The Süleymaniye Mosque is an Ottoman imperial mosque located on the Third Hill of Istanbul, Turkey. The mosque was commissioned by Suleiman the Magnificent and designed by the imperial architect Mimar Sinan. An inscription specifies the foundation date as 1550 and the inauguration date as 1557, it is the second largest mosque in the city, one of the best-known sights of Istanbul. The Süleymaniye Mosque, was built on the order of Sultan Süleyman, designed by the imperial architect Mimar Sinan; the Arabic foundation inscription above the north portal of the mosque is carved in thuluth script on three marble panels. It gives a foundation date of 1550 and an inauguration date of 1557. In reality the planning of the mosque began before 1550 and parts of the complex were not completed until after 1557; the design of the Süleymaniye plays on Suleyman's self-conscious representation of himself as a'second Solomon.' It references the Dome of the Rock, built on the site of the Temple of Solomon, as well as Justinian's boast upon the completion of the Hagia Sophia: "Solomon, I have surpassed thee!"
The Süleymaniye, similar in magnificence to the preceding structures, asserts Suleyman's historical importance. The structure is smaller in size than its older archetype, the Hagia Sophia; the Süleymaniye was damaged in the great fire of 1660 and was restored by Sultan Mehmed IV. Part of the dome collapsed during the earthquake of 1766. Subsequent repairs damaged. During World War I the courtyard was used as a weapons depot, when some of the ammunition ignited, the mosque suffered another fire. Not until 1956 was it restored again; the construction of the Halic metro bridge in 2013 has irreparably altered the view of the mosque from north. Like the other imperial mosques in Istanbul, the entrance to the mosque itself is preceded by a forecourt with a central fountain; the courtyard is of exceptional grandeur with a colonnaded peristyle with columns of marble and porphyry. The northwest facade of the mosque is decorated with rectangular Iznik tile window lunettes; the mosque is the first building where the Iznik tiles include the brightly coloured tomato red clay under the glaze.
At the four corners of the courtyard are the four minarets. The two taller minarets have three galleries and rise to a high of 63.8 m without their lead caps and 76 m including the caps. Four minarets were used for mosques endowed by a sultan; the minarets have a total of 10 galleries, which by tradition indicates that Suleiman I was the 10th Ottoman sultan. The main dome is 53 metres high and has a diameter of 26.5 metres, half the height. At the time it was built, the dome was the highest in the Ottoman Empire, when measured from sea level, but still lower from its base and smaller in diameter than that of Hagia Sophia; the interior of the mosque is a square, 59 metres in length and 58 metres in width, forming a single vast space. The dome is flanked by semi-domes, to the north and south arches with tympana-filled windows, supported by enormous porphyry monoliths. Sinan decided to make a radical architectural innovation to mask the huge north-south buttresses needed to support these central piers.
He incorporated the buttresses into the walls of the building, with half projecting inside and half projecting outside, hid the projections by building colonnaded galleries. There is a single gallery inside the structure, a two-story gallery outside; the interior decoration is restrained with stained-glass windows restricted to the qibla wall. Iznik tile revetments are only used around the mihrab; the repeating rectangular tiles have a stencil-like floral pattern on a white ground. The flowers are blue with turquoise and black but green is not used. On either side of the mihrab are large Iznik tile calligraphic roundels with text from the Al-Fatiha surah of the Quran; the white marble mihrab and mimbar are simple in design, woodwork is restrained, with simple designs in ivory and mother of pearl. In the walled enclosure behind the qibla wall of the mosque are the separate mausoleums of Sultan Suleiman I and his wife Hurrem Sultan. Hurrem Sultan's octagonal mausoleum is dated the year of her death.
The 16 sided interior is decorated with Iznik tiles. The seven rectangular windows are surmounted by epigraphic panels. Between the windows are eight mihrab-like hooded niches; the ceiling is now whitewashed but was once painted in bright colours. The much larger octagonal mausoleum of Suleiman the Magnificent bears the date of 1566, the year of his death, but it was not completed until the following year; the mausoleum is surrounded by a peristyle with a roof supported by 24 columns and has the entrance facing east rather than the usual north. Under the portico on either side of the entrance are Iznik tiled panels; these are the earliest tiles that are decorated with the bright emerald green colour that would become a common feature of Iznik ceramics. The interior has a false dome supported on eight columns within the outer shell. There are 14 windows set at ground level and an additional 24 windows with stained glass set in the tympana under the arches; the walls and the pendentives are covered with polychrome Iznik tiles.
Around the room above the windows is a band of inscriptive tiled panels. The text quotes the Throne verse and the following two verses from
Novo Brdo, or Novobërda or Artana, is a town and municipality located in the Pristina district of eastern Kosovo. As of 2015, it had an estimated population of 9,670 inhabitants. After the 2013 Brussels Agreement, the municipality became part of the Community of Serb Municipalities. In Serbian "Novo Brdo" is used meaning "New Hill" in Serbian language; the name was derived from the medieval Serbian mining town of Novo Brdo. In Albanian, the Republic of Kosovo uses "Novobërdë". Novo Brdo is an archaeological site. Novo Brdo was mentioned with its present name in historical documents as early as 1326, it was known as Novus Mons or Novamonte in Latin and as Nyeuberghe in Saxon texts. The famous Serbian scribe Vladislav. Novo Brdo was a metropolis at the time, with a huge medieval fortress built on the top of an extinct volcano cone, the remains of which can be visited today, residential sections sprawling all around. In the outer wall of the fortress a large cross is visible, built into the stones; the castle, or fortress, was thought at one point to have dated back to the time of the Serbian Empire.
The population at its height was estimated to exceed 6,720 people. At the first half of 15th century, Serbian Orthodox bishops of Lipljan resided in Novo Brdo. There were mines and smelting furnaces for iron, lead and silver ores. Novo Brdo silver is known by its argentum glame. In 1450 the mines of Novo Brdo were producing about 6,000 kg of silver per year. Novo Brdo was the last Serbian city to remain standing during the first invasion. In 1439 the capital of Smederevo fell and Serbia resisted until Novo Brdo fell in 1441. Novo Brdo was by treaty restored to the Serbs in 1443; the fortress came under siege for forty days by the Ottomans, before capitulating and becoming occupied by the Ottomans on 1 June 1455. This event is described by Konstantin Mihailović from Ostrovica near Novo Brdo, taken by the Ottomans along with some 300 other boys to be trained as Janissaries. All of the higher ranking Serbian officials were executed after the castle fell, with the younger men and boys being taken captive to serve in the Ottoman Army, some 700 young Serbian women and girls being taken to be wives to Ottoman commanders.
By the early 20th century, Novo Brdo's population dwindled, with most inhabitants moving to the more accessible area of Gnjilane. In 1999, with the entry into Kosovo of KFOR and the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, the area had a small military outpost occupied by US soldiers, as well as a station of International Police and Kosovo Police. There are two lead and zinc mines operating on the territory of Novo Brdo: Novo Brdo. According to the last official census done in 2011, the city of Novo Brdo has a population of 6,729 inhabitants. However, in 2015 report by OSCE, the population of Novo Brdo municipality stands at 9,670 inhabitants, including internally displaced persons. Municipality of Novo Brdo includes 31 villages; the municipality of Novo Brdo is ethnically mixed consisting of Kosovo Serbs and other minorities. The ethnic composition of the municipality of Novo Brdo, including IDPs: Stefan Milutin, King of Serbia and founder of Novo Brdo Fortress Lazar of Serbia medieval Serbian prince, born in the Fortress of Prilepac near Novo Brdo Dragana of Serbia, Empress consort of Bulgaria, born in the Fortress of Prilepac Jelena Balšić medieval Serbian noblewoman, born in the Fortress of Prilepac Gjergj Pelini, Catholic priest and diplomat of Skanderbeg and Venice.
Dimitrije Kantakouzenos, Serbian writer and poet Vladislav the Grammarian Orthodox monk, writer and theologian Municipalities of Kosovo Community of Serb Municipalities Notes References Municipality of Novo Brdo "OSCE municipal profile of Novo Brdo". April 2008. Castle in Novo Brdo Novo Brdo youth and rural tourism network, local youth and rural tourism network. Arranges for bed and breakfast-houses and meals
Silver coins are the oldest mass-produced form of coinage. Silver has been used as a coinage metal since the times of the Greeks; the ancient Persians used silver coins between 612-330 BC. Before 1797, British pennies were made of silver; as with all collectible coins, many factors determine the value of a silver coin, such as its rarity, demand and the number minted. Ancient silver coins coveted by collectors include the Denarius and Miliarense, while more recent collectible silver coins include the Morgan Dollar and the Spanish Milled Dollar. Other than collector's silver coins, silver bullion coins are popular among people who desire a "hedge" against currency inflation or store of value. Silver has an international currency symbol of XAG under ISO 4217; the earliest coins in the world were minted in the kingdom of Lydia in Asia Minor around 600 BC. The coins of Lydia were made of electrum, a occurring alloy of gold and silver, available within the territory of Lydia; the concept of coinage, i.e. stamped lumps of metal of a specified weight spread to adjacent regions, such as Aegina.
In these neighbouring regions, inhabited by Greeks, coins were made of silver. As Greek merchants traded with Greek communities throughout the Mediterranean Sea, the Greek coinage concept soon spread through trade to the entire Mediterranean region; these early Greek silver coins were denominated in its fractions. More or less with the development of the Lydian and Greek coinages, a coinage system was developed independently in China; the Chinese coins, were a different concept and they were made of bronze. In the Mediterranean region, the silver and other precious metal coins were supplemented with local bronze coinages, that served as small change, useful for transactions where small sums were involved; the coins of the Greeks were issued by a great number of city states, each coin carried an indication of its place of origin. The coinage systems were not the same from one place to another. However, the so-called Attic standard, Corinthian standard, Aiginetic standard and other standards defined the proper weight of each coin.
Each of these standards were used in multiple places throughout the Mediterranean region. In the 4th century BC, the Kingdom of Macedonia came to dominate the Greek world; the most powerful of their kings, Alexander the Great launched an attack on the Kingdom of Persia and conquering it. Alexander's Empire fell apart after his death in 323 BC, the eastern mediterranean region and western Asia were divided into a small number of kingdoms, replacing the city state as the principal unit of Greek government. Greek coins were now issued by kings, only to a lesser extent by cities. Greek rulers were now minting coins as far away as central Asia; the tetradrachm was a popular coin throughout the region. This era is referred to as the hellenistic era. While much of the Greek world was being transformed into monarchies, the Romans were expanding their control throughout the Italian Peninsula; the Romans minted their first coins during the early 3rd century BC. The earliest coins were - like other coins in the region - silver drachms with a supplementary bronze coinage.
They reverted to the silver denarius as their principal coin. The denarius remained an important Roman coin. During the 3rd century AD, the antoninianus was minted in quantity; this was a "silver" coin with low silver content, but developed through stages of debasement to pure bronze coins. Although many regions ruled by Hellenistic monarchs were brought under Roman control, this did not lead to a unitary monetary system throughout the Mediterranean region. Local coinage traditions in the eastern regions prevailed, while the denarius dominated the western regions; the local Greek coinages are known as Greek Imperial coins. Apart from the Greeks and the Romans other peoples in the Mediterranean region issued coins; these include the Phoenicians, the Carthaginians, the Jews, the Celts and various regions in the Iberian Peninsula and the Arab Peninsula. In regions to the East of the Roman Empire, that were controlled by the Hellenistic Seleucids, the Parthians created a kingdom in Persia; the Parthians issued a stable series of silver drachms and tetradrachms.
After the Parthians were overthrown by the Sassanians in 226 AD, the new dynasty of Persia began the minting of their distinct thin, spread fabric silver drachms, that became a staple of their empire right up to the Arab conquest in the 7th century AD. In the Byzantine Empire, what was left of the eastern Roman Empire, the currency system was reorganised, but the coinage consisted of copper and gold. A silver miliaresion was developed with a cross on steps obverse and an inscription forming the reverse; the cup-shaped trachy were issued, but the silver content of these declined towards only a few per cent ending up as a pure copper coin after the Fourth Crusade. Muhammad established the Constitution of Medina in 622 in the Arabian Peninsula. After the death of Mohammed in 632, the state was governed by caliphs, thus named'the Caliphate'; as the caliphate expanded into Byzantine territories to the Northwest and conquered the Sassanian Empire to the Northeast, the question of a caliphal coinage became imminent.
The caliphate adapted the Sassanian drachm as their silver coin. Arabic inscriptions were added to the Sassanian coin type; the type was c
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
The Serbian Despotate was a medieval Serbian state in the first half of the 15th century. Although the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 is considered the end of the medieval Serbia, the Despotate, a successor of the Serbian Empire and Moravian Serbia, survived for another 60 years, experiencing a cultural and political renaissance before it was conquered by the Ottomans in 1459. Before its conquest the Despotate nominally had a suzerain status to the Ottoman Empire, Byzantine Empire and Kingdom of Hungary. After being subjugated to the Ottoman Empire in 1459, it continued to exist in exile in the medieval Kingdom of Hungary until the mid-16th century. Pavle Bakić was the last Despot of Serbia to be recognized by both the Ottoman and the Habsburg Empires. After Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović was killed in the Battle of Kosovo on June 28, 1389, his son Stefan Lazarević succeeded him. Being a minor, his mother Princess Milica ruled as his regent. A wise and diplomatic woman, she managed to balance the Ottoman threat as the Ottoman Empire was in a turmoil after the Battle of Kosovo and the killing of Sultan Murad I.
She married her daughter, Olivera, to his successor, Sultan Bayezid I. After the battle, in 1390 or 1391 depending on source, Serbia became a vassal Ottoman state, Stefan Lazarević was obliged to participate in battles if ordered by the Ottoman sultan, he did so in the Battle of Rovine in May 1395 against the Wallachian prince Mircea I and the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396 against the Hungarian king Sigismund. After that, Sultan Bayezid awarded Stefan with the majority of the Vuk Branković's land on Kosovo, as Branković sided with the Hungarian king at Nicopolis; when Timur's army entered the Ottoman realm, Stefan Lazarević participated in the Battle of Ankara in 1402, in which the Ottomans were defeated and their leader Bayezid was captured. Returning to Serbia, Stefan visited Constantinople where the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Palaiologos granted him the title of despot. In previous years, this title would mean. In Constantinople, Stefan had a dispute with his nephew Đurađ Branković, son of Vuk Branković, accompanying him and was arrested by the Byzantine authorities.
Đurađ would succeed Stefan. Stefan's brother Vuk Lazarević was in his escort and as they were returning over the Kosovo, they were attacked by the Branković army at Tripolje, near the Gračanica monastery. Vuk headed the Lazarević army, victorious, but reaching Novo Brdo, the brothers had a quarrel and Vuk went to the Ottoman side, to the new sultan Suleyman Çelebi. Counting on unrest within the Ottoman Empire, in early 1404 Stefan accepted vassalage to the Hungarian king Sigismund, who awarded him with Belgrade, the Mačva region,and the fort of Golubac, until in possession of the Kingdom of Hungary, so Belgrade became a capital of Serbia for the second time in history after King Dragutin; the next few years are marked by events in Stefan's personal life. He managed to liberate Bayezid's widow Olivera. In 1404 he made peace with his brother Vuk, in 1405 he married Caterina Gattilusio, daughter of Francesco II Gattilusio, ruler of the island of Lesbos. In 1405 his mother Milica died. In 1408 brothers disputed again and Vuk, together with sultan Suleyman and the Branković family, attacked Stefan in early 1409.
Being besieged at Belgrade, Stefan agreed to give southern part of Serbia to his brother and to accept again Ottoman vassalage. Suleyman's brother Musa rebelled against him and Stefan took Musa's side in the battle of Kosmidion in 1410, near Constantinople. Musa's army was defeated and Suleiman sent Vuk and Đurađ Branković's brother Lazar to come to Serbia before Stefan returned, but they both were captured by Musa's sympathizers and were executed in July 1410. Through Constantinople, where Emperor Manuel II confirmed his despotic rights, Stefan returned to Belgrade and annexed Vuk's lands. In 1410 King Sigismund of Hungary seized several territories in north-eastern Bosnia; as a reward for Stefan Lazarević's help and loyalty, he transferred Srebrenica with its surroundings to the Serbian Despotate in 1411 or 1412. When Musa became self-proclaimed sultan in European part of the Ottoman Empire, he attacked Serbia in early 1412 but was defeated by Stefan near Novo Brdo in Kosovo. Stefan invited the ruler of the Anatolian part of the empire, sultan Mehmed Çelebi to attack Musa together.
Securing Hungarian help, they attacked Musa on 5 July 1413 at the Battle of Çamurlu, near the Vitosha mountain and defeated him, with Musa being killed in the battle. As a reward, Stefan received the town of Koprijan near Niš and the Serbian-Bulgarian area of Znepolje. For next twelve years, Stefan remained in good relations with Mehmed, which made the recovery of medieval Serbia possible. On 28 April 1421, Stefan's nephew and ruler of Zeta, Balša III died without an heir, bequeathing before death his lands to his uncle. With this and territorial gains from the Kingdom of Hungary, Serbia restored majority of its ethnic territories it occupied before the Battle of Kosovo. In 1425, the Ottoman Empire invaded Serbia and pillaging across the Southern Morava valley. At the same time, the King of Bosnia attempted to conquer Srebrenica back from the Serbs, but failed. Despot Stefan fought back the invasion and initiated negotiations with the Sultan, after which the Ottoman troops left Serbia. Still, this attack was an ominous sign of things to come.
The rule of the p
Aqcha or Akcha, is a town in northern Afghanistan. It is located 50 kilometres east of Sheberghan and 100 kilometres west of Mazar-i-Sharif, it serves as the center of the Aqcha District of Afghanistan's Jowzjan Province. The town is situated a few kilometers north of the main Sheberghan-Mazar-i-Sharif road called Aqyol; the population of the town is around 50,000 people. The majority of which consists of ethnic Turkmens and Uzbeks. Aqcha is known for the traditional rugs that are made in the area; the predominant designs being the Turkmen and Fil Pah designs. At the beginning of the 19th century, Aqcha belonged to Bukhara, but in 1855 it was recovered by Dost Mohammed, when it became a khanate within the province of Afghan Turkestan. At the beginning of the 20th century, it was protected by a mud wall and a citadel, with an estimated population of 8000 people, chiefly Uzbeks; the Khanate was well watered and populous. The rivers rising in the southern mountains, which no longer reach the Amu Darya, terminate in vast swamps near Akcha, the debris of yearly vegetation that springs up on the slopes of the southern hills is washed down into the swamps during floods.
Osman I or Osman Gazi, sometimes transliterated archaically as Othman, was the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the Ottoman dynasty. He and the dynasty bearing his name established and ruled the nascent Ottoman Empire; the state, while only a small principality during Osman's lifetime, transformed into a world empire in the centuries after his death. It existed until shortly after the end of World War I. Historians mark the end date at the abolition of the sultanate in 1922, the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, or the abolition of the caliphate in 1924. Due to the scarcity of historical sources dating from his lifetime little factual information is known about him. Not a single written source survives from Osman's reign; the Ottomans did not record the history of Osman's life until the fifteenth century, more than a hundred years after his death. Because of this, it is challenging for historians to differentiate between fact and myth in the many stories told about him.
One historian has gone so far as to declare it impossible, describing the period of Osman's life as a "black hole."According to Ottoman tradition, Osman's ancestors were descendants of the Kayı tribe of Oghuz Turks. The Ottoman principality was just one of many Anatolian beyliks that emerged in the second half of the thirteenth century. Situated in the region of Bithynia, Osman's principality was well-placed to launch attacks on the vulnerable Byzantine Empire, which his descendants would go on to conquer; some scholars have argued that Osman's original name was Turkish Atman or Ataman, was only changed to ʿOsmān, of Arabic origin. The earliest Byzantine sources, including Osman's contemporary George Pachymeres, spell his name as Ατουμάν or Ατμάν, whereas Greek sources render both the Arabic form ʿUthmān and the Turkish version ʿOsmān with θ, τθ, or τσ. An early Arabic source mentioning him writes ط rather than ث in one instance. Osman may thus have adopted the more prestigious Muslim name in his life.
The exact date of Osman's birth is unknown, little is known about his early life and origins due to the scarcity of sources and the many myths and legends which came to be told about him by the Ottomans in centuries. He was most born around the middle of the thirteenth century in 1254/5, the date given by the sixteenth-century Ottoman historian Kemalpaşazade. According to Ottoman tradition, Osman's father Ertuğrul led the Turkic Kayı tribe west from Central Asia into Anatolia, fleeing the Mongol onslaught, he pledged allegiance to the Sultan of the Anatolian Seljuks, who granted him dominion over the town of Söğüt on the Byzantine frontier. This connection between Ertuğrul and the Seljuks, was invented by court chroniclers a century and the true origins of the Ottomans thus remain obscure. Osman became chief, or bey, upon his father’s death in c. 1280. Nothing is known for certain about Osman's early activities, except that he controlled the region around the town of Söğüt and from there launched raids against the neighboring Byzantine Empire.
The first datable event in Osman's life is the Battle of Bapheus in 1301 or 1302, in which he defeated a Byzantine force sent to counter him. Osman appears to have followed the strategy of increasing his territories at the expense of the Byzantines while avoiding conflict with his more powerful Turkish neighbors, his first advances were through the passes which lead from the barren areas of northern Phrygia near modern Eskişehir into the more fertile plains of Bithynia. These legends have been romanticized by the poetical pens which recorded them in years; the Ottoman writers attached great importance to this legendary, dreamlike conception of the founder of their empire. Osman I had a close relationship with a local religious leader of dervishes named Sheikh Edebali, whose daughter he married. A story emerged among Ottoman writers to explain the relationship between the two men, in which Osman had a dream while staying in the Sheikh's house; the story appears in the late fifteenth-century chronicle of Aşıkpaşazade as follows: He saw that a moon arose from the holy man's breast and came to sink in his own breast.
A tree sprouted from his navel and its shade compassed the world. Beneath this shade there were mountains, streams flowed forth from the foot of each mountain; some people drank from these running waters, others watered gardens, while yet others caused fountains to flow. When Osman awoke he told the story to the holy man, who said'Osman, my son, for God has given the imperial office to you and your descendants and my daughter Malhun shall be your wife; the dream became an important foundational myth for the empire, imbuing the House of Osman with God-given authority over the earth and providing its fifteenth-century audience with an explanation for Ottoman success. The dream story may have served as a form of compact: just as God promised to provide Osman and his descendants with sovereignty, it was implicit that it was the duty of Osman to provide his subjects with prosperity. According to Shaw, Osman's first real conquests followed the collapse of Seljuk authority when he was able to occupy the fortresses of