Robert Louis Stevenson
Robert Louis Stevenson was a Scottish novelist and travel writer, most noted for Treasure Island, Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, A Child's Garden of Verses. Born and educated in Edinburgh, Stevenson suffered from serious bronchial trouble for much of his life, but continued to write prolifically and travel in defiance of his poor health; as a young man, he mixed in London literary circles, receiving encouragement from Andrew Lang, Edmund Gosse, Leslie Stephen and W. E. Henley, the last of whom may have provided the model for Long John Silver in Treasure Island, his travels took him to France and Australia, before he settled in Samoa, where he died. A celebrity in his lifetime, Stevenson attracted a more negative critical response for much of the 20th century, though his reputation has been restored, he is ranked as the 26th most translated author in the world. Stevenson was born at 8 Howard Place, Scotland on 13 November 1850 to Thomas Stevenson, a leading lighthouse engineer, his wife Margaret Isabella.
He was christened Robert Lewis Balfour Stevenson. At about age 18, he changed the spelling of "Lewis" to "Louis", he dropped "Balfour" in 1873. Lighthouse design was the family's profession. Thomas's maternal grandfather Thomas Smith had been in the same profession. However, Robert's mother's family were gentry, tracing their lineage back to Alexander Balfour who had held the lands of Inchyra in Fife in the fifteenth century, his mother's father Lewis Balfour was a minister of the Church of Scotland at nearby Colinton, her siblings included physician George William Balfour and marine engineer James Balfour. Stevenson spent the greater part of his boyhood holidays in his maternal grandfather's house. "Now I wonder what I inherited from this old minister," Stevenson wrote. "I must suppose, that he was fond of preaching sermons, so am I, though I never heard it maintained that either of us loved to hear them."Lewis Balfour and his daughter both had weak chests, so they needed to stay in warmer climates for their health.
Stevenson inherited a tendency to coughs and fevers, exacerbated when the family moved to a damp, chilly house at 1 Inverleith Terrace in 1851. The family moved again to the sunnier 17 Heriot Row when Stevenson was six years old, but the tendency to extreme sickness in winter remained with him until he was 11. Illness left him extraordinarily thin. Contemporaneous views were that he had tuberculosis, but more recent views are that it was bronchiectasis or sarcoidosis. Stevenson's parents were both devout Presbyterians, but the household was not strict in its adherence to Calvinist principles, his nurse Alison Cunningham was more fervently religious. Her mix of Calvinism and folk beliefs were an early source of nightmares for the child, he showed a precocious concern for religion, but she cared for him tenderly in illness, reading to him from John Bunyan and the Bible as he lay sick in bed and telling tales of the Covenanters. Stevenson recalled this time of sickness in "The Land of Counterpane" in A Child's Garden of Verses, dedicating the book to his nurse.
Stevenson was an only child, both strange-looking and eccentric, he found it hard to fit in when he was sent to a nearby school at age 6, a problem repeated at age 11 when he went on to the Edinburgh Academy. His frequent illnesses kept him away from his first school, so he was taught for long stretches by private tutors, he was a late reader, learning at age 7 or 8, but before this he dictated stories to his mother and nurse, he compulsively wrote stories throughout his childhood. His father was proud of this interest, he paid for the printing of Robert's first publication at 16, entitled The Pentland Rising: A Page of History, 1666. It was an account of the Covenanters' rebellion, published in 1866, the 200th anniversary of the event. In September 1857, Stevenson went to Mr Henderson's School in India Street, but because of poor health stayed only a few weeks and did not return until October 1859. During his many absences he was taught by private tutors. In October 1861, he went to Edinburgh Academy, an independent school for boys, stayed there sporadically for about fifteen months.
In the autumn of 1863, he spent one term at an English boarding school at Spring Grove in Isleworth in Middlesex. In October 1864, following an improvement to his health, he was sent to Robert Thomson's private school in Frederick Street, where he remained until he went to university. In November 1867, Stevenson entered the University of Edinburgh to study engineering, he showed from the start devoted much energy to avoiding lectures. This time was more important for the friendships he made with other students in the Speculative Society with Charles Baxter, who would become Stevenson's financial agent, with a professor, Fleeming Jenkin, whose house staged amateur drama in which Stevenson took part, whose biography he would write. Most important at this point in his life was a cousin, Robert Alan Mowbray Stevenson, a lively and light-hearted young man who, instead of the family profession, had
Aberlemno is a parish and small village in the Scottish council area of Angus. It is noted for three large carved Pictish stones dating from the 7th and 8th centuries AD. Two stones stand by the B9134 Forfar-Brechin road, the Kirkyard Stone stands in the nearby graveyard of the parish church, it is said. The parish of Aberlemno had a population of 544 at the 2011 Census. A genus of fossil plants first found in a nearby quarry is named Aberlemnia in honour of the location. A notable Scottish-American poet and editor, James Mackintosh Kennedy, was born in Aberlemno in 1848, developed his interest in literature through books lent to him by the Aberlemno church. Aberlemno is notable for the presence of four early Medieval Standing Stones, as well as a fifth, on display at McManus Galleries. List of places in Angus Crombie, J.. The new statistical account of Scotland, Parish of Aberlemno, Forfarshire. Retrieved 2009-02-12. Cummins, WA; the Picts and their symbols. Stroud, Gloucester: Sutton Publishing. Fraser, James E.
The Pictish Conquest: The Battle Of Dunnichen 685 and the Birth of Scotland, Gloucester: Tempus Jervise, Andrew. "Notices descriptive of the localities of certain sculptured stone monuments in Forfarshire, &c.". Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 2: 187–201. Archived from the original on 2007-06-11. Laing, L. "The Chronology and Context of Pictish Relief Sculpture". Medieval Archaeology. 34: 81–114. Doi:10.1179/med.2000.44.1.81. Archived from the original on 2011-06-13. Mitchel, A.. The statistical account of Scotland, Parish of Aberlemno, County of Forfar. Retrieved 2009-02-12. Nennius. "Historia Brittonum". Archived from the original on 27 July 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-29. Aberlemno Stones: I, II, III, V Aberlemno Sculptured Stones
Ardovie is a settlement on the perimeter of Montreathmont Moor, 3 miles south of Brechin. Brechin
Auchterhouse is a village and civil parish in the Scottish council area of Angus, located 7.3 miles north west of Dundee, 9.5 miles south east of Alyth and 14.9 miles south west of Forfar. It lies below Auchterhouse Hill, 1,398 feet high; the parish, coterminous with the community, had a population of 520 in 2001. The village known as Milltown of Auchterhouse, straddles the B954 Muirhead to Newtyle road. About 1.0 mile east lies the larger village of Kirkton of Auchterhouse, where the church and school are located. Singer Billy MacKenzie lived in the village from 1991 until his death in 1997. Kirkton, in Auchterhouse, was the subject of the painting'Sidlaw Village, Winter' by James MacIntosh Patrick; the earliest human settlement discovered around Auchterhouse dates from 3500 to 1000 BC, in the form of stone and bronze tools used by the first farmers to clear woodland. Wheat and barley were grown, cattle and sheep kept, while a decorated sandstone spindle whorl found at Bonnyton, north of the village, now kept at the McManus Galleries in Dundee, indicates that wool was spun into thread.
A possible henge in Dronley Wood has been revealed by aerial photography, a stone circle at Templelands was destroyed during railway construction in the 19th century. A stone cairn on West Mains Hill, excavated in 1897, was found to conceal a double burial cist, typical of the period around 2000 BC; the cist contained burnt bones and a bronze dagger blade with ox-horn hilt, which are now in the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh. Other cists were discovered in the 19th century, a circular burial mound survives south of Dronley House. Cup marks on stones were found around Auchterhouse Park. An Iron Age hillfort on Auchterhouse Hill occupies a defensible position, is protected to the east and south east by a set of five ramparts and ditches. Souterrains, thought to have provided storage space for foodstuffs, were discovered in the 18th century near Auchterhouse Mansion and in Kirkton of Auchterhouse, aerial photography has since revealed further sites at East Adamston, Burnhead of Auchterhouse and Quarry House.
Long cists, slab-lined graves in which extended bodies were placed, are associated with the period between 1000 BC and 500 AD, have been recorded at Auchterhouse Park and Templeton. A parish church, dedicated to Saint Mary, had been founded by 1238, Sir John Ramsay played host to both Sir William Wallace and King Edward I of England at Wallace Tower, now part of Auchterhouse Mansion, in 1303; the village came under the jurisdiction of James Stewart, the Earl of Buchan in 1469. He held the title Lord Auchterhouse, was the uncle of King James III; the adoption of new agricultural techniques in the 18th and 19th centuries led to increased prosperity in rural areas. Between 1820 and 1850 farm production in Scotland increased by 58 per cent; this new wealth was reflected in Auchterhouse with the construction of new farm buildings at Dronley, East Adamston, Kirkton of Auchterhouse and Templeton. Balbeuchley was one of the earliest improved steadings in the area, built in 1802, while Balbeuchley House was built for Patrick Miller, proprietor of the Auchterhouse Estate from 1820 to 1876.
The farmhouse at Pitpointie, dated 1883, was built on the site of an earlier steading for George Willsher, a Dundee wine and spirit dealer. Built in 1707, the water powered corn mill at Dronley was rebuilt during this period, stone quarries were developed at Leoch and Parkside, but the greatest change to the village came with the opening of the Dundee and Newtyle Railway, one of Scotland's first passenger lines, in 1831. Sandstone for the line was quarried at Pitpointie. On 2 May 1899 a meeting was held at the Town Hall in Dundee to establish a sanatorium for the treatment of tuberculosis. Plans were drawn up for the creation of a 30-bed hospital, a site at Auchterhouse Park was gifted by David Ogilvy, the Earl of Airlie. Construction started in 1901, Dundee Sanatorium was formally opened on 26 September 1902, at a cost of £20,764; the Dundee Advertiser commented: The establishment of institutions of this kind has been much encouraged by the unanimous approbation of the medical profession all over the country.
That this disease is no longer regarded by the medical profession as either hereditary or as incurable - hence the establishment of these sanatoria all over the kingdom - is a circumstance, calculated to bring an element of hope to those sufferers, be a source of satisfaction to their relatives and friends. The Institution so auspiciously opened today enters upon its course of usefulness and will shelter and bring healing to many of our afflicted sisters and brothers; the first patients were admitted on 11 March 1903, the following year the institution was renamed the Sidlaw Sanatorium. During the first year of operation, 87 patients were admitted. One patient died; the average stay was just under four months. By 1907 the sanatorium was making a yearly loss of between £500 and £700, the annual report complained that although the institution was endowed to help the working classes of Dundee, it was not possible to do this due to the need to accept paying patients to contribute to the costs. By 1909 the financial position was so serious that the directors agreed to close the sanatorium the following year, but Sir James Caird, the Dundee jute baron, agreed to provide £1,000 per year if the institution was taken over by Dundee Royal Infirmary, the transfer was completed in October 1910.
The sanatorium closed in 1969 but continued as an NHS convalescent and respite ca
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll
Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll, 8th Earl of Argyll, chief of Clan Campbell, was a Scottish nobleman and peer. The de facto head of Scotland's government during most of the conflict of the 1640s and 50s known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, he was a major figure in the Covenanter movement that fought for the maintenance of the Presbyterian religion against the Stuart monarchy's attempts to impose episcopacy, he is remembered as the principal opponent of the royalist general James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose. He was eldest son of Archibald Campbell, 7th Earl of Argyll, by his first wife Agnes Douglas daughter of William Douglas, 6th Earl of Morton, was educated at St Andrews University, where he matriculated on 15 January 1622, he had early in life, as Lord Lorne, been entrusted with the possession of the Argyll estates when his father renounced Protestantism and took arms for Philip III of Spain. Argyll was said to be of above average height, but slight in build, he had reddish hair, which darkened in life – among the Highlanders he was called "red Argyll" – and a pronounced squint.
Contemporaries said he had a charming and persuasive manner, although early in life he developed a habit of abruptly leaving the room if a conversation took a turn he did not like. Clarendon said that "his wit was pregnant, his humour gay and pleasant, except when he liked not the company or the argument". On the outbreak of the religious dispute between the king and Scotland in 1637, Lord Lorne's support was eagerly sought by Charles I, he was made a privy councillor in 1628. In 1638, the king summoned him, together with the earls of Traquair and Roxburgh, to London, but he refused to be won over, warned Charles against his despotic ecclesiastical policy, showed great hostility towards William Laud. In consequence, a secret commission was given to the Randal MacDonnell, Earl of Antrim to invade Argyll and stir up the MacDonalds against the Campbells. Argyll, who inherited the title at the death of his father in 1638 had no preference for Presbyterianism, but now took the side of the Covenanters in defence of national religion and liberties.
Argyll continued to attend the meetings of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland after its dissolution by the Marquess of Hamilton, when Episcopacy was abolished. In 1639, he sent a statement to Laud, subsequently to the king, defending the General Assembly's action. Argyll seized Hamilton's castle of Brodick in Arran. After the pacification of Berwick-upon-Tweed, he carried a motion, in opposition to James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose, by which the estates secured to themselves the election of the lords of the articles, nominated by the king; this was a fundamental change to the Scottish constitution, whereby the management of public affairs was entrusted to a representative body and withdrawn from the control of the crown. An attempt by the king to deprive Argyll of his office as justiciary of Argyll failed, on the prorogation of the parliament by Charles, in May 1640, Argyll moved that it should continue its sittings and that the government and safety of the kingdom should be secured by a committee of the estates, of which he was the guiding spirit.
In June, he was trusted with a Commission of fire and sword against the royalists in Atholl and Angus, after succeeding in entrapping John Murray, 1st Earl of Atholl, he carried out with completeness and cruelty. It was on this occasion. By this time, the personal dislike and difference in opinion between Montrose and Argyll led to an open breach; the former arranged that on the occasion of Charles's approaching visit to Scotland, Argyll would be accused of high treason in the parliament. The plot, was disclosed, Montrose, among others, was imprisoned. Accordingly, when the king arrived, he found himself deprived of every remnant of influence and authority, it only remained for Charles to make a series of concessions. He transferred control over judicial and political appointments to the parliament, created Argyll a marquess in 1641, returned home, having, in Clarendon's words, made a perfect deed of gift of that kingdom. Meanwhile, there was an unsuccessful attempt to kidnap Argyll and Lanark, known as The Incident.
Argyll was instrumental in this crisis in keeping the national party faithful to what was to him evidently the common cause, in accomplishing the alliance with the Long Parliament in 1643. In January 1644, he accompanied the Scottish army into England as a member of the Committee of Both Kingdoms and in command of a troop of horse, but was soon compelled, in March, to return to suppress Royalists in the Scottish Civil War and to defend his own territories, he forced Huntly to retreat in April. In July, he advanced to abet the Irish troops now landed in Argyll, which were fighting in conjunction with Montrose, who had put himself at the head of the Royalist forces in Scotland. Neither general succeeded in obtaining an advantage over the other, or in engaging in battle. Argyll returned to Edinburgh, threw up his commission, retired to Inveraray Castle. Montrose unexpectedly followed him in December, compelling him to flee to Roseneath, devastating his territories. On 2 February 1645, while following Montrose northwards, Argyll was surprised by him at Inverlochy.
He witnessed, from his barge on the lake to which he had retired after falling from his horse, a fearful slaughter of his troops, which included 1,500 of the Campbells. He arrived at E
Balkeerie is a village in Angus, Scotland north of Dundee. It has an elevation of 222 feet above sea level, it is one mile to the north east of kirkinch and two-thirds of a mile to the west of the village of Eassie. Eassie is noted for the presence of a carved Pictish stone. Wester Denoon