Timeline for the day of the September 11 attacks
The September 11 attacks of 2001, in addition to being a unique act of terrorism, constituted a media event on a scale not seen since the advent of civilian global satellite links. Instant worldwide reaction and debate were made possible by round-the-clock television news organizations and by the internet; as a result, most of the events listed below were known by a large portion of the planet's population as they occurred. All times given are in Eastern Daylight Time, or UTC−04:00. 7:59 a.m.: American Airlines Flight 11, a Boeing 767 carrying 81 passengers and 11 crew members, departs 14 minutes late from Logan International Airport in Boston, bound for Los Angeles International Airport. Five hijackers are aboard. 8:14: United Airlines Flight 175, a Boeing 767, carrying 56 passengers and 9 crew members, departs 14 minutes late from Logan International Airport in Boston, bound for Los Angeles International Airport. Five hijackers are aboard. 8:14: Flight 11 is hijacked over central Massachusetts, turning first northwest south.
8:20: American Airlines Flight 77, a Boeing 757 with 58 passengers and 6 crew members, departs 10 minutes late from Washington Dulles International Airport, for Los Angeles International Airport. Five hijackers are aboard. 8:42: United Airlines Flight 93, a Boeing 757 with 37 passengers and 7 crew members, departs 42 minutes late from Newark International Airport, bound for San Francisco International Airport. Four hijackers are aboard. 8:42–8:46: Flight 175 is hijacked above northwest New Jersey, about 60 miles northwest of New York City, continuing southwest before turning back to the northeast. 8:46:40: Flight 11 crashes into the north face of the North Tower of the World Trade Center, between floors 93 and 99. The aircraft enters the tower intact. 8:50–8:54: Flight 77 is hijacked above southern Ohio, turning to the southeast. 9:03:00: Flight 175 crashes into the south face of the South Tower of the World Trade Center, between floors 77 and 85. Parts of the plane, including the starboard engine, leave the building from its east and north sides, falling to the ground six blocks away.
9:28: Flight 93 is hijacked above northern Ohio, turning to the southeast. 9:37:46: Flight 77 crashes into the western side of The Pentagon and starts a violent fire. 9:45: United States airspace is shut down. 9:59:00: The South Tower of the World Trade Center collapses, 56 minutes after the impact of Flight 175. 10:03:11: Flight 93 is crashed by its hijackers as a result of fighting in the cockpit 80 miles southeast of Pittsburgh in Somerset County, Pennsylvania. Reports indicate that passengers had learned about the World Trade Center and Pentagon crashes and were resisting the hijackers; the 9/11 Commission believed that Flight 93's target was either the United States Capitol building or the White House in Washington, D. C. 10:28:22: The North Tower of the World Trade Center collapses, 1 hour and 42 minutes after the impact of Flight 11. The Marriott Hotel, located at the base of the two towers, is destroyed. 10:50:19: Five stories of part of the Pentagon collapse due to the fire. 5:20:33 p.m.: 7 World Trade Center, a 47-story building, collapses.
6:00: Mohamed Atta and Abdulaziz al-Omari travel on Colgan Air Flight 5930 from Portland International Jetport in Portland, Maine to Logan International Airport in Boston, Massachusetts.6:45: Atta and al-Omari arrive at Logan International Airport.6:52: Marwan al-Shehhi calls Atta from another terminal at Logan to confirm that the plans for the attack are set. 7:35: Atta and al-Omari board American Airlines Flight 11.7:40: The rest of the Flight 11 hijackers board the airplane. 7:45: Flight 11 is pushed back from Gate B32 at Logan International Airport. 7:50: Hani Hanjour and his four fellow hijackers board American Airlines Flight 77. 7:58: United Airlines Flight 175 is pushed back from Gate C19 at Logan International Airport. 7:59: Flight 11, a Boeing 767 carrying 81 passengers and 11 crew members, departs 14 minutes late from Logan International Airport in Boston, its destination being Los Angeles International Airport in Los Angeles, California. 8:01: United Airlines Flight 93 is pushed back from Gate A17 at Newark International Airport.
8:09: Flight 77 is pushed back from Gate D26 at Dulles International Airport. 8:13: Flight 11 has its last routine communication with the Federal Aviation Administration's Boston Center.8:14: Flight 11 is hijacked when hijackers Waleed and Wail al-Shehri rise from seats 2A and 2B and stab two flight attendants. Atta approaches the cockpit. Within minutes, he is at the controls. 8:14: Flight 175, another fueled Boeing 767, carrying 56 passengers and nine crew members departs from Logan International Airport in Boston. Five hijackers are aboard. One of them, most al-Shehhi, communicated with Mohammed Atta shortly before American Airlines Flight 11's takeoff.8:19: Betty Ong, a flight attendant on Flight 11 alerts American Airlines via an airphone: "The cockpit is not answering, somebody's stabbed in business class—and I think there's Mace—that we can't breathe—I don't know, I think we're getting hijacked." She tells of the stabbings of two flight attendants.8:20: The FAA's Boston Center flight controllers decide that Flight 11 has been hijacked.
8:20: Flight 77, a Boeing 757 with 58 passengers and six crew members, departs from Washington Dulles International Airport, for Los Angeles International Airport. Five hijackers are aboard. 8:21: Flight 11's transponder signal is turned off, but can still be tracked via primary radar by Boston Center. 8:24
September 11 attacks
The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks. Four passenger airliners operated by two major U. S. passenger air carriers —all of which departed from airports in the northeastern United States bound for California—were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers of the World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed. Debris and the resulting fires caused a partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47-story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures.
A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, which led to a partial collapse of the building's west side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was flown toward Washington, D. C. but crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, after its passengers thwarted the hijackers. 9/11 is the single deadliest terrorist attack in human history and the single deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed, respectively. Suspicion fell on al-Qaeda; the United States responded by launching the War on Terror and invaded Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had failed to comply with U. S. demands to extradite Osama bin expel al-Qaeda from Afghanistan. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's leader denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks.
Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U. S. support of Israel, the presence of U. S. troops in Saudi Arabia, sanctions against Iraq as motives. After evading capture for a decade, bin Laden was located in Pakistan and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U. S. Navy in May 2011; the destruction of the World Trade Center and nearby infrastructure harmed the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, which resulted in the closing of Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the U. S. and Canada until September 13. Many closings and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site; the building was opened on November 3, 2014. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, the Pentagon Memorial in Arlington County and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
Although not confirmed, there is evidence of alleged Saudi Arabian involvement in the attacks. Given as main evidence in these charges are the contents of the 28 redacted pages of the December 2002 Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 conducted by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence; these 28 pages contain information regarding the material and financial assistance given to the hijackers and their affiliates leading up to the attacks by the Saudi Arabian government. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979. Osama bin Laden helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical. In 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā. In a second fatwā in 1998, bin Laden outlined his objections to American foreign policy with respect to Israel, as well as the continued presence of American troops in Saudi Arabia after the Gulf War.
Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed. Muslim legal scholars "have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries", according to bin Laden. Bin Laden orchestrated the attacks and denied involvement but recanted his false statements. Al Jazeera broadcast a statement by bin Laden on September 16, 2001, stating, "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own motivation." In November 2001, U. S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden admits foreknowledge of the attacks. On December 27, 2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said: It has become clear that the West in general and America in particular have an unspeakable hatred for Islam.... It is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, which kills our people....
Casualties of the September 11 attacks
During the September 11 attacks of 2001, 2,996 people were killed and more than 6,000 others injured. These immediate deaths included 265 on the four planes, 2,606 in the World Trade Center and in the surrounding area, 125 at the Pentagon; the attacks were the deadliest terrorist act in world history, the most devastating foreign attack on United States soil since the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Most of those who perished were civilians except for 343 firefighters and 71 law enforcement officers who died in the World Trade Center and on the ground in New York City, another law enforcement officer who died when United Airlines Flight 93 crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, 55 military personnel who died at the Pentagon in Arlington County and the 19 terrorists who died on board the four aircraft. Overall, 2,605 U. S. citizens, including 2,135 civilians, died in the attacks, while an additional 372 non-U. S. Citizens perished, which represented about 12% of the total.
More than 90 countries lost citizens in the attacks, including the United Kingdom, the Dominican Republic, India. 2,974 victims were confirmed to have died in the initial attacks. In 2007, the New York City medical examiner's office began to add people who died of illnesses caused by exposure to dust from the site to the official death toll; the first such victim was a woman, a civil rights lawyer, who had died from a chronic lung condition in February 2002. In September 2009, the office added a man who died in October 2008, in 2011, a male accountant who had died in December 2010; this raises the number of victims at the World Trade Center site to 2,753, the overall 9/11 death toll to 2,996. As of August 2013, medical authorities concluded that 1,140 people who worked, lived, or studied in Lower Manhattan at the time of the attack have been diagnosed with cancer as a result of "exposure to toxins at Ground Zero", it has been reported that over 1,400 9/11 rescue workers who responded to the scene in the days and months after the attacks have since died.
At least 11 pregnancies were lost as a result of 9/11. Most tall buildings in the United States at the time were not designed for complete evacuation during a crisis after the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, it was procedural for announcements in the case of high-rise fire safety for individuals to stay in their offices unless they were near the burning floor. The buildings housed three stairwells in the center core of each tower, with the stairwells being 70 feet apart in the North Tower and about 200 feet apart in the South Tower; the three stairwells were labeled A, B, C, were as tall as the buildings with two built to 44 inches in width and the third was 56 inches wide. At the time of the attacks, media reports suggested that tens of thousands might have been killed, as on any given day upwards of 100,000 people could be inside the towers. Estimates of the number of people in the Twin Towers when attacked on Tuesday, September 11, 2001, range between 14,000 and 19,000; the National Institute of Standards and Technology estimated that 17,400 civilians were in the World Trade Center complex at the time of the attacks.
Turnstile counts from the Port Authority indicate that the number of people in the Twin Towers by 10:30 am was 14,154. In interviews with 271 survivors, researchers in 2008 found that only about 8.6% had fled as soon as the alarm was raised while about 91.4% stayed behind to wait for more information or carrying out at least one additional task. The interviews showed that 82% of those who were evacuating stopped at least once during their way down, due to congestion on the stairs, take a rest, or due to environmental conditions. In the moments after Flight 11 struck the North Tower, the 8,000 people on the floors below the point of impact were faced with a harrowing scenario; the towers of the World Trade Center complex had not been designed to facilitate a mass evacuation of everybody in the buildings, in each tower there were only three narrow stairwells descending to the ground level. Another hindrance to the evacuation of the World Trade Center was that as the planes struck, the force of the impact caused the buildings to shift enough to jam doors in their frames, stairwells became blocked by broken wall boards, trapping dozens of people throughout the building on the floors closer to the impact zone.
For those that were above the point of impact many were trapped within their offices, with one victim relaying to 911 after the first plane hit that the stairs were inaccessible for the 106th floor. At least 28 people were freed on the 86th and 89th floors by members of the Port Authority office workers who had to pry open jammed doors. Many people began to evacuate via the stairs on their own, while others chose to wait for instructions from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Others who chose to evacuate were pushed into action by loved ones, able to contact them; as evacuees descended down the staircases in the North Tower, they were directed to descend to the concourse level beneath the World Trade Center complex, where the mall was located. Others who managed to escape credit the "Survivors Staircase" an outdoor staircase that survived the disaster, World Trade Center workers who knew escape routes. A survivor stated "Between the 9th floor, we wound through this maze; when we got to the plaza level we were walking through and there was one emergency light on.
There was water up to our calves. All of a sudden there was a voice. We saw someone in
Southwest Airlines Co. is a major United States airline headquartered in Dallas, is the world's largest low-cost carrier. The airline was established in 1967 by Herb Kelleher as Air Southwest Co. and adopted its current name, Southwest Airlines Co. in 1971, when it began operating as an intrastate airline wholly within the state of Texas, first flying between Dallas and San Antonio. The airline has about 58,000 employees as of September 2018 and operates about 4,000 departures a day during peak travel season; as of April 2019, Southwest carries the most domestic passengers of any United States airline. The airline has scheduled services to 100 destinations in the United States and ten additional countries. Service to Hawaii has started in March 2019. Southwest Airlines was founded in 1966 by Herbert Kelleher and Rollin King, in 1967 it was incorporated as Air Southwest Co. Three other airlines took legal action to try to prevent the company from its planned strategy of undercutting their prices by flying only within Texas and thus being exempt from various regulations.
The lawsuits were resolved in 1970, in 1971 the airline began operating scheduled flights between Dallas Love Field and Houston and between Love Field and San Antonio, adopted the name Southwest Airlines Co. In 1975, Southwest began operating flights to various additional cities within Texas, in 1979 it began flying to neighboring states. Service to the East and the Southeast started in the 1990s; as of April 2019, Southwest Airlines has scheduled flights to 102 destinations in 41 states, Puerto Rico, Central America and the Caribbean. It operates crew bases at the following airports: Atlanta, Chicago–Midway, Dallas–Love, Houston–Hobby, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Oakland and Phoenix–Sky Harbor. Southwest does not use the "hub and spoke" system of other major airlines, preferring the "point-to-point" system, combined with a "rolling hub" model in its larger cities. In 2018, Gary Kelly – the airline's chief executive – suggested that the airline may be considering potential route expansions to Canada and Europe.
Southwest does not partner with any other airline. Icelandair: In 1997, Southwest and Icelandair entered into interline and marketing agreements allowing for joint fares, coordinated schedules, transfer of passenger luggage between the two airlines in Baltimore and a place connecting passengers between several U. S. cities and several European cities. The frequent flyer programs were not included in the agreement; this arrangement lasted for several years but ended when Icelandair's service from BWI to KEF ended in January 2007. ATA Airlines: In a departure from its traditional "go it alone" strategy, Southwest entered into its first domestic codesharing arrangement with ATA, which enabled Southwest Airlines to serve ATA markets in Hawaii, Washington, D. C. and New York City. At the time of ATA's demise in April 2008, the airline offered over 70 flights a week to Hawaii from Southwest's focus cities in PHX, LAS, LAX and OAK with connections available to many other cities across the United States.
The ATA/Southwest codeshare was terminated when ATA filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy on April 3, 2008. Southwest acquired the operating certificate and some of the landing rights of ATA in the ensuing proceedings. WestJet: On July 8, 2008, Southwest Airlines signed a codeshare agreement with WestJet of Canada, giving the two airlines the ability to sell seats on each other's flights; the partnership was to be finalized by late 2009, but had been postponed due to economic conditions. On April 16, 2010, Southwest and WestJet airlines amicably agreed to terminate the implementation of a codeshare agreement between the two airlines. Volaris: Southwest signed its second international codeshare agreement on November 10, 2008, with Mexican low-cost carrier Volaris; the agreement allowed Southwest to sell tickets on Volaris flights. However, on February 22, 2013, the connecting agreement was terminated, it was said to be mutual between the airlines. Most industry experts believe that the expansion of the subsidiary of Southwest, AirTran Airways, into more Mexican markets, was a main reason for the termination of the agreement.
AirTran Airways: After acquiring AirTran Airways in 2011, Southwest Airlines and AirTran Airways took the first step in connecting their networks on January 26, 2013, by offering a small number of shared itineraries in five markets. The agreement ended after AirTran became integrated into Southwest on December 28, 2014. Southwest Airlines has only operated Boeing 737 jetliner models, except for a period from 1979 to 1987 when it leased and operated several Boeing 727-200s from Braniff International Airways. Southwest is the largest operator of the Boeing 737 worldwide, with 750 in service, each averaging six flights per day. While most U. S. airlines now charge passengers for checked luggage, Southwest continues to permit 2 free checked bags per passenger. Regarding last-minute itinerary changes, Southwest does not charge any change fees. In the event of a cancellation, passengers are refunded a travel credit in the amount spent on their ticket, the credit may be used toward any other Southwest Airlines or Southwest Vacations purchase within a year of the original ticket purchase.
Southwest offers free in-flight non-alcoholic beverages and offers alcoholic beverages for sale for $6–7/beverage, with Rapid Rewards members eligible to receive drinks vouchers with their tickets. Free alcoholic drinks are offered on popular holidays su
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, politics. Owned by Condé Nast, it is headquartered in San Francisco and has been in publication since March/April 1993. Several spin-offs have been launched, including Wired UK, Wired Italia, Wired Japan, Wired Germany. Condé Nast's parent company Advance Publications is the major shareholder of Reddit, an internet information conglomeration website. In its earliest colophons, Wired credited Canadian media theorist Marshall McLuhan as its "patron saint." From its beginning, the strongest influence on the magazine's editorial outlook came from techno-utopian cofounder Stewart Brand and his associate Kevin Kelly. From 1998 to 2006, Wired magazine and Wired News, which publishes at Wired.com, had separate owners. However, Wired News remained responsible for republishing Wired magazine's content online due to an agreement when Condé Nast purchased the magazine.
In 2006, Condé Nast bought Wired News for $25 million. Wired contributor Chris Anderson is known for popularizing the term "the Long Tail", as a phrase relating to a "power law"-type graph that helps to visualize the 2000s emergent new media business model. Anderson's article for Wired on this paradigm related to research on power law distribution models carried out by Clay Shirky in relation to bloggers. Anderson widened the definition of the term in capitals to describe a specific point of view relating to what he sees as an overlooked aspect of the traditional market space, opened up by new media; the magazine coined the term "crowdsourcing", as well as its annual tradition of handing out Vaporware Awards, which recognize "products and other nerdy tidbits pitched and hyped, but never delivered". The magazine was founded by American journalist Louis Rossetto and his partner Jane Metcalfe, along with Ian Charles Stewart, in 1993 with initial backing from software entrepreneur Charlie Jackson and eclectic academic Nicholas Negroponte of the MIT Media Lab, a regular columnist for six years, wrote the book Being Digital, founded One Laptop per Child.
The founding designers were John Plunkett and Barbara Kuhr, beginning with a 1991 prototype and continuing through the first five years of publication, 1993–98. Wired, which touted itself as "the Rolling Stone of technology", made its debut at the Macworld conference on January 2, 1993. A great success at its launch, it was lauded for its vision, originality and cultural impact. In its first four years, the magazine won two National Magazine Awards for General Excellence and one for Design; the founding executive editor of Wired, Kevin Kelly, was an editor of the Whole Earth Catalog and the Whole Earth Review and brought with him contributing writers from those publications. Six authors of the first Wired issue had written for Whole Earth Review, most notably Bruce Sterling and Stewart Brand. Other contributors to Whole Earth appeared in Wired, including William Gibson, featured on Wired's cover in its first year and whose article "Disneyland with the Death Penalty" in issue 1.4 resulted in the publication being banned in Singapore.
Wired cofounder Louis Rossetto claimed in the magazine's first issue that "the Digital Revolution is whipping through our lives like a Bengali typhoon," yet despite the fact that Kelly was involved in launching the WELL, an early source of public access to the Internet and earlier non-Internet online experience, Wired's first issue de-emphasized the Internet and covered interactive games, cell-phone hacking, digital special effects, military simulations, Japanese otaku. However, the first issue did contain a few references to the Internet, including online dating and Internet sex, a tutorial on how to install a bozo filter; the last page, a column written by Nicholas Negroponte, was written in the style of an email message but contained fake, non-standard email addresses. By the third issue in the fall of 1993, the "Net Surf" column began listing interesting FTP sites, Usenet newsgroups, email addresses, at a time when the numbers of these things were small and this information was still novel to the public.
Wired was among the first magazines to list the email address of its contributors. Associate publisher Kathleen Lyman was brought on board to launch Wired with an advertising base of major technology and consumer advertisers. Lyman, along with Simon Ferguson, introduced revolutionary ad campaigns by a diverse group of industry leaders—such as Apple Computer, Sony, Calvin Klein, Absolut—to the readers of the first technology publication with a lifestyle slant; the magazine was followed by a companion website, a book publishing division, a Japanese edition, a short-lived British edition. Wired UK was relaunched in April 2009. In 1994, John Battelle, cofounding editor, commissioned Jules Marshall to write a piece on the Zippies; the cover story broke records for being one of the most publicized stories of the year and was used to promote Wired's HotWired news service. HotWired spawned websites Webmonkey, the search engine HotBot, a weblog, Suck.com. In June 1998, the magazine launched a stock index, the Wired Index, called the Wired 40 since July 2003.
The fortune of the magazine and allied enterprises corresponded to that of the dot-com bubble. In 1996, Rossetto and the other participants in Wired Ventures attempted to take the company public with an IPO; the initial attempt had to be withdraw
United Airlines Flight 175
United Airlines Flight 175 was a scheduled domestic passenger flight from Logan International Airport, in Boston, Massachusetts, to Los Angeles International Airport, in Los Angeles, California. On September 11, 2001, the Boeing 767-200 operating the route was hijacked by five al-Qaeda terrorists and was deliberately crashed into the South Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City, killing all 65 people aboard and an unconfirmed number in the building's impact zone. Thirty minutes into the flight, the hijackers forcibly breached the cockpit and overpowered the pilot and first officer, allowing lead hijacker and trained pilot Marwan al-Shehhi to take over the controls. Unlike Flight 11, which turned its transponder off, the aircraft's transponder was visible on New York Center's radar, the aircraft deviated from the assigned flight path for four minutes before air traffic controllers noticed these changes at 08:51 EDT, they made several unsuccessful attempts to contact the cockpit. Unknown to the hijackers, several passengers and crew aboard made phone calls from the plane to family members and provided information about the hijackers and injuries suffered by passengers and crew.
The aircraft crashed into Tower Two of the World Trade Center at 09:03. The Flight 175 hijacking was coordinated with that of American Airlines Flight 11, which struck the top of Tower One 17 minutes earlier; the crash of Flight 175 into the South Tower was the only impact seen live on television around the world as it happened. The impact and subsequent fire caused the South Tower to collapse 56 minutes after the crash, resulting in hundreds of additional casualties. During the recovery effort at the World Trade Center site, workers recovered and identified remains from Flight 175 victims, but many other body fragments could not be identified; the team of hijackers on United Airlines Flight 175 was led by Marwan al-Shehhi, from the United Arab Emirates. Shehhi obtained a commercial pilot's license while training in south Florida, along with Flight 11 hijacker and plot coordinator, Mohamed Atta; the muscle hijackers on Flight 175 included Fayez Banihammad, from the UAE, three Saudis: brothers Hamza al-Ghamdi and Ahmed al-Ghamdi, as well as Mohand al-Shehri.
On August 13, 2001, Marwan al-Shehhi purchased two four-inch pocket knives from a Sports Authority store in Boynton Beach, while Banihammad bought a two-piece snap knife set at a Wal-Mart, Hamza al-Ghamdi bought a Leatherman Wave multi-tool. In early September 2001, the Flight 175 group of hijackers arrived in Boston from Florida. Hamza al-Ghamdi and Ahmed al-Ghamdi arrived together on September 7 and checked into the Charles Hotel in Cambridge, Massachusetts; the next day, they relocated to the Days Inn in Boston. Fayez Banihammad flew from Florida to Boston, along with Mohand al-Shehri, on September 8, they checked into the Milner Hotel in Boston. Marwan al-Shehhi arrived in Boston on September 9 and stayed at the Milner Hotel, where he shared a room with Flight 11 hijacker Mohamed Atta; the flight was operated with a Boeing 767-200, registration number N612UA, built and delivered in 1983, with capacity of 168 passengers. On the day of the attacks, the flight carried only 56 passengers and 9 crew members, which represented a 33 percent load factor — well below the average load factor of 49 percent in the three months preceding September 11.
The nine crew members included Captain Victor Saracini, First Officer Michael Horrocks, flight attendants Robert Fangman, Amy Jarret, Amy King, Kathryn Laborie, Alfred Marchand, Michael Tarrou, Alicia Titus. Excluding the hijackers, the passengers on the flight included 35 men, 12 women, three children who were all under the age of 5, included Garnet "Ace" Bailey, the director of pro scouting for the Los Angeles Kings and a former National Hockey League player. Hamza al-Ghamdi and Ahmed al-Ghamdi checked out of their hotel and called a taxi to take them to Logan International Airport, they arrived at the United Airlines counter in Terminal C at 06:20 Eastern Time and Ahmed al-Ghamdi checked in two bags. Both hijackers indicated they wanted to purchase tickets, though they had paper tickets, they had trouble answering the standard security questions, so the counter agent repeated the questions slowly until the men gave the correct answers. Hijacker pilot Marwan al-Shehhi checked in a single bag at 06:45, the other remaining hijackers, Fayez Banihammad and Mohand al-Shehri, checked in at 06:53.
Banihammad checked two bags. None of the hijackers were selected for extra scrutiny by the Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System. Shehhi and the other hijackers boarded Flight 175 between 07:23 and 07:28. Banihammad boarded first and sat in first class seat 2A, while Mohand al-Shehri was in seat 2B. At 07:27, Shehhi and Ahmed al-Ghamdi boarded, sat in business class seats 6C and 9D respectively. A minute Hamza al-Ghamdi boarded, sat in 9C; the flight was scheduled to depart at 08:00 for Los Angeles. Fifty-one passengers and the five hijackers boarded the 767 through Terminal C's Gate 19; the plane pushed back at 07:58 and took off at 08:14 from runway 9, about the same time Flight 11 was hijacked. By 08:33, the aircraft reached cruising altitude of 31,000 feet, the point when cabin service would begin. At 08:37, air traffic controllers asked the pilots of Flight 175 whether they could see American Airlines Flight 11; the crew responded that Flight 11 was at 29,000 feet, controllers ordered Flight 175 to turn and avoid the aircraft.
The pilots declared. "Sounds like someone keyed the
Germanwings Flight 9525
Germanwings Flight 9525 was a scheduled international passenger flight from Barcelona–El Prat Airport in Spain to Düsseldorf Airport in Germany. The flight was operated by a low-cost carrier owned by the German airline Lufthansa. On 24 March 2015, the aircraft, an Airbus A320-211, crashed 100 kilometres north-west of Nice in the French Alps. All 144 passengers and six crew members were killed, it was Germanwings' first fatal crash in the 18-year history of the company. The investigation determined that the crash was caused deliberately by the co-pilot, Andreas Lubitz, treated for suicidal tendencies and declared "unfit to work" by his doctor. Lubitz instead reported for duty. Shortly after reaching cruise altitude and while the captain was out of the cockpit, he locked the cockpit door and initiated a controlled descent that continued until the aircraft impacted a mountainside. In response to the incident and the circumstances of the co-pilot's involvement, aviation authorities in some countries implemented new regulations that require the presence of two authorized personnel in the cockpit at all times.
Three days after the incident, the European Aviation Safety Agency issued a temporary recommendation for airlines to ensure that at least two crew members—including at least one pilot—were in the cockpit for the entire duration of the flight. Several airlines announced that they had adopted similar policies voluntarily. Germanwings Flight 9525 took off from Runway 07R at Barcelona–El Prat Airport on 24 March 2015 at 10:01 a.m. CET and was due to arrive at Düsseldorf Airport by 11:39 CET; the flight's scheduled departure time was 9:35 CET. According to the French national civil aviation inquiries bureau, the Bureau of Enquiry and Analysis for Civil Aviation Safety, the pilots confirmed instructions from French air traffic control at 10:30 CET. At 10:31 CET, after crossing the French coast near Toulon, the aircraft left its assigned cruising altitude of 38,000 feet and without approval began to descend rapidly; the air traffic controller declared the aircraft in distress after its descent and loss of radio contact.
The descent time from 38,000 feet was about ten minutes. Attempts by French air traffic control to contact the flight on the assigned radio frequency were not answered. A French military Mirage jet was scrambled from the Orange-Caritat Air Base to intercept the aircraft. According to the BEA, radar contact was lost at 10:40 CET; the aircraft crashed in the remote commune of 100 kilometres north-west of Nice. A seismological station of the Sismalp network, the Grenoble Observatory, 12 kilometres from the crash site, recorded the associated seismic event, determining the crash time as 10:41:05 CET; the crash is the deadliest air disaster in France since the 1981 crash of Inex-Adria Aviopromet Flight 1308 in which 180 people died, the third-deadliest French air disaster of all time, behind Flight 1308 and Turkish Airlines Flight 981. This was the first major crash of a civil airliner in France since the crash of Air France Flight 4590 on takeoff from Charles de Gaulle Airport in 2000; the crash site is within the Massif des Trois-Évêchés, three kilometres east of the settlement Le Vernet and beyond the road to the Col de Mariaud, in an area known as the Ravin du Rosé.
The aircraft crashed on the southern side of the Tête du Travers, a minor peak in the lower western slopes of the Tête de l'Estrop. The site is 10 kilometres west of Mount Cimet, where Air France Flight 178 crashed in 1953. Gendarmerie nationale and Sécurité Civile sent helicopters to locate the wreckage; the aircraft had disintegrated. A helicopter landed near the crash site; the search and rescue team reported. The aircraft involved was a 24-year-old Airbus A320-211, serial number 147, registered as D-AIPX, it made its first flight on 29 November 1990 and was delivered to Lufthansa on 5 February 1991. The aircraft was leased to Germanwings from 1 June 2003 until mid-2004 returned to Lufthansa on 22 July 2004 and remained with the airline until it was transferred to Germanwings again on 31 January 2014; the aircraft had accumulated about 58,300 flight hours on 46,700 flights. During its final flight, the aircraft was carrying 144 passengers and six crew from at least 18 countries—mostly Germany and Spain.
The count was confused by the multiple citizenship status of some people on board. The flight's pilot in command was 34-year-old Captain Patrick Sondenheimer, who had ten years of flying experience flying A320s for Germanwings and Condor; the co-pilot was 27-year-old Andreas Lubitz, who joined Germanwings in September 2013 and had 630 flight hours of experience. Andreas Günter Lubitz was born on 18 December 1987 and grew up in Neuburg an der Donau and Montabaur in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate, he took flying lessons at an aviation sports club in Montabaur. Lubitz was accepted into a Lufthansa trainee programme after finishing high school. In September 2008, he began training at the Lufthansa Flight Training school in Germany, he suspended his pilot training in November 2008 after being hospitalized for a severe episode of depression. After his psychiatrist determined that the depressive episode was resolved, Lubitz returned to the Lufthansa Flight Training s