The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
The River Aire is a major river in Yorkshire, England, 148 kilometres in length. The Handbook for Leeds and Airedale notes that the distance from Malham to Howden is 58 miles direct, but the river's meanderings extend that to 90 miles. Between Malham Tarn and Airmyn, the river drops 400 metres. Part of the river below Leeds is canalised, is known as the Aire and Calder Navigation; the Aire starts its journey at Malham Tarn. It becomes a subterranean stream at'Water Sinks' about 1 mile before the top of Malham Cove, it flows underground to Aire Head, just below Malham, in North Yorkshire, flows through Gargrave and Skipton. After Cononley, the river enters West Yorkshire where it passes through the former industrial areas of Keighley, Bingley and Shipley, it passes through Leeds and on to the villages of Swillington and Woodlesford. At Castleford is the confluence of the Aire and Calder; the river re-enters North Yorkshire near Knottingley and in its lower reaches forms part of the boundary between North Yorkshire and the East Riding of Yorkshire.
Tests have been conducted to authenticate the actual source of the Aire. The tarn at Malham has been dammed and allowed to flood. Observers have noted that whilst water surged at Aire Head, it surged at the bottom of Malham Cove. There was a significant difference of 30 minutes between the two surges with Malham Cove being slower to react to the floodwater; the section between Malham Tarn and the confluence of the becks at Aire Head is known as Malhamdale. Thereafter the valley is known as Airedale and encompasses Bradford, by the time it reaches Leeds, the term Airedale is applied; the River Aire empties into the River Ouse at Airmyn,'myn' being an old English word for'river mouth'. from source Malham Hanlith Airton Bell Busk Gargrave Skipton Low Bradley Cononley Kildwick Silsden Steeton Utley Keighley Riddlesden Crossflatts Bingley Saltaire Shipley Charlestown Esholt Apperley Bridge Horsforth Kirkstall Leeds city centre Holbeck Knowsthorpe Allerton Bywater Castleford Brotherton Ferrybridge Knottingley Beal West Haddlesey Chapel Haddlesey Temple Hirst Hensall Gowdall Snaith Rawcliffe Newland Airmyn The name Yr is documented in Gray's Cartularium Saxonicum in 959 AD.
The river is darcy and ðarcy in the same source. It is Eyr’ in 1135 in The Coucher Book of Selby and other sources up to 1298. Eir is given in 1175-7 in one of the Dodsworth Manuscripts in Farrer's Early Yorkshire Charters. Air from c. 1160 to 1577, Air’ in the thirteenth century. In John Cossins' 1775 Plan of the Town of Leedes it is labelled "River Air". In 1857 it was proposed that the name Aire may be from Common Brittonic *Isara, meaning "strong river"; the deposit of silt by two tributaries close together, the Meanwood Beck from the north and the Hol Beck from the south led to a crossing place and a settlement which became the town of Leeds. The Aire was forded by a paved way by the Romans at Castleford as part of a road connecting Doncaster with York which went north through the town near to the church. At this time, the River Don emptied into the Aire at Snaith, but the Dutch engineer, Cornelius Vermuyden, changed the course of the Don in the 1630s so that it flows into the Ouse after its confluence with the Aire.
During the Great Frost of 1683–84 the river froze solid for a month allowing a fair with an ox-roast and sports to take place, as described by Ralph Thoresby. An Act of Parliament was passed in 1699 to make the river downstream of Leeds navigable with a further act to extend the navigable part of the river upstream to Bingley; this second act formed the basis of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. Between the middle part of the nineteenth century to the latter part of the twentieth, the River Aire was devoid of fish life downstream of Shipley due to its pollution. Efforts have been made to return the river to a good wildlife status and fish and other wildlife now do exist all along the course of the river. There are three thermal power stations alongside the River Aire east of Castleford. Drax takes its cooling water from the Ouse, but both Ferrybridge and Eggborough draw their water from the Aire. Both of these plants stopped generating in 2016, with Eggborough being a stand-by for capacity problems until March 2017.
A hydroelectric power station was installed on the Brotherton Weir at Knottingley in November 2017. The £7.5 million project is expected to deliver 500 kilowatts per year and be operational for 100 years. Due to the Aire flowing through the former industrial landscape of West Yorkshire, it had a reputation as being polluted. In 2007, Yorkshire Water carried out improvements to Esholt Sewage Works at a cost of £110 million under the EU's Fresh Water Fish Directive. Whilst Trout are prevalent above Keighley, the river is host to others such as Chub, Barbel & Grayling, whilst Sea Trout have been noted as far upriver as Shipley. Work is being undertaken to make the many weirs on the river easier to negotiate for fish; these improvements have allowed Otters and Water Voles to return to the river as the water and food quality is far superior to that when the river was polluted. Plans have been submitted to Bradford Council to allow the installation of a fish passage on a weir at Saltaire, which remains the last barrier on the river preventing eels and lamphreys from migrating upriver to spawning grounds near to Gargrave.
Castleford Wastewater Treatment Works has had £16 million of investment between 2013 and 2015. The improvements to
Yorkshire Dales National Park
The Yorkshire Dales National Park is a 2,178 km2 national park in England covering most of the Yorkshire Dales. The majority of the park is in North Yorkshire, with a sizeable area in Cumbria and a small part in Lancashire; the park was designated in 1954, was extended in 2016. Over 20,000 residents live and work in the park, which attracts over eight million visitors every year; the park is 50 miles north-east of Manchester. The national park does not include all of the Yorkshire Dales. Parts of the dales to the south and east of the national park are located in the Nidderdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the national park includes the Howgill Fells and Orton Fells in the north west although they are not considered part of the dales. In 1947, the Hobhouse Report recommended the creation of the Yorkshire Dales National Park in the West Riding and North Riding of Yorkshire; the proposed National Park included most of the Yorkshire Dales, but not Nidderdale. Accordingly, Nidderdale was not included in the National Park when it was designated in 1954.
In 1963 the West Riding County Council proposed that Nidderdale should be added to the National Park, but the proposal met with opposition from the district councils which would have lost some of their powers to the county council. Following the Local Government Act 1972 most of the area of the national park was transferred in 1974 to the new county of North Yorkshire. An area in the north west of the national park was transferred from the West Riding of Yorkshire to the new county of Cumbria. In 1997 management of the national park passed from the county councils to the Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority. A westward extension of the park into Lancashire and Cumbria encompasses much of the area between the old boundaries of the park and the M6 motorway; this increases the area by nearly 24% and brings the park close to the towns of Kirkby Lonsdale, Kirkby Stephen and Appleby-in-Westmorland. The extension includes the northern portion of the Howgill Fells and most of the Orton Fells. Prior to the expansion, the national park was in the historic county of Yorkshire, the expansion bringing in parts of historic Lancashire and Westmorland.
The area has a wide range of activities for visitors. For example, many people come to the Dales for other exercise. Several long-distance routes cross the park, including the Pennine Way, the Dales Way, the Coast to Coast Walk and the Pennine Bridleway. Cycling is popular and there are several cycleways; the Dales Countryside Museum is housed in the converted Hawes railway station in Wensleydale in the north of the area. The park has five visitor centres; these are at: Aysgarth Falls Grassington Hawes Malham ReethOther places and sights within the National Park include: Bolton Castle Clapham Cautley Spout waterfall Firbank Fell Gaping Gill Gayle Mill Hardraw Force Horton in Ribblesdale Howgill Fells Kisdon Force in Swaledale Leck Fell Malham Cove, Gordale Scar, Janet's Foss and Malham Tarn Orton Fells River Lune Sedbergh Settle Settle and Carlisle Railway including the Ribblehead Viaduct Wild Boar Fell The Yorkshire Three Peaks Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority Media related to Yorkshire Dales National Park at Wikimedia Commons
The A65 is a major road in England. It runs north west from Leeds in Yorkshire via Kirkstall, Yeadon, Guiseley and Skipton, passes west of Settle continues through Ingleton and Kirkby Lonsdale before terminating at Kendal in Cumbria. Listed from south to north, beginning at Leeds: The 2-mile £5.5 million dual-carriageway Burley in Wharfedale Bypass opened in April 1995. The 2-mile £4 million Addingham bypass opened in January 1991; the £2.8 million Draughton Bypass opened in December 1991. The north section of the £16.4 million Skipton Bypass opened in December 1981, part of the A59. North of Skipton, where the road meets the busy A629 from Bradford, there have been plans for a bypass around Gargrave, where the road crosses the Pennine Way; the 4-mile £8.5 million Settle & Giggleswick Bypass opened in December 1988. The 1-mile Clapham bypass is the earliest of these bypasses; the National Archives have a file "West Riding CC: Clapham Bypass. The A65 between Long Preston and junction 36 of the M6 motorway has a poor safety record, according to EuroRAP being listed as a medium-high risk road.
This 26-mile stretch of single carriageway road suffered 48 fatal or serious injury accidents between 2002 and 2004. The road features in the list of highest risk roads in Britain; the section between Leeds and Long Preston is listed as being a low-medium risk road. A58 Leeds Inner Ring Road B6157 Kirkstall A6120 Horsforth B6152 Rawdon A658 Yeadon B6153 Guiseley A6038 Guiseley A6038 Menston A660 Burley in Wharfedale B6382 Ben Rhydding B6382 Ilkley A6034 & B6160 Addingham A6069 Skipton A59 Skipton A6131 Skipton B6265 Skipton A59 & A629 Skipton B6253 Hellifield A682 Long Preston B6478 Long Preston B6480 near Settle B6480 B6480 Clapham B6480 Clapham B6480 Newby B6255 Ingleton A687 Ingleton A683 Kirkby Lonsdale A683 Kirkby Lonsdale B6254 Kirkby Lonsdale B6446 Kirkby Lonsdale A6070 & A590 near M6 Junction 36 B6385 Crooklands B6254 Kendal A6 Kendal A6 Kendal A6 Kendal A684 Kendal
Grassington is a market town and civil parish in the Craven district of North Yorkshire, England. The population at the 2011 Census was 1,126. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, the town is situated in Wharfedale, about 8 miles north-west from Bolton Abbey, is surrounded by limestone scenery. Nearby villages include Linton, Hebden and Kilnsey; the Domesday Book lists Grassington as part of the estate of Gamal Barn including 7 carucates of ploughland including Grassington and Threshfield. The Norman conquest of England made it part of the lands of Gilbert Tison, but by 1118 Tison had suffered a demotion and his lands returned to the king given to Lord Percy. The settlement was spelt as Gherinstone and was documented as Garsington or Gersington; the name Grassington derives variously from the Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon and Gothic languages and means either the town of the grassy ings or a farmstead surrounded by grass. Grassington was a township in the parish of Linton in the West Riding of Yorkshire.
It became a separate civil parish in 1866, was transferred to North Yorkshire in 1974. Although described by local people as a village, Grassington was granted a Royal Charter for a market and fair in 1282 giving it market town status; the market was held until about 1860. A change in land use from the early 17th century, when lead mining began to assume more importance, brought some prosperity, but Grassington's heyday arrived during the late 18th and early 19th centuries; the opening of the Yorkshire Dales Railway to Threshfield in 1902 brought new visitors, many of whom settled, some finding work in Skipton or in the developing limestone quarries. The Old Hall at Grassington is reputedly the oldest house in Yorkshire, dating from the late 13th or early 14th century. Grassington & Threshfield Golf Club was founded in 1908; the club continued until the Second World War. Grassington is the main residential and tourist centre in Upper Wharfedale. Centred on its small cobbled square are shops, public houses, the village museum, small cafes and hotels.
Grassington Folk Museum houses a collection. It is an independent museum managed by volunteers; the area is popular with walkers, one of the most popular routes is a circular walk that includes Burnsall. Upper Wharfedale Fell Rescue Association, based in Grassington, is a voluntary mountain rescue organisation which rescues people in trouble on the surrounding fells and in caves. Grassington Festival is a two-week-long annual event started in 1980, with music and visual arts, held in a number of venues around the village; every September since 2011, Grassington has held a 1940s themed weekend. Events include war re-enactments, dances and a variety of military and civilian vehicles on display from the period. In the winter Grassington holds the Dickensian Festival, with period costumes, Christmas activities and commercial selling. A Yorkshire Dales National Park information centre is on Hebden Road. Three miles north of Grassington, at Kilnsey, is the glacially carved overhang of Kilnsey Crag. Grass Wood, an area of ancient woodland including the Iron-Age fort, Fort Gregory, is situated just over 3 miles north-west of Grassington.
Grassington is served by the B6265, which runs between Skipton and Green Hammerton via Pateley Bridge and Boroughbridge. Buses connect Grassington with Ilkley and Skipton operating a moderate service to Skipton, but only a three-day a week service to Ilkley; the town used to have a joint railway station terminus with Threshfield on the Yorkshire Dales Railway. The station was located on the west side of the River Wharfe, so it was not in Grassington; the line closed down in September 1930 after only 28 years of service. The station remained open to freight and railtour traffic until 1969 when the tracks were removed south as far as the limestone quarry at Swinden; the site of the railway station is now a housing estate, but the Campaign for Better Transport have listed the Skipton to Grassington line as one which they wish to see re-opened to passenger traffic. Grassington has a Church of England primary school located in the town and there is another primary school in nearby Threshfield. Secondary education is either at the Upper Wharfedale School, a non-selective specialist sports college, or in Skipton at Ermysted's Grammar School and Skipton Girls High School, both of which are selective.
In 1909 Grassington received its first electricity from a hydroelectric plant at Linton Falls, which continued to operate until 1948 when the National Grid arrived in the area. In March 2012 a new hydroelectric power plant was opened using the same but restored turbine house, which provides 500,000 kWh of electricity a year, using two Archimedean screws. Map of the Grass Wood Grassington Lead Mining Trail by Craven & Pendle Geological Society Lead mines – Meerstones of Grassington Moor
Malham Tarn is a glacial lake near the village of Malham in the Yorkshire Dales, England. The lake is one of only eight upland alkaline lakes in Europe. At an altitude of 377 metres above sea level it is the highest marl lake in the United Kingdom, its geology and fauna have led to it being listed under a number of conservation designations. The site is owned by the National Trust, who lease part of the site to the Field Studies Council who offer residential and non-residential field courses there; the site was the inspiration for Charles Kingsley's 1863 novel, The Water-Babies, A Fairy Tale for a Land Baby. Malham Tarn is situated in a national park in the Yorkshire Pennines, it lies 25 miles north-west of Bradford and about 2.5 miles north of the nearest settlement, Malham. At 377 metres above sea level it is sometimes, but erroneously, considered the highest lake in England, but there are lakes at higher altitudes such as Innominate Tarn, it is, the highest marl lake in Great Britain. The lake is one of only eight upland alkaline lakes in Europe having a pH between 8.0 and 8.6.
The catchment area of the lake is 600 hectares and the main inflow is a stream at the lake's north-west corner. The lake is 4.4 metres at its deepest, with an average depth of 2.4 metres and the surface area is 62 hectares. It takes 11 weeks for water to leave the lake after it has entered; the primary outflow is a small stream at the southern end of the lake. The outflow stream goes underground after 500 metres before emerging downstream of Malham Cove as a source of the River Aire. Situated in a limestone area, Malham Tarn itself lies on a bed of silurian slate, covered with marl deposits; the lake's basin was dammed by a moraine at the end of the last glacial period 10,000 years ago. It used having shrunk due to silting at the western shore. Following deforestation during the Iron Age, the land surrounding the lake has been used for grazing which has prevented further tree growth. An embankment and sluice gate were added to the lake in 1791 by Lord Ribblesdale; the average annual rainfall over the catchment area is 1,542.5 millimetres.
The lake is home to six species of fish, as well as white-clawed crayfish, great crested grebes, coots, tufted ducks and teal. A number of waders such as redshanks, curlews and oystercatchers breed in the surrounding area. Two rare benthic copepods, Bryocamptus rhaeticus and Motatia mrazeki, are found in the lake, along with 22 species of molluscs—nine of which are found at their highest altitude in Britain; the lake contains a number of submerged aquatic plants, while the surrounding area is home to a diverse number of plants including wild cranberry, crowberry, dark-leaved willow and purple moor grass. Last seen fifty years ago, captive-bred water voles were reintroduced in August 2016; this is the highest reintroduction of water vole in the UK. The lake is located in the Malham and Arncliffe Site of Special Scientific Interest, established in 1955. In 1992, the lake and its wetlands were designated as a National Nature Reserve; the lake was listed as a Ramsar Convention site in 1993. It is in the Craven Limestone Complex Special Area of Conservation.
There has been human activity at Malham Tarn dating back to the Mesolithic era when the shores of the lake were used for camping during hunting trips for deer and wild cattle. During the Bronze and Iron Ages, the surrounding area was settled by farmers who used the land for grazing. Following the Roman conquest of Britain the upland areas were not seen as attractive and the only Roman presence in the area was a marching camp on Malham Moor. During the Medieval period the lands were owned by the Monasteries, their use for grazing continued. A survey undertaken in 1539 at the time of the dissolution of Fountains Abbey makes note of a farmstead on the northern shore of lake. Following the dissolution of the monasteries, the estates of Malham Moor changed hands several times until they were acquired by Thomas Lister—later to become the first Lord Ribblesdale—in the mid- to late-18th century. Lister built a hunting lodge on the site of the old farm in the 1780s; the estate was sold to businessman James Morrison in 1852.
Following Morrison's death the estates were inherited by his son, Walter, in 1857. While visiting Walter Morrison in 1858, author Charles Kingsley was inspired to write the Victorian era novel The Water-Babies, A Fairy Tale for a Land Baby. Walter Morrison died in 1921 and the estate subsequently changed hands a number times before being broken up; the house and the lake were bought by Walter Morrison's great-niece, Mrs Hutton-Croft, in 1928. In 1946 Mrs Hutton-Croft gifted the house to the National Trust, who manage the property and lease the house to the Field Studies Council, now called the Malham Tarn Field Studies Centre; the house exterior and the surrounding countryside can be seen in the 1951 film Another Man's Poison. Malham-Arncliffe SSSI Malham Tarn and Moor National Trust Malham Tarn Field Centre Malham Tarn NNR
Way of the Roses
The Way of the Roses is the newest of Great Britain's coast-to-coast, long-distance cycle routes and is based on minor roads, disused railway lines and specially constructed cycle paths. It lies within the counties of Lancashire and Yorkshire, crossing the Yorkshire Dales and the Yorkshire Wolds in the north of England, passing through the historic cities of Lancaster and York and scenic towns and villages including Settle, Pateley Bridge and Ripon. At 170 miles long, the route is designed for the whole range of cyclists, from families to cycling club riders. Although a challenge with some hard climbs—the highest point being over 1,312 feet the route is increasing in popularity; the route is open and signed. The route is named after the Wars of the Roses, a fifteenth-century war between the English dynastic families Lancaster and York; the route was developed by Sustrans and part of the National Cycle Network in partnership with various Local Authorities, Lancaster City Council, Cyclists Touring Club, Bridlington Renaissance Partnership and Welcome to Yorkshire amongst others.
The route was opened in 2010 running from Morecambe on the west coast of Lancashire to the east coast at Bridlington. A second diversion between Pateley Bridge and York that goes via Harrogate and Knaresborough was opened in 2011. Additionally, there is a section that links Kingston upon Hull to the cycle route that joins/leaves near Pocklington rather than going to/from Bridlington. A number of public artworks have been commissioned for the route. Matt Baker is developing a series of linked artworks at various points along the route; this work has not yet been completed. The route is well signposted with signs carrying the name of the route or marked with the red and white heraldic roses from which the name of the route is derived; the route starts in the resort town of Morecambe, Lancashire loosely following the River Lune and the River Wenning into the Pennines at Settle and entering into the stunning scenery of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. From there it makes its steepest climb across the edge of Rye Loaf Hill before descending to Airton.
Thence it heads northeast to Grassington before following the River Wharfe for several miles and turning towards the high point of the route at Greenhow and descending to Pateley Bridge on the River Nidd. Beyond Pateley Bridge the hills are lower and after Ripon the route is more or less flat, passing through York before reaching Bridlington and the North Sea; the route is made up of: Minor Roads – quiet, country roads – 90% Main Roads – short sections through urban areas – 5% Cyclepaths/Off Road – disused railway lines etc.- 5%The Way Of The Roses is best ridden from West to East to take advantage of the prevailing winds from the West and the more favourable gradients. Tradition dictates that you start the ride by dipping your back wheel in the Irish Sea and only ends when your front wheel gets a dip in the North Sea at the finish, it is completed in 3–5 days. The Way of the Roses makes use of 8 National Cycle Network routes. Starting in Morecambe on Route 69, it transfers to Route 68 at Clapham, on to Route 688 at Winterburn, Route 65 at Linton-on-Ouse.
Through central York it follows the short Route 658 before joining Route 66. At Pockington it takes Route 164 over the Yorkshire Wolds before picking up Route 1 near Hutton Cranswick, which it uses to the finish in Bridlington; the route links to other parts of the NCN so can be used as part of a longer cycle tour. In addition to the above listed routes the way of the Roses has junctions with Route 700 at Morecambe, Route 6 at Lancaster, Route 67 near Fountains Abbey. and Route 167 at Huggate in the Yorkshire Wolds. Route maps for The Way Of The Roses and detailed route guides from other publishers are available from Sustrans. Official online guide to the Way of the Roses Review at the Guardian Sustrans; the Way Of The Roses