birth control, having premarital, casual, or promiscuous sex, engaging in prostitution, or when being victim blamed for being raped or otherwise sexually assaulted. Slut-shaming involves criticizing women for their transgression of accepted codes of sexual conduct, i.e. admonishing them for behavior, attire or desires that are more sexual than society finds acceptable. Author Jessalynn Keller stated, "The phrase became popularized alongside the SlutWalk marches and functions to the'War on Women,' producing affective connections while additionally working to reclaim the word'slut' as a source of power and agency for girls and women."Slut-shaming is used by men and women.
Slut-shaming functions among girls and women as a way of sublimating sexual jealousy "into a acceptable form of social critique of girls' or women's sexual expression." The term is used to describe victim blaming for rape and other sexual assault. This is done by stating the crime was caused by the woman wearing revealing clothing or acting in a sexually provocative manner, before refusing consent to sex, thereby absolving the perpetrator of guilt. Sexually lenient individuals can be at risk of social isolation; the action of slut-shaming can be considered to be a form of social punishment and is an aspect of sexism. The social movement falls into the category of feminism; this raises controversy. The topic of slut-shaming sheds light on the social issues that are associated with the double standard; this is because slut-shaming is toward girls and women, boys and men do not get slut-shamed. Slut-shaming is common in America. Being in a high-context culture, it is easier to be victim blamed. Slut-shaming is associated with victim-blaming.
Researchers from Cornell University found that sentiments similar to slut-shaming appeared in nonsexual, same-sex friendship context as well. The researchers had college women read a vignette describing an imaginary female peer, "Joan" rate their feelings about her personality. To one group of women, Joan was described as having two lifetime sexual partners; the study found that women—even women who were more promiscuous themselves—rated the Joan with 20 partners as "less competent stable and dominant than the Joan who'd only boasted two". There is no documented date of origin for the term slut-shaming. Rather, although the act of slut-shaming has existed for centuries, discussion of it has grown out of social and cultural relations and the trespassing of boundaries of what is considered normative and acceptable behavior. Second wave of feminism contributed to the definition and act of slut-shaming. Tracing back to the Industrial Revolution and the second World War, men's gender roles were that of the breadwinner.
Men made up a majority of the labor force while women were socialized and taught to embrace the cult of domesticity and homemaking. Author Emily Poole argues that the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s increased the rate of both birth control use, as well as rates of premarital sex. Slut-shaming is prevalent on social media platforms, including the most used: YouTube, Instagram and Facebook. Slut-shaming has occurred on Facebook in controversial exchanges between users that have resulted in convictions to menace and cause offense, it has been reported by The Pew Research Center that the most common targets of harassment on the Internet are young women. Citing that 50% of young female respondents have been called offensive names and or shamed online. In particular, those who were 18 to 24 years of age experienced varying amounts of severe harassment at astoundingly high rates. Women who have been stalked online were at 26%, while the targets of online sexual harassment were at 25%. In the Women Studies International Forum, researcher Jessica Megarry argues that harassment conveyed in a case study of #mencallmethings hashtag found that it was a form of online sexual assault, on Twitter.
In this hashtag, women would collectively tweet examples of harassment. This kind of harassment included anything from insults related to appearance, name calling rape, death threats, i.e. "slut shaming."One example of a character in literature has been described as being a recipient of'slut-shaming' is the character Lily Bart in Edith Wharton's House of Mirth. The SlutWalk protest march had its origins in Toronto in response to an incident when a Toronto Police officer told a group of students that they could avoid sexual assault by not dressing like "'sluts'". Amber Rose's second annual walk in Los Angeles in 2016 had "several hundred" participants. A similar event occurred in Washington DC in 2014; the Slut Walk movement has embraced the slut-shame label and has engaged in an act of resignification. Ringrose et al. call the Slut Walk a "collective movement" where the focus goes back to the perpetrator and no longer rests on the victim. This act of resignification comes from the work of f
Chuck Taylor All-Stars
Chuck Taylor All-Stars or Converse All Stars is a model of casual shoe manufactured by Converse, developed as a basketball shoe in the early 20th century. The design of the Chuck Taylor All Star has remained unchanged since its introduction in the 1920s; the shoe consists of a stitched upper portion, a toe cap, made of white rubber, a sole, made of brown rubber. Although Chuck Taylors are made of various materials such as leather, the original and most known version of the shoe is made from cotton canvas; the innovative detail of the original shoe was the "loose lining" of soft canvas, intended to provide flexibility and prevent blisters. The Chuck Taylor II, an improved model, was announced by company management in July 2015. Incorporating Nike technology, it retains the outward appearance of the original shoe while employing a full-length Lunarlon insole. Converse started making an early basketball shoe in 1917 and redesigned it in 1922, when Chuck Taylor asked the company to create a better shoe with more support and flexibility.
After Converse added Taylor's signature to the ankle patch they became known as Chuck Taylor All Stars. By the 1960s the company had captured about 70 to 80 percent of the basketball shoe market, but the shoe declined in popularity during the 1970s, when more and more basketball players wore other brands of shoes. Chuck Taylor All Stars enjoyed a comeback in popularity in the 1980s as retro-style casual footwear. Marquis Mills Converse founded the Converse Rubber Shoe Company in 1908 in Massachusetts. In 1917 the company designed the forerunner of the modern All Star shoe that it marketed under the name of "Non-Skids." The shoe was designed for basketball players. In 1921 Charles "Chuck" Taylor, an American semi-professional basketball player, joined Converse as a salesman. Within a year of Taylor's arrival, the company had adopted his ideas for improvements to the shoe's design to enhance its flexibility and ankle support; the restyled shoe incorporated distinctive All-Star logo on the circular patch that protected the ankle.
After Taylor's signature was added to the ankle patch as his endorsement, they became known as Chuck Taylor All Stars, the first celebrity-endorsed athletic shoe. To promote sales of Converse All Star shoes to basketball players, Taylor held basketball clinics in high school and college gyms and YMCAs all across the United States and taught the fundamentals of the game. During the 1926–27 season Taylor served as a player-manager of the company-sponsored basketball team called the Converse All Stars; the Chicago-based touring team was established to promote sales of the company's All Star basketball shoes. Numerous professional basketball players were soon wearing All Stars; the shoes became popular among younger basketball players, including athletes in the Olympic Games and American soldiers in the 1940s. Converse All Stars were the official shoe of the Olympics from 1936 to 1968. During World War II All Stars were the official athletic training shoes of the U. S. armed forces. By the 1950s, Chuck Taylor All Stars had become a standard among high school and professional basketball players.
In the 1960s Converse had captured about 70 to 80 percent of the basketball shoe market, with Converse Chuck Taylor All Stars being worn by ninety percent of professional and college basketball players. Due in large part to the sale of its All Stars, the company began to open more factories; as the years went on, the shoe gained more popularity and became a favorite for numerous groups and subcultures. Converse began to struggle financially during the 1970s, due to competition and "poor business decisions" as the shoe lost its popularity among basketball players. Many athletes switched to shoes with leather uppers and harder rubber soles made by Converse as well as its competitors. Tree Rollins was thought to be the last player to wear canvas Converse All Stars in the NBA, during the 1979–1980 season. Micheal Ray Richardson wore leather Converse All Stars with the New Jersey Nets after 1982, making him the next to last to wear the shoe in the NBA. Richardson's teammate, Mickey Johnson, was the last to wear All Stars in the NBA, when he played for the Nets in the 1985–86 season.
An elite basketball shoe, Chuck Taylor All Stars regained popularity in the 1980s and 1990s, making a shift to casual, retro-style footwear. The athletic shoe evolved into the shoe of choice and a favorite for subcultures artists and musicians. By 2000 Converse had sold more than 600 million pairs of All Stars during its eighty years of manufacturing them. While Converse dominated the U. S. basketball shoe market from the 1920s until the 1970s, it began to struggle in the late 1970s due to competition, poor business decision-making, lack of sufficient funds. In subsequent years Converse fell into further debt. Nike acquired Converse in 2003 for an estimated $305 million and continues to market Chuck Taylor All Stars. Converse's manufacturing operations for Chuck Taylor All Stars, as well as the company's other shoes, was moved from the United States to other countries such as China, India and Indonesia. In October 2014, after years of sending unsuccessful cease and desist letters, Converse filed a lawsuit against 31 companies for infringing on its sneaker style’s bumper toe, striped midsole, toe cap.
The brand argued that these companies were violating a common-law trademark by importing “knockoff” sneakers with similar elements. The list included shoe brands by major retailers, including Wa
Designer clothing is luxury clothing. Designer clothing is not always created by the founder of the company. For example, the actual designer of Chanel is not its original founder and designer, Gabrielle Chanel, but German designer Karl Lagerfeld; the quality of the clothing and degree of its resemblance, if any, to the designer's work vary depending on the licensee and the terms of the agreement the designer has struck. Some terms may limit the number of garment styles that may be produced, allowing the designer to veto any designs he or she finds unappealing. Examples include: Armani Alexander Wang BT21 Calvin Klein DSquared2 Dior Escada Givenchy Gucci Jean Paul Gaultier Jil Sander Louis Vuitton Nike Ralph Lauren Philipp Plein Saint Laurent Paris Adidas Tommy Hilfiger VersaceThis licensing of designer names was pioneered by designers like Pierre Cardin in the 1960s and has been a common practice within the fashion industry from about the 1970s. Designer jeans are available at many different price points at several hundreds of dollars, with some approaching $1,000 USD..
Before the "Great Recession," premium denim was one of the fastest growing categories of the apparel business, there seemed to be no limit to what customers would pay for the latest label, finish, or wash. Americans bought $13.8 billion USD of men's and women's jeans in the year ended April 30, 2011, according to market-research firm NPD Group. But only about 1% of jeans sold in the U. S. over that year cost more than $50. Since the "Great Recession," the landscape for premium jeans has changed: “Charging $600 for jeans for no reason at all — those days are over,” said You Nguyen, the senior vice president of women's merchandising and design for Levi Strauss & Company; the difference between the $300 jeans and the $30 jeans has to do with the fabric quality, washes, design details and where they are manufactured. A "fancy" pair of jeans, treated with abrasions, extra washes, etc. to break the denim down to achieve a texture has undergone a certain amount of damage to get the'worn in' feel. In this sense, the expensive jeans may be more delicate than the cheap ones.
Jeans brands try to stand out from season to season by using patented materials, such as rivets and stitching, by using special washes and distressing methods. These might involve dying and using sandpaper and drills on the raw jeans; these methods can be expensive when done in the U. S. where factories must meet more stringent environmental and labor standards than in many low-cost nations. To be produced domestically, jeans have to be priced at "$200-plus," says Shelda Hartwell-Hale, a vice president at Directives West, an L. A.-based division of fashion consulting firm Doneger Group. The profit margins on premium jeans can be substantial. One retail executive says his gross profit margins for private-label jeans, which he makes for Wal-Mart Stores Inc. Sears Holdings Corp. and other retailers, are less than 20%, whereas the margins for his own premium lines are 40%-to-50%. Agins, The End of Fashion: How Marketing Changed the Clothing Business Forever, Harper Paperbacks: 2000