Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Oviedo is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias in northern Spain and the administrative and commercial centre of the region. It is the name of the municipality that contains the city. Oviedo is located 24 km southwest of Gijón and 23 km south of Avilés, both of which lie on the shoreline of the Bay of Biscay, its proximity to the ocean causes Oviedo to have a maritime climate, in spite of it not being located on the shoreline itself. The Kingdom of Asturias began in 720, with the Visigothic aristocrat Pelagius's revolt against the Muslims who at the time were occupying most of the Iberian Peninsula; the Moorish invasion that began in 711 had taken control of most of the peninsula, until the revolt in the northern mountains by Pelagius. The resulting Kingdom of Asturias, located in an economically poor region of Iberia, was ignored by the Muslims. In 720, the area where Oviedo is now located was still uninhabited, it is said that two monks, Máximo and Fromestano, founded the city in 761.
That settlement was soon to be completed with the construction of a small church dedicated to Saint Vincent. Oviedo was established on an uninhabited hillside, with no Visigothic or Roman foundation before it became an Asturian city. Following Pelagius, who died in 737, Alfonso I founded a dynasty that would last until 1037; the Asturian Kingdom was on hostile terms with southern Moorish Spain. In 794, Oviedo was sacked and pillaged by Caliph Hisham I in one of his numerous campaigns against the Christian kingdoms. King Alfonso I is said to have "set in place the whole order of the Goths, as it had been in Toledo, as much in the church as in the palace." The intention with Oviedo was to shape it into a city similar to that of Visigothic Toledo. Once kings had settled in Oviedo, they adopted as much of the architectural style and imagery of Toledo. With this in mind, Oviedo did not resemble the old Visigothic capital in Toledo; the churches and buildings of Oviedo follow instead late provincial Roman tradition.
Since Asturias at the time was an agriculturally poor area of Spain the scale of the buildings is quite impressive. Oviedo’s rich architectural tradition began with King Fruela I. King Fruela I of Asturias, the fourth of the Asturian monarchs, was the first decided promoter of the city as may be witnessed by his construction of both a palace and a nearby church; this church was restored by Alfonso II. Oviedo owes to a king, Alfonso II The Chaste, its establishment as a capital city and ruling seat as a result of the moving of the court from Pravia and the creation of the Pilgrim’s Route to Santiago de Compostela, a major event in the history of Oviedo, a church dedicated to The Saviour, the Cathedral of San Salvador, a royal palace formed the nucleus of Oviedo. Constructed during Alfonso II's reign was the San Julian de los Prados church, one of the best preserved Asturian churches. Alfonso II's successor, Ramiro I, continued Alfonso II's construction streak. Ramiro I constructed the Church Santa Maria del Naranco and San Miguel de Lillo.
The Church Santa Maria de Naranco was to be Ramiro I's palace and changed into a church. By this time the Court of the Palace was centered in Oviedo, the main royal residence; this court was controlled by member of the Austurian nobility. Ramiro I's eight-year tenure was uneasy, he faced rebellions from the Counts of the Palace; the first rebellion against Ramiro I was led by Alroitus, the second rebellion was led by Piniolus. Both of these rebellions were unsuccessful in removing Ramiro I; these rebellions may have been why Ramiro I built his palace in the mountains surrounding Oviedo away from the violence. During the 9th century in Oviedo, Roman style property law is common. 9th century documents indicate small scale aristocracies across the kingdom, as well as a large presence of a landowning peasantry. Following Ramiro I's reign, Ordoño I came into power and began the Asturian king’s father-son succession. Ordoño I was the first king to push southwards into Arab territory. Following Ordoño I's death on May 27, 866, usurpers attempted to take the throne.
The following king Alfonso III, thirteen at the time, took refuge in Castile until his followers had killed the usurper. Alfonso III's contributions to building construction are not nearly as well documented as Ramiro I's or Alfonso II's contributions; the Chronicle of Alfonso III does not mention any buildings created by Alfonso III, neither does the Chronicle of Albelda. In 882, the body of the Cordoban martyr Eulogius was sent to Oviedo; this was meant a diplomatic gift from Emir Muhammad I. Eulogius was executed in 859; the body was accompanied by Eulogius's book collection. In the 16th century, the only manuscript of Eulogius's writings was discovered in the Oviedo Cathedral Library. Here it was copied once before it disappeared from the library. Following an offensive in 881 against an Umayyad army, Alfsonso III returned to Oviedo to rebuild churches, it was at this time. The Chronicle of Albelda and the Chronicle of Sampiro tie Alfonso III's victories in battle to his program of church building in Oviedo.
In 908, Alfonso III commissioned a gold and jewelled cross to contain the cross carried by Pelagius I at Covadonga. This "Cross of Victory" is located in the Camara Sancta in the Oviedo Cathedral. However, recent Carbon14 analysis of the wooden cross indicates that it was no older than the golden casing created to surround the cross; the commission of the casing shows us Alfonso III’s interest in
Leioa is a municipality in Biscay, Basque Country, in northern Spain. It is located south of Getxo and Berango delimitating south with Erandio. Today it is part of the Bilbao conurbation, its population stands at 30,400. Leioa has an area of 8.36 square kilometres. The Udondo river constitutes the eastern limit of the municipality. Leioa has its origins in 1526, before which it was part of the "anteiglesia de Erandio", it was a village with no more than 8000 people until the 1960s, when development came its way, as Bilbao expanded. Its population experienced a rapid increase in the 1970s, a more moderate growth afterwards, it has become a part of metropolitan Bilbao. Peruri, Sarriena and Lertutxe. Tellería, Artatzagane and Aldekoane. Artaza, Ikea Mendi, Udondo and Santimami. Pinueta, Txopoeta, Txorierri and Ibaiondo; the municipality of Leioa still retains much of its agricultural past and out of the urban centre many traditional Basque houses can still be seen on little family farms, though rapid development puts their long-term future in question.
The University of the Basque Country has most faculties within this municipality. May 29: “Lamiako maskarada” festivity in Lamiako. June 24: “San Joan Bataiatzailea” festivity in Elexalde. August 24: “San Bartolomé” festivity in Basaez. September 8: “Ntra. Sra. De los Remedios” festivity in Ondiz. May 15: “San Isidro” festivity. August 17: Santi Mami jaiak. September 10: Udondoko jaiak. September 29: San Miguel Txopoetako jaiak. Two consecutive stations of Line 1 of the Metro Bilbao rapid transit system are located in Leioa: Leioa and Lamiako. LEIOA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia http://www.leioa.eu/ Tourism.euskadi.eus Leioa
Bermeo is a town and municipality in the comarca of Busturialdea. It is in the province of Biscay, part of the autonomous region of the Basque Country in northern Spain. With a population of 17,159, it is the most important fishing port in the Basque Country; the town was founded in 1236, is the largest in Busturialdea. Bermeo was the provincial capital of Biscay from 1476 to 1602. Tourist attractions include the island of Gaztelugatxe, the Ercilla Tower, San Juan Gate and the port. Bermeo is connected by Euskotren BizkaiBus to Bilbao, it has a number of neighbourhoods: Arana, Agirre, San Andres, Arronategi, San Migel, Demiku, Mañu and San Pelaio. Bermeo's history dates back to the monastery of San Juan of Gaztelugatxe in 1051. In 1082, it is mentioned by Don Lope lñiguez as "Sancti Michaelis Arcangeli in Portu of Vermelio". Ferdinand II of Aragon named the town the capital of Biscay on 31 July 1476, a position it held until 1602. Many documents have been destroyed by fire; the founding of Bilbao in 1300 coincided with decline in Bermeo.
The town has an oceanic climate, with heavy rains in spring and late fall. The average annual minimum temperature is about 9 °C, the maximum is about 19 °C; the record maximum temperature is 45 °C, the record minimum is -9 °C. As a result of increased immigration due to industrialisation during the 1960s, the population grew rapidly. Although it began to decline during the 1990s, the population has increased again since 2000. Bermeo's economy is based on fishing, its port is the town's chief source of revenue, it has a fleet of deep-sea vessels, Bermeo's coastal fisheries are among the region's most important. In addition to fishing, diesel engines and generators are manufactured and the commercial port receives raw materials. Bermeo has connections with the timber and undersea-gas industries. Bermeo is connected by road to Mungia by the BI-631 road and to Gernika-Lumo by the BI-2235; the BI-3101 connects the town with Bakio, 12 km away. The capital, Bilbao, is reached by the BI-631 and the BI-2235.
BizkaiBus connects Bermeo with Guernica, Amorebieta-Etxano, Bilbao and Bakio. Euskotren Trena connects the town directly with Bilbao, Amorebieta-Etxano and Gipuzkoa. Bermeo has taxi and Bermibusa service. On the road to Bakio is the lighthouse of Matxitxako, on the cape of the same name. Further along is Akatz Island, next to Gaztelugatxe. During the 14th century a castle topped the island, replaced by the monastery. On 29 August a mass celebrates the feast of San Juan; the island is a protected area. Akatz Island, a small island next to Gaztelugatxe, has little vegetation but a significant nesting-bird population. On its cape is the Matxitxako lighthouse, which has good views of the coast and from which cetaceans may be seen. Izaro Island is part of the Urdaibai Reserve. Bermeo's old town has many houses painted in narrow streets with squares. Aritzatxu is a small beach. Ercilla Tower is the only remaining tower of 30 towers. In the old port, it was housed the Ercilla family. In addition to its military use, it housed warehoused fish.
It was renovated in 1948 with Gothic arches as the Fisherman's Museum. Bermeo's town hall, in Sabino Arana Goiri Square, was built in 1732. With two clocks on its facade, it is one of the town's Artistic Historical Monuments; the Kikunbera house, in Basque Rationalist style, was designed to resemble a ship and has been an Artistic Historical Monument since 1995. Batzoki is a modernist building by Pedro Ispizua. BERMEO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Town council Tourist information Fishermen Museum
Mungia is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country of northern Spain. The town has 17,000 inhabitants. Mungia lies 20 metres above sea level in an area full of open spaces, with a landscape of rolling hills; the more important mountains nearby are Jata. There are many small streams and underground springs, such as the Atxuri, Lauromendi, Atebarri, or Mantzorriko Erreka, which are all tributaries of the Butroi river and provide water to the numerous fountains built in the town. In the past those waters helped to run more than 20 mills. Although there are still traces which show that the area where Mungia stands today was inhabited in prehistoric times the first documented reference we have dates back to the year 1051, when an abbot from Mungia confirmed a gift from the Lord of Biscay to the Monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla. At the beginning, whose name comes from the Basque Mune - Ganean, was not much more than a tiny village with a dispersed population.
At that time the church was the only focus of the community, but the settlement began to acquire its own significance as a result of the presence of an abbot and of its location in a strategic pass between the interior of the feudal holding and the coast at Bermeo, which had begun to stand out as an export harbour. Under these conditions, important families belonging to the nobility settled in the surrounding areas of the village and built there their tower houses; the economic power of these noblemen was based on landholdings. However, as a consequence of a stockbreeding and agricultural crisis at the end of the 13th century, these families began to suffer. To face this situation they sought hard to improve their income streams, the easiest recourse they could have was to violence. On the pretext of "being more worthy" they fought with each other, their peasants were decimated and deprived of their scarce belongings, or involved in faction fights themselves. In the area of Mungia, we find representatives of two factions: the Billela family, part of the Ganboar faction. and the Butroi family which led the faction of Oinaz.
As the tower houses of both families were next to each other their fights were a common event. The borough of Mungia came to be as a consequence of this situation; some of the inhabitants in the area, witnessing the outrages of the nobility, requested the Lord of Biscay, the Infante Juan, to grant the title of borough to their town, in order to enable the fortification of the town and thus effective defence against attacks. By this means on 1 August 1376, under the Fueros of Logroño, the borough of Mungia was created in the centre of an anteiglesia similar in extent to the Parish) of the same name. Both belonged to the merindad of Uribe, each had an autonomous municipality. In the same way, they each had their own representation in the Juntas of Gernika, numbering 69 for the anteiglesia and 15 for the borough, but the fact of designating a borough did not avoid a great number of fights in the area. Thus, there were various episodes of different nature, arising from the wars between the factions.
Just to name a few of the most important of those small skirmishes, we mention the battle of Berteiz or the battle of Mungia, which took place on 27 April 1479 and in which the factions of Oinaz and Ganboa, enemies up to that moment, formed an alliance to fight against the Earl of Haro. Leaving these episodes aside, life in Mungia is thought to have been calm. Economic activity was based on farming, with a few mills located on the banks of the many streams which washed the area, as well as small craft workshops settled down in the borough; the daily round was disturbed. In 1602 there was a fire, a larger fire 1778 on 9 November with fourteen of the main buildings in the village burned down. From this time, to prevent accidents happening, all inflammable products such as straw and coal were stored in a place outside the enceinte; this site was known as Atzekaldeta, a basque name which refers to the location of the place in the rear part of the town. Thus time passed for both the borough of Mungia and the anteiglesia of the same name.
They were independent entities, although they joined together for the sake of some services and improvements. Thus, the school was common to both, when the time arrived to canalise the water from the Gondramendi mountain to the village both shared the expenditure. Little by little, more tasks were performed together and as a result of this co-operation bigger problems arose leading to the idea of joining both bodies and becoming one unique entity; this happened on 6 October 1900. The fountain which today lies in Beko Kale, in front of Arnaga, is the symbol of this unity under the motto "Biak bat eta biena". Up to 1936 life for the inhabitants passed by without major events, based on fundamental rural and agricultural activities, but with an i
Barakaldo is a municipality located in the Biscay province in the Basque Country. Located on the Left Bank of the Estuary of Bilbao, the city is part of Greater Bilbao with a population as of the 2011 census at 100,061. Barakaldo has an industrial river-port heritage and has undergone significant redevelopment with new commercial and residential areas replacing the once active industrial zones; the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica original entry on the town stated: "Pop.: 15,013. Few Spanish towns have developed more than Baracaldo, which nearly doubled its population between 1880 and 1900. During this period many immigrant labourers settled here; the low flat country round Baracaldo is covered with maize, pod fruit and vines". Iron mining formed a large part of Barakaldo's industry; the steel industry, led by Altos Hornos de Vizcaya, had an important presence during the 20th century, until the industrial recession hit the region's economy in the 1980s. In recent decades, the industrial zones surrounding Barakaldo have become less prominent, which can be owed to the shuttering of large companies such as Babcock & Wilcox.
Although several factories remain, areas that were once industrial have been redeveloped into residential properties such as malls and parks. A large exhibition centre; the Bilbao Exhibition Centre has been built on the outskirts of the town. Barakaldo is connected to the rest of the Greater Bilbao metropolitan area by Line 2 of the Metro Bilbao. Four stations are in the city: Gurutzeta/Cruces, Ansio and Bagatza); the Cercanías Bilbao train line has two stations in Barakaldo. BizkaiBus company provides a bus service, with connections to the rest of Biscay. Locally, an urban bus system named. A tram line has been proposed to connect local districts; the main motorway is the A-8 motorway, which goes between Bilbao. It serves as the rest of Spain. A boat ferry service connects Barakaldo to the other side of the Estuary of Bilbao in Erandio. Barakaldo is located 15 kilometres from Bilbao Airport. Population peaked in the 1990s to over 100,300; the decline of local industry decreased the population, in 2002, 95,000 people lived in Barakaldo.
However, a recent increase has sent the population to 100,502 residents. Tourists visit sites in Barakaldo such as the Botanic Garden, the Bilbao Exhibition Centre, the medieval Bridge of Castrexana, some of the city's street sculptures. In July, the town celebrates "Las Fiestas del Carmen," which includes open-air concerts and large fairs. Barakaldo is represented by the Barakaldo Club de Fútbol in Spain's Segunda División B, they play home games at the Estadio Nuevo Lasesarre. A second team, SD Retuerto Sport, plays in Tercera División. Local league teams include Gurutzeta KFT, UD Burtzeña, Pauldarrak FKT, Zuazo C. F. and S. C. D. Dosa-Salesianos. Handball has played a part in Barakaldo's tradition. Now, two teams are present in competitions: Club Balonmano Zuazo Femenino, playing in División de Honor Femenina de Balonmano, Club Balonmano Barakaldo who plays in the Liga ASOBAL. Bizkaia Arena is an indoor arena with a capacity of 18,640, it hosted some games of the 2014 FIBA Basketball World Cup. Asier del Horno, footballer Carlos Sobera, actor David López, cyclist Iñaki Lafuente, footballer Javier Clemente, football manager Javier González Gómez, footballer Javier Otxoa, cyclist Josep Lluís Núñez, president of FC Barcelona between 1978 and 2000 Unai Expósito, footballer Antonio Iturmendi Bañales, politician Barakaldo D.
F. A Mägo de Oz concert DVD filmed in Barakaldo Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Baracaldo". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. Cambridge University Press. P. 379. Www.i-barakaldo.com La comunidad virtual de Barakaldo Official website BARAKALDO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia