Lynn University is a private university in Boca Raton, Florida. Founded in 1962, the university awards associate, master's, doctoral degrees, it is named for the Lynn family. It has a total undergraduate enrollment of 2,095; the school first opened in 1962 as Marymount College, a women's junior college founded by the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Mary. Due to financial hardship Marymount College sought to sell the books of its library. Donald E. Ross visited the campus to purchase the library, but was so inspired by the school he decided to stay and help it succeed. In 1971, a period of transition began, the school was placed under the control of a lay board. At that time, Donald E. Ross was named president. In 1974, the name was changed to the College of Boca Raton; the college was granted accreditation at Level II in 1986. In 1988, it was accredited at Level III. During this time it was transformed from a two-year school to a four-year college with a master's program; the College of Boca Raton became Lynn University in 1991 to honor the Lynn family.
In 2003-2004, Donald E. Ross was paid a salary over $5,000,000, making him at the time the highest paid college or university president in the nation. Lynn University retained the national accounting firm KPMG to determine an equitable retirement compensation package for Ross considering his performance and 35-year term of service; this was a third of the endowment for the university. On July 1, 2006, Ross retired after 35 years as the university's president. On October 22, 2012, the university hosted the third and final 2012 U. S. Presidential Debate between U. S. President Barack Obama and former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney concerning U. S. foreign policy. The debate was held at the Keith C. and Elaine Johnson Wold Performing Arts Center and was moderated by journalist Bob Schieffer of CBS News. Lynn offers an graduate curriculum. Lynn offers 14 graduate degrees through its six colleges. Lynn's core curriculum, the Dialogues of Learning, was recognized by Inside Higher Education as an example of how colleges and universities can increase the rigor of their academic offerings and improve the comprehensive education of their students.
All undergraduate students at Lynn University complete the core curriculum the Dialogues of Learning. A cohesive core curriculum, students take 1 class each year, for a total of 4 classes each, in 5 themes: the Dialogues of Justice and Civic Life, Dialogues of Self and Society, Dialogues of Belief and Reason, Dialogues of Quantitative Reasoning, Dialogues of Scientific Literacy. At the freshman and sophomore levels students complete independent dialogues classes, such as DSL 100 and DSL 200. In their junior and senior years students take classes in their major that carry the themes of the dialogues and therefore double count not only as classes in their major, but as dialogues classes. For example, in the College of Business and Management the core classes BUS 322: Business Analytics Using Excel Modeling counts as a DSL 300 course and BUS 425: Operations Management and Business Process Modeling with Excel counts as a DSL 400 course. All undergraduate day students must complete the 3 course requirements of the January Term.
J-term is a 3 week accelerated term where students take only one class, which meets every or every day. The 3 courses required to be completed by students during J-term are Citizenship Project and Culture, Career Preparation, their freshman year students are required to complete Citizenship Project, a course where students design and implement a service learning initiative. During their remaining J-terms students complete the remaining Language and Culture and Career Preparation courses in any order. For Language and Culture students may pick from a variety of languages; these courses focus on a specific geographical region or county in addition to the language of that area. For career preparation students take a class specific to their major in addition to developing more general skills, like resume writing; each of these J-term classes is for 2 credits, in total fulfilling 6 credits towards the student's degree. College of Arts and Sciences College of Business and Management College of Aeronautics.
Donald E. and Helen L. Ross College of Education Eugene M. and Christine E. Lynn College of Communication and Design Digital Media Arts College Conservatory of Music Founded in 1992 as the music division of the Harid Conservatory, the Conservatory of Music became part of Lynn University in January 1999; the conservatory presents more than 50 performances each year. The Philharmonia orchestra is directed by Guillermo Figueroa. In 2013, Lynn launched the iPad mini initiative; this initiative: Is applicable to all Lynn University students replaces traditional textbooks and save students hundreds of dollars. Features Lynn's core curriculum on e-readers enhanced with custom multimedia content. Provides students with education, productivity and news-related iOS apps—some free and some paid for by the university. In 2016, Lynn elevated the program by providing all undergraduate day students and faculty with an iPad Pro, Apple Pencil and Smart Keyboard. Lynn University's athletic teams are known as the Fighting Knight
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics
The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics is a college athletics association for small colleges and universities in North America. For the 2018–2019 season, it has 251 member institutions, of which two are in British Columbia, one in the U. S. Virgin Islands, the rest in the conterminous United States; the NAIA, whose headquarters is in Kansas City, sponsors 26 national championships. The CBS Sports Network called CSTV, serves as the national media outlet for the NAIA. In 2014, ESPNU began carrying the NAIA Football National Championship. In 1937, Dr. James Naismith and local leaders staged the first National College Basketball Tournament at Municipal Auditorium in Kansas City—one year before the first National Invitation Tournament and two years before the first NCAA Tournament; the goal of the tournament was to establish a forum for small colleges and universities to determine a national basketball champion. The original eight-team tournament expanded to 32 teams in 1938. On March 10, 1940, the National Association for Intercollegiate Basketball was formed in Kansas City, Missouri.
In 1952, the NAIB was transformed into the NAIA, with that came the sponsorship of additional sports such as men's golf and outdoor track and field. Football in the NAIA was split based on enrollment; the 1948 NAIB national tournament was the first intercollegiate postseason to feature a black student-athlete, Clarence Walker of Indiana State under coach John Wooden. Wooden had withdrawn from the 1947 tournament; the association furthered its commitment to African-American athletes when, in 1953, it became the first collegiate association to invite black colleges and universities into its membership. In 1957, Tennessee A&I became the first black institution to win a collegiate basketball national championship; the NAIA began sponsoring intercollegiate championships for women in 1980, the second coed national athletics association to do so, offering collegiate athletics championships to women in basketball, cross country, gymnastics and outdoor track and field, softball and diving, tennis and volleyball.
The National Junior College Athletic Association had established a women's division in the spring of 1975 and held the first women's national championship volleyball tournament that fall. In 1997, Liz Heaston became the first female college athlete to play and score in a college football game when she kicked two extra points during the 1997 Linfield vs. Willamette football game. Launched in 2000 by the NAIA, the Champions of Character program promotes character and sportsmanship through athletics; the Champions of Character conducts clinics and has developed an online training course to educate athletes and athletic administrators with the skills necessary to promote character development in the context of sport. In 2010, the association opened the doors to the NAIA Eligibility Center, where prospective student-athletes are evaluated for academic and athletic eligibility, it delivers on the NAIA’s promise of integrity by leveling the playing field, guiding student-athlete success, ensuring fair competition.
Membership – The NAIA was the first association to admit colleges and universities from outside the United States. The NAIA began admitting Canadian members in 1967. Football – The NAIA was the first association to send a football team to Europe to play. In the summer of 1976, the NAIA sent Henderson State and Texas A&I to play 5 exhibition games in West Berlin, Nuremberg and Paris; the NAIA sponsors 14 sports. The NAIA recognizes three levels of competitions: "emerging", "invitational", "championship"; the association conducts, or has conducted in the past, championship tournaments in the following sports. Men's Basketball Division I Division II Women's Basketball Division I Division II The NAIA men's basketball championship is the longest-running collegiate National Championship of any sport in the United States; the tournament was the brainchild of creator of the game of basketball. The event began in 1937 with the inaugural tournament at Municipal Auditorium in Kansas City, MO; the 2017 men's championship marked the 80th edition of what has been tabbed College Basketball’s Toughest Tournament.
The tournament has awarded the Chuck Taylor Most Valuable Player award since 1939, as well as the Charles Stevenson Hustle Award, the basis for Pete Rose's nickname, given to him by Whitey Ford. Basketball is the only NAIA sport in which the organization's member institutions are aligned into divisions. Effective with the 2020–21 school year, the NAIA will return to a single division for both men's and women's basketball; the NAIA has 21 member conferences, including 9 that sponsor football, the Association of Independent Institutions. Central States Football League Mid-States Football Association Al Ortolani Scholarship The $500 undergraduate scholarship is awarded to an outstanding student trainer, at least a junior and has maintained a GPA of 3.00. Athletic Trainer of the
The Sun-Sentinel is the main daily newspaper of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, as well as surrounding Broward County and southern Palm Beach County. Owned by Tribune Publishing, it circulates all throughout the three counties that comprise South Florida, it is the largest-circulation newspaper in the area. Nancy Meyer has held the position of publisher and Julie Anderson has held the position of editor-in-chief since February 2018. For many years, the Sun-Sentinel targeted Broward County and provided only limited news coverage in Palm Beach County. However, in the late 1990s, it expanded its coverage to all of South Florida, including Miami-Dade and Palm Beach counties, in the late 1990s. In the former area, The Miami Herald is its primary competition, while in the latter area, The Palm Beach Post is the chief competition; the Sun-Sentinel emphasizes local news, through its Community Local sections. It has a daily circulation of 163,728 and a Sunday circulation of 228,906; the paper was awarded its first Pulitzer Prize in 2013, in the category of Public Service Journalism, for its investigative series about off-duty police officers who engage in regular reckless speeding.
The newspaper has been a finalist for a Pulitzer 13 times, including for its 2005 coverage of Hurricane Wilma and an investigation into the Federal Emergency Management Agency's mismanagement of hurricane aid. It produced a significant contribution to information graphics in the form of News Illustrated, a weekly full-page graphic that has received more than 30 international awards; the photography department has been a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize twice in the Spot News category. It was a finalist in 1982 for its coverage of a Haitian refugee boat disaster, again in 1999 for its powerful coverage of Hurricane Mitch in Central America; the Sun-Sentinel website has news video from two South Florida television stations: West Palm Beach's CBS affiliate WPEC and Miami and Fort Lauderdale CW affiliate WSFL-TV. It publishes a Spanish-language weekly, El Sentinel, as well as various community publications; the Sun-Sentinel traces its history to the 1910 founding of the Fort Lauderdale Weekly Herald, the first known newspaper in the Fort Lauderdale area, the Everglades Breeze, a locally printed paper founded in 1911, which promoted itself as "Florida's great Farm and Fruit Growing paper."
In 1925, the Everglades Breeze was renamed the Sentinel. That same year, two Ohio publishers bought both the Sentinel and the Herald, consolidating the newspapers into a daily publication called the Daily News and Evening Sentinel. In 1926, Horace and Tom Stillwell purchased the paper. However, the devastation wrought by the 1926 Miami hurricane caused circulation to drop and, in 1929, Tom Stillwell sold the paper to the Gore Publishing Company, headed by R. H. Gore, Sr. By 1945, circulation of the Daily News and Evening Sentinel had climbed to 10,000. In 1953, Gore Publishing changed the name of the paper to the Fort Lauderdale News and added a Sunday morning edition. In 1960, when the paper had a circulation of 60,000, Gore Publishing purchased the weekly Pompano Beach Sun and expanded it into a six-day morning paper, the Pompano Sun-Sentinel—thus reviving the "Sentinel" name it had discarded seven years earlier. In 1963, the Tribune Company acquired Gore Publishing. In the 1970s, the morning paper changed its name to the Fort Lauderdale Sun-Sentinel.
In 1982, the two papers merged their editorial staffs. The two papers merged into a single morning paper under the Fort Lauderdale Sun-Sentinel name. In 2000, after expanding its coverage, the paper changed its name to the South Florida Sun-Sentinel. In 2001, the Sun-Sentinel opened a full-time foreign bureau in Cuba. Shared with the Tribune Co. their Havana newsroom was the only permanent presence of any South Florida newspaper at the time. In 2002, the Sun-Sentinel began publishing El Sentinel; the newspaper is distributed free on Saturdays to Hispanic households in Broward and Palm Beach counties and is available in racks in both counties. It is available online at Elsentinel.com. In 2004, the paper won the Payne Award for Ethics in Journalism for its coverage of health and human services in the state. On August 17, 2008, the Sun-Sentinel unveiled a redesigned layout, with larger graphics, more color, a new large "S" logo; this is in tune with another Tribune newspaper, which redesigned its newspaper a few months and created a brand synergy with Tribune sister operation and CW affiliate WSFL-TV, which relocated its operations to the Sun-Sentinel offices in 2008 and adopted a logo matching the capital "S" in the new logo.
Since 2011 to present day, the newspaper made significant updates to meld print media with modern media. These advances include: launching the pure-play entertainment website SouthFlorida.com and starting a video channel called SunSentinel Originals. As a result of their media integration, the newspaper was named one of Editor & Publisher's "10 Newspapers That Do it Right"; the Sun-Sentinel gives annual awards to area businesses and business leaders, including Top Workplaces for People on the Move, Excalibur Award and others. In April 2013, the Sun-Sentinel won its first gold medal Pulitzer Prize for Public Service. In 2014 the Sun-Sentinel was named one of the "10 Newspapers That Do It Right" by Editor & Publisher magazine. Official website Today's Sun-Sentinel front page at the Newseum website
International Tennis Federation
The International Tennis Federation is the governing body of world tennis, wheelchair tennis, beach tennis. It was founded in 1913 as the International Lawn Tennis Federation by twelve national associations, as of 2016, is affiliated with 211 national tennis associations and six regional associations; the ITF's governance responsibilities include maintaining and enforcing the rules of tennis, regulating international team competitions, promoting the game, preserving the sport's integrity via anti-doping and anti-corruption programs. The ITF partners with the Women's Tennis Association and the Association of Tennis Professionals to govern professional tennis; the ITF organizes the Grand Slam events, annual team competitions for men and mixed teams, as well as tennis and wheelchair tennis events at the Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games on behalf of the International Olympic Committee. The ITF sanctions the Grand Slam tennis tournaments as well as circuits which span age ranges as well as disciplines.
In addition to these circuits, the ITF maintains rankings for juniors, seniors and beach tennis. Duane Williams, an American who lived in Switzerland, is recognized as the initiator and driving force behind the foundation of the International Tennis Federation, he died in the sinking of the RMS Titanic. Called the International Lawn Tennis Federation it held its inaugural conference at the headquarters of the Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques, in Paris, France on 1 March 1913, attended by 12 national associations. Three other countries had requested to become a member. Voting rights were divided based on the perceived importance of the individual countries with Great Britain's Lawn Tennis Association receiving the maximum six votes; the LTA was given the perpetual right to organize the World Grass Championships which led to a refusal by the United States Lawn Tennis Association to join the ILTF as they were of the opinion that this title should be given to the Davis Cup. France received permission to stage the World Hard Court Championships until 1916 and additionally a World Covered Court Championships was founded.
The USLTA joined in 1923 on the basis of two compromises: the title'World Championships' would be abolished and wording would be'for in the English language'. The World Championships were replaced by a new category of Official Championships for the main tournaments in Australia, Great Britain and the United States. In 1924, the ILTF became the recognised organisation with authority to control lawn tennis throughout the world, with official ILTF Rules of Tennis. In 1939 the ILTF had 59 member nations, its funds were moved to London, England during World War II and from that time onward the ITF has been run from there. It was based at Wimbledon until 1987, it moved again in 1998 to the Bank of England Sports Ground, its current base of operations. In 1977 the word'Lawn' was dropped from the name of the organization, in recognition of the fact that most tennis events were no longer played on grass, its official annual is The ITF Year. This replaced World of Tennis, the ITF official annual from 1981 through 2001.
In addition it publishes. As of 2017, there are 211 national associations affiliated with the ITF, of which 148 are voting members and 63 are associate members; the criteria for allocating votes to each voting member are: performance in ITF team competitions. For example, France garners 12 votes, Canada has 9, Egypt has 5, Pakistan has 3, Botswana has 1 vote. Regional associations were created in July 1975 as six "supra-national associations" with the aim to decrease the gap between the ILTF and the national associations; these evolved into the current regional associations: Asian Tennis Federation – 44 members Central American & Caribbean Tennis Confederation – 33 members Confederation of African Tennis – 52 members Oceania Tennis Federation – 20 members South America Tennis Confederation – 10 members Tennis Europe – 50 members ITF members with no regional affiliation The ITF President and Board of Directors are elected every four years by the national associations. Candidates are nominated by the national associations, may serve up to twelve years.
The ITF is the world governing body for the sport of tennis. Its governance includes the following responsibilities: make and enforce the Rules of Tennis. By its own constitution, the ITF guarantees that the official Rules of Tennis "shall be for in the English language". A committee within the ITF periodically makes rule amendment recommendations to the Board of Directors; the Rules of Tennis encompass the manner of play and scoring, in-game coaching, the technical specifications of equipment and other technology. The Rules cover tennis, wheelchair tennis, beach tennis. Through the Tennis Anti-Doping Program, the ITF implements the World Anti-Doping
The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in men's tennis. It is run by the International Tennis Federation and is contested annually between teams from competing countries in a knock-out format, it is described by the organisers as the "World Cup of Tennis", the winners are referred to as the World Champion team. The competition began in 1900 as a challenge between the United States. By 2016, 135 nations entered teams into the competition; the most successful countries over the history of the tournament are the United States and Australia. The present champions are Croatia, who beat France to win their second title in 2018; the women's equivalent of the Davis Cup is the Fed Cup. Australia, the Czech Republic, the United States are the only countries to have held both Davis Cup and Fed Cup titles in the same year; the Hopman Cup, a third competition for mixed teams, carries less prestige, but is a popular curtain raiser to the tennis season. Only the Czechs have won all three competitions in one calendar year, doing so in 2012.
The idea for a tournament pitting the best British and Americans in competition against one another was first conceived by James Dwight, the first president of the U. S. National Lawn Tennis Association when it formed in 1881. Desperate to assess the development of American players against the renowned British champions, he worked tirelessly to engage British officials in a properly sanctioned match, but failed to do so, he tried to entice top international talent to the U. S. and sanctioned semi-official tours of the top American players to Great Britain. Diplomatic relations between Great Britain and the United Stated on the tennis front had strengthened such that, by the mid 1890s, reciprocal tours were staged annually between players of the two nations, an ensuing friendship between American William Larned and Irishman Harold Mahony spurred efforts to formalize an official team competition between the two nations. International competitions had been staged for some time before the first Davis Cup match in 1900.
From 1892, England and Ireland had been competing in an annual national-team-based competition, similar to what would become the standard Davis Cup format, mixing single and doubles matches, in 1895 England played against France in a national team competition. During Larned's tour of the British Isles in 1896, where he competed in several tournaments including the Wimbledon Championships, he was a spectator for the annual England vs. Ireland match, he returned to exclaim that Britain had agreed to send a group of three to the US the following summer, which would represent the first British lawn tennis "team" to compete in the U. S. Coincidentally, some weeks before Larned left for his British tour, the idea for an international competition was discussed between leading figures in American lawn tennis - one of whom was tennis journalist E. P. Fischer - at a tournament in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario. Dwight F. Davis was in attendance at this tournament, was thought to have got wind of the idea as it was discussed in the tournament's popular magazine, Davis's name was mentioned as someone who might'do something for the game … put up some big prize, or cup'.
Larned and Fischer met on several occasions that summer and discussed the idea of an international match to be held in Chicago the following summer, pitting six of the best British players against six of the best Americans, in a mixture of singles and doubles matches. This was discussed in two articles in the Chicago Tribune, but did not come to fruition; the following summer, Great Britain - though not under the official auspices of the Lawn Tennis Association - sent three of its best players to compete in several US tournaments. Their relative poor performances convinced Dwight and other leading officials and figures in American lawn tennis that the time was right for a properly sanctioned international competition; this was to be staged in Newcastle in July 1898, but the event never took place as the Americans could not field a sufficiently strong team. A reciprocal tour to the U. S. in 1899 amounted to just a single British player travelling overseas, as many of the players were involved in overseas armed conflicts.
It was at this juncture, in the summer of 1899, that four members of the Harvard University tennis team - Dwight Davis included - travelled across the States to challenge the best west-coast talent, upon his return, it occurred to Davis that if teams representing regions could arouse such great feelings why wouldn't a tennis event that pitted national teams in competition be just as successful. He approached James Dwight with the idea, tentatively agreed, he ordered an appropriate sterling silver punchbowl trophy from Shreve, Crump & Low, purchasing it from his own funds for about $1,000, they in turn commissioned a classically styled design from William B. Durgin's of Concord, New Hampshire, crafted by the Englishman Rowland Rhodes. Beyond donating a trophy for the competition, Davis's involvement in the incipient development of the tournament that came to bear his name was negligible, yet a persistent myth has emerged that Davis devised both the idea for an international tennis competition and its format of mixing singles and doubles matches.
Research has shown this to be a myth, similar in its exaggeration of a single individual's efforts within a complex long-term development to the myths of William Webb Ellis and Abner Doubleday, who have both been wrongly credited with inventing rugby and baseball, respectively. Davis nevertheles
Delray Beach, Florida
Delray Beach is a coastal city in Palm Beach County, United States. The population of Delray Beach was estimated at 68,749 in 2017; that is up from 60,522 according to the 2010 United States Census. Delray Beach is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area, home to an estimated 6,012,331 people in 2015; the earliest known human inhabitants of what is now Delray Beach were the Jaega people. Tequesta Indians passed through or inhabited the area at various times, an 1841 U. S. military map shows a Seminole camp located in the area now known as Lake Ida. Few other recorded details of these local indigenous settlements have survived. In 1876, the United States Life Saving Service built the Orange Grove House of Refuge to rescue and shelter ship-wrecked sailors; the house derived its name from the grove of mature sour orange and other tropical fruit trees found at the site chosen for the house of refuge, but no record or evidence of who planted the trees was discovered. The first non-indigenous group to build a settlement was a party of African Americans from the panhandle of Florida, who purchased land a little inland from the Orange Grove House of Refuge and began farming around 1884.
By 1894 the black community was large enough to establish the first school in the area. In 1894 William S. Linton, a Republican U. S. Congressman for Saginaw, bought a tract of land just west of the Orange Grove House of Refuge, began selling plots in what he hoped would become a farming community; this community was named after Linton. In 1896 Henry Flagler extended his Florida East Coast Railroad south from West Palm Beach to Miami, with a station at Linton; the Linton settlers established a post office and a store, began to achieve success with truck farming of winter vegetables for the northern market. A hard freeze in 1898 was a setback, many of the settlers left, including William Linton. In an attempt to change the community's luck, or to leave behind a bad reputation, the settlement's name was changed in 1901 to Delray, after the Detroit neighborhood of Delray, which in turn was named after the Mexican-American War's Battle of Molino del Rey. Settlers from The Bahamas, sometimes referred to as'Nassaws', began arriving in the early 1900s.
After 1905, newspaper articles and photographs of Delray events reveal that Japanese settlers from the nearby Yamato farming colony began participating in Delray civic activities such as parades, going to the movies, shopping. The 1910 census shows Delray as a town of 904 citizens. Twenty-four U. S. states and nine other countries are listed as the birthplace of its residents. Although still a small town, Delray had a remarkably diverse citizenry. In 1911, the area was chartered by the State of Florida as an incorporated town. In the same year and tomato canning plants were built. Pineapples became the primary crop of the area; this is reflected in the name of the present day Pineapple Grove neighborhood near downtown Delray Beach. Prior to 1909, the Delray settlement land was within Dade County; that year, Palm Beach County was carved out of the northern portion of the region. In 1915, Palm Beach County and Dade County contributed nearly equal portions of land to create what is now Broward County between the two, leaving Delray situated within the southeastern portion of Palm Beach County.
By 1920, Delray's population had reached 1,051. In the 1920s, drainage of the Everglades west of Delray lowered the water table, making it harder to grow pineapples, while the extension of the Florida East Coast Railway to Key West resulted in competition from Cuban pineapples for the markets of the northern United States; the Florida land boom of the 1920s brought renewed prosperity to Delray. Tourism and real estate speculation became important parts of the local economy. Delray issued bonds to raise money to install water and sewer lines, paved streets, sidewalks. Several hotels were built. At that time Delray was the largest town on the east coast of Florida between West Palm Beach and Fort Lauderdale; the collapse of the land boom in 1926 left Delray saddled with high bond debts, reduced income from property taxes. Delray was separated from the Atlantic Ocean beach by the Florida East Coast Canal. In 1923 the area between the canal and the ocean was incorporated as Delray Beach. In 1927 Delray and Delray Beach merged into one town named Delray Beach.
Beginning in the mid-1920s, a seasonal Artists and Writers Colony was established in Delray Beach and the adjacent town of Gulf Stream. At the time, the city of Palm Beach did not welcome Hollywood personalities or all types of artists, so the Delray winter colony drew a more eclectic and bohemian populace. Throughout the 1930s and'40s, Delray became a popular winter enclave for artists and authors famous cartoonists. Two nationally syndicated cartoonists – H. T. Webster and Fontaine Fox of "Toonerville Trolley" fame – had offices upstairs in the Arcade Building over the Arcade Tap Room. Other well-known artists and writers of the era who had homes in Delray Beach include: Herb Roth, W. J. “Pat” Enright, Robert Bernstein, Wood Cowan, Denys Wortman, Jim Raymond, Charles Williams, Herb Niblick, Hugh McNair Kahler, Clarence Budington Kelland, Nina Wilcox Putnam, Edna St. Vincent Millay; these seasonal visitors helped soften the effect of the real estate downturn and The Great Depression on the city.
During the Depression, not much money was available since the two banks had failed, but progress