The Akan are a meta-ethnicity predominantly speaking Central Tano languages and residing in the southern regions of the former Gold Coast region in what is today the nation of Ghana. Akans who migrated from Ghana make up a plurality of the populace in the Ivory Coast; the Akan language is a group of dialects within the Central Tano branch of the Potou–Tano subfamily of the Niger–Congo family. Subgroups of the Akan proper include: Asante, Akuapem and Akyem, Kwahu, Wassa and Bono. Subgroups of the Bia-speaking groups include: the Anyin, Baoulé, Sefwi, Nzema and Jwira-Pepesa; the Akan subgroups have cultural attributes in common, notably the tracing of matrilineal descent, inheritance of property, succession to high political office. Akan culture can be found in the New World. A number of Akans were taken as captives to the Americas. Ten-percent of all slave ships embarked from the Gold Coast; the primary source of wealth within Akan economy was gold. However as wars culminated in the region the capture and sale of Akan people peaked during the Fante and Ashanti conflicts as prisoners of war.
Akan conflicts led to a high number of military captives being sold into slavery known as "Coromantee". These Coromantee soldiers and other Akan captives were notorious for a large number of slave revolts and plantation resistance tactics; these captives were feared throughout the Americas so much so that we can see their legacy within groups such as the Maroons of the Caribbean and South America. Akan people are believed to have migrated to their current location from the Sahara desert and Sahel regions of Africa into the forest region around the 11th century, many Akans tell their history as it started in the eastern region of Africa as this is where the ethnogenesis of the Akan as we know them today happened. Oral traditions of the ruling Abrade Clan relate, they migrated from the north, they settled in Nubia. Around 500 AD, due to the pressure exerted on Nubia by the Axumite kingdom of Ethiopia, Nubia was shattered, the Akan people moved west and established small trading kingdoms; these kingdoms grew, around 750 AD the Ghana Empire was formed.
The Empire lasted from 750 AD to 1200 AD and collapsed as a result of the introduction of Islam in the Western Sudan, the zeal of the Muslims to impose their religion, their ancestors left for Kong. From Kong they moved to Wam and to Dormaa; the movement from Kong was necessitated by the desire of the people to find suitable savannah conditions since they were not used to forest life. Around the 14th century, they moved from Dormaa South Eastwards to Twifo-Hemang, North West Cape Coast; this move was commercially motivated. The kingdom of Bonoman was established as early as the 12th century. Between the 12th and 13th centuries a gold boom in the area brought wealth to numerous Akans. During different phases of the Kingdom of Bonoman, groups of Akans migrated out of the area to create numerous states based predominantly on gold mining and trading of cash crops; this brought wealth to numerous Akan states like Akwamu Empire, led to the rise of the most well known Akan empire, the Empire of Ashanti, the most dominant of the Akan states.
From the 15th century to the 19th century the Akan people dominated gold mining and trading in the region. The Akan goldfields, according to Peter Bakewell, were the "highly auriferous area in the forest country between the Komoe and Volta rivers; the Akan goldfield was one of three principal goldfields in the region, along with the Bambuk goldfield, the Bure goldfield. This wealth in gold attracted European traders; the Europeans were Portuguese, soon joined by the Dutch and the British in their quest for Akan gold. Akan states waged wars on neighboring states in their geographic area to capture people and sell them as slaves to Europeans who subsequently sold the enslaved people along with guns to Akan states in exchange for Akan gold. Akan gold was used to purchase slaves from further up north via the Trans-Saharan route; the Akan purchased slaves. About a third of the population of many Akan states were indentured servants; the Akans went from buyers of slaves to selling slaves as the dynamics in the Gold Coast and the New World changed.
Thus, the Akan people played a role in supplying Europeans with indentured servants, who were enslaved for the trans-Atlantic slave trade. In 2006 Ghana apologized to the descendants of slaves for the role some of its people may have played in the slave trade. Akan people the Ashanti people, fought against European colonists and defeated them on several occasions to maintain autonomy; this occurred during the Anglo-Ashanti wars: the war of the Golden Stool, other similar battles. By the early 1900s all of Ghana was a colony or protectorate of the British while the lands in the Ivory Coast were under the French. On 6 March 1957, following the decolonization from the British under the leadership of Kwame Nkrumah, the Gold Coast was joined to British Togoland, the Northern region, Upper East region and Upper West region of the Gold Coast to form Ghana. Ivory Coast gained independence on 7 August 1960; the Akans consider themselves one nation. Akan means first, foremo
Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea that form edible tubers. Yams are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers in many temperate and tropical world regions; the tubers themselves are called "yams", having numerous cultivars and related species. In parts of the United States and Canada, "yam" is sometimes used to refer to varieties of the unrelated sweet potato; the name, appears to derive from Portuguese inhame or Canarian ñame, which derived from West African languages during trade. The main derivations borrow from verbs meaning "to eat". In various places other unrelated root vegetables are sometimes referred to as "yams", including: In the United States, the sweet potato those with orange flesh, are referred to as "yams" In Okinawa, purple sweet potatoes may be called "yams" In New Zealand, the oca is referred to as "yam" In Japan, konjac corms are colloquially referred to as "yams" In Malaysia and Singapore the taro is referred to as a "yam"Yam has various common names across multiple world regions.
A monocot related to lilies and grasses, yams are vigorous herbaceous vines, providing an edible tuber. They are native to Africa and the Americas; some yams are invasive plants considered a "noxious weed", outside cultivated areas. Yam tubers vary in size from that of a small potato to over 60 g; some 870 species of yams are known, 95% of these crops are grown in Africa. Yam tubers can grow up to 15 m in length and 7.6 to 15.2 cm high. The tuber may grow into the soil up to 1.5 metres deep. The plant disperses by seed; the edible tuber softens after heating. The skins vary in color from dark brown to light pink; the majority of the vegetable is composed of a much softer substance known as the "meat". This substance ranges in color from pink in mature yams. Yam crop begins when whole seed tubers or tuber portions are planted into mounds or ridges, at the beginning of the rainy season; the crop yield depends on how and where the sets are planted, sizes of mounds, interplant spacing, provision of stakes for the resultant plants, yam species, tuber sizes desired at harvest.
Small-scale farmers in West and Central Africa intercrop yams with cereals and vegetables. The seed yams are bulky to transport. Farmers who do not buy new seed yams set aside up to 30% of their harvest for planting the next year. Yam crops face pressure from a range of insect pests and fungal and viral diseases, as well as nematode, their growth and dormant phases correspond to the wet season and the dry season. For maximum yield, the yams require a humid tropical environment, with an annual rainfall over 1500 mm distributed uniformly throughout the growing season. White and water yams produce a single large tuber per year weighing 5 to 10 kg. Despite the high labor requirements and production costs, consumer demand for yam is high in certain subregions of Africa, making yam cultivation quite profitable to certain farmers. Many cultivars of yams are found throughout the humid tropics; the most economically important are discussed below. Dioscorea rotundata, the white yam, D. cayenensis, the yellow yam, are native to Africa.
They are the most important cultivated yams. In the past, they were considered as two separate species, but most taxonomists now regard them as the same species. Over 200 varieties between them are cultivated. White yam tuber is cylindrical in shape, the skin is smooth and brown, the flesh is white and firm. Yellow yam has yellow flesh, caused by the presence of carotenoids, it looks similar to the white yam in outer appearance. The yellow yam has a shorter dormancy than white yam. The'Kokoro' variety is important in making dried yam chips, they are large plants. The tubers most weigh about 2.5 to 5 kg each, but can weigh as much as 25 kg. After 7 to 12 months' growth, the tubers are harvested. In Africa, most are pounded into a paste to make the traditional dish of "pounded yam," known as Iyan. D. alata, called "white yam", winged yam, water yam, purple yam, was first cultivated in Southeast Asia. Although not grown in the same quantities as the African yams, it has the largest distribution worldwide of any cultivated yam, being grown in Asia, the Pacific islands and the West Indies.
In Africa, the popularity of water yam is second only to white yam. The tuber shape is cylindrical, but can vary. Tuber flesh is watery in texture. Uhi was brought to Hawaii by the early Polynesian settlers and became a major crop in the 19th century when the tubers were sold to visiting ships as an stored food supply for their voyages. D. polystachya, Chinese yam, is native to China. The Chinese yam plant is somewhat smaller with the vines about 3 m long, it can be grown in much cooler conditions than other yams. It is grown in Korea and Japan, it was introduced to Europe in the 19th century, when the potato crop there was falling victim to disease, is still grown in France for the Asian food market. The tubers are harvested after about 6 months of growth; some are eaten right after harvesting and some are used as ingredients for other dishes, including noodles, for traditional medicines. D. bulbifera, the air
A week is a time unit equal to seven days. It is the standard time period used for cycles of rest days in most parts of the world alongside—although not part of—the Gregorian calendar. In many languages, the days of the week are named after classical gods of a pantheon. In English, the names are Sunday, Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. ISO 8601 includes the ISO week date system, a numbering system for weeks within a given year – each week begins on a Monday and is associated with the year that contains that week's Thursday. ISO 8601 assigns numbers to the days of the week; the term "week" is sometimes expanded to refer to other time units comprising a few days, such as the nundinal cycle of the ancient Roman calendar, the "work week", or "school week" referring only to the days spent on those activities. The English word week comes from the Old English wice from a Common Germanic *wikōn-, from a root *wik- "turn, change"; the Germanic word had a wider meaning prior to the adoption of the Roman calendar "succession series", as suggested by Gothic wikō translating taxis "order" in Luke 1:8.
The seven-day week is named in many languages by a word derived from "seven". The archaism sennight preserves the old Germanic practice of reckoning time by nights, as in the more common fortnight. Hebdomad and hebdomadal week both derive from the Greek hebdomás; the obsolete septimane is cognate with the Romance terms derived from Latin septimana. Slavic has a formation *tъdьnь, from *tъ "this" + *dьnь "day". Chinese has 星期, as it were "planetary time unit". A week is defined as an interval of seven days, so that technically, except at daylight saving time transitions or leap seconds, 1 week = 7 days = 168 hours = 10,080 minutes = 604,800 seconds. With respect to the Gregorian calendar: 1 Gregorian calendar year = 52 weeks + 1 day 1 week = 1600⁄6957 ≈ 22.9984% of an average Gregorian monthIn a Gregorian mean year, there are 365.2425 days, thus 52 71⁄400 or 52.1775 weeks. There are 20,871 weeks in 400 Gregorian years, so 11 April 1619 was a Thursday just as was 11 April 2019. Relative to the path of the Moon, a week is 23.659% of an average lunation or 94.637% of an average quarter lunation.
The system of dominical letters has been used to facilitate calculation of the day of week. The day of the week can be calculated given a date's Julian day number: Adding one to the remainder after dividing the Julian day number by seven yields that date's ISO 8601 day of the week; the days of the week were named for the classical planets. This naming system persisted alongside an "ecclesiastical" tradition of numbering the days, in ecclesiastical Latin beginning with dominica as the first day; the Greco-Roman gods associated with the classical planets were rendered in their interpretatio germanica at some point during the late Roman Empire, yielding the Germanic tradition of names based on indigenous deities. The ordering of the weekday names is not the classical order of the planets. Instead, the planetary hours systems resulted in succeeding days being named for planets that are three places apart in their traditional listing; this characteristic was discussed in Plutarch in a treatise written in c.
AD 100, reported to have addressed the question of Why are the days named after the planets reckoned in a different order from the actual order?. An ecclesiastical, non-astrological, system of numbering the days of the week was adopted in Late Antiquity; this model seems to have influenced the designation of Wednesday as "mid-week" in Old High German and Old Church Slavonic. Old Church Slavonic may have modeled the name of Monday, понєдѣльникъ, after the Latin feria secunda; the ecclesiastical system became prevalent in Eastern Christianity, but in the Latin West it remains extant only in modern Icelandic and Portuguese. A continuous seven-day cycle that runs throughout history paying no attention whatsoever to the phases of the moon was first practised in Judaism, dated to the 6th century BC at the latest. There are several hypotheses concerning the origin of the biblical seven-day cycle. Friedrich Delitzsch and others suggested that the seven-day week being a quarter of a lunation is the implicit astronomical origin of the seven-day week, indeed the Babylonian calendar used intercalary days to synchronize the last week of a month with the new moon.
According to this theory, the Jewish week was adopted from the Babylonians while removing the moon-dependency. However, Niels-Erik Andreasen, Jeffrey H. Tigay, others claimed that the Biblical Sabbath is mentioned as a day of rest in some of the earliest layers of the Pentateuch dated to the 9th century BC at the latest, centuries before Judea's Babylonian exile, they find the resemblance between the Biblical Sabbat
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom. Tribal societies with social stratification under a single leader emerged in the Neolithic period out of earlier tribal structures with little stratification, they remained prevalent throughout the Iron Age. In the case of indigenous tribal societies existing within larger colonial and post-colonial states, tribal chiefs may represent their tribe or ethnicity in a form of self-government; the most common types are the chairman of a council and/or a broader popular assembly in "parliamentary" cultures, the war chief, the hereditary chief, the politically dominant medicineman. The term is distinct from chiefs at lower levels, such as village chief or clan chief; the descriptive "tribal" requires an ethno-cultural identity as well as some political expression. In certain situations, in a colonial context, the most powerful member of either a confederation or a federation of such tribal, clan or village chiefs would be referred to as a paramount chief.
This term has fallen out of use and such personages are now called kings. A woman who holds a chieftaincy in her own right or who derives one from her marriage to a male chief has been referred to alternatively as a chieftainess, a chieftess or in the case of the former, a chief. Anthropologist Elman Service distinguishes two stages of tribal societies: simple societies organized by limited instances of social rank and prestige, more stratified societies led by chieftains or tribal kings. Tribal societies represent an intermediate stage between the band society of the Paleolithic stage and civilization with centralized, super-regional government based in cities. Stratified tribal societies led by tribal kings thus flourished from the Neolithic stage into the Iron Age, albeit in competition with civilisations and empires beginning in the Bronze Age. An important source of information for tribal societies of the Iron Age is Greco-Roman ethnography, which describes tribal societies surrounding the urban, imperialist civilisation of the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, tribal kingdoms were again established over much of Europe in the wake of the Migration period. By the High Middle Ages, these had again coalesced into super-regional monarchies. Tribal societies remained prevalent in much of the New World. Exceptions to tribal societies outside of Europe and Asia were Paleolithic or Mesolithic band societies in Oceania and in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. Europeans forced centralized governments onto these societies during colonialism, but in some instances tribes have retained or regained partial self-government. Lonco among the Mapuche Morubixaba — tribal Cacique of the Tupi people Oubutu Rajiv Tyee, a tribal chief of the Chinookan peoples in the Pacific Northwest of the present-day United States Cacique, a term used among the Taino Nation of the Caribbean islands adopted by the Spanish to refer to all heads of chiefdoms whom they encountered: Cuauhtémoc, Tecun Uman, Atlacatl, Nicarao, Tupac Amaru II Sachem, term of chiefdom of the Algonquian nations of present-day New England in the United States Afro Bolivian king Eze Gbong Gwon Jos Kgosi Mogho Naba Nkosi Oba and Oloye.
Obai Omanhene Orkoiyot Sarkin Obong Tor Tiv of the Tiv people of Central Nigeria Aliʻi and Aliʻi nui were the chiefs and high chiefs of the islands of Hawaii Islands Ariki,'ariki henua Grade-taking systems of northern Vanuatu Ibedul Meena means Chief of tribals in South Asia. Iroijlaplap Matai, in the Samoan fa'amatai system Nahnmwarki, Lepen Palikir Rangatira, a chief of Māori in New Zealand Ratu, Fijian Chief, Malay for Queen Datu and Filipino Chief Arabs, in particular peninsular Arabs and nomadic Bedouins, are organized in tribes, many of whom have official representatives in governments. Tribal chiefs are known as Sheikhs, though this term is sometimes applied as an honorific title to spiritual leaders of Sufism; the Afro-Bolivian people, a recognized ethnic constituency of Bolivia, are led by a king whose title is recognized by the Bolivian government. In Botswana, the reigning chiefs of the various tribes are empowered to serve as advisers to the government as members of the Ntlo ya Dikgosi, the national House of Chiefs.
In addition to this, they serve as the ex officio chairs of the tribal kgotlas, meetings of all of the members of the tribes, where political and social matters are discussed. The band is the fundamental unit of governance among the First Nations in Canada. Most bands have elected chiefs, either directly elected by all members of the band, or indirectly by the band council, these chiefs are recognized by the Canadian state under the terms of the Indian Act; as well, there may be traditional hereditary or charismatic chiefs, w
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Janus is the god of beginnings, transitions, duality, doorways and endings. He is depicted as having two faces, since he looks to the future and to the past, it is conventionally thought that the month of January is named for Janus, but according to ancient Roman farmers' almanacs Juno was the tutelary deity of the month. Janus presided over the beginning and ending of conflict, hence war and peace; the gates of a building in Rome named after him were opened in time of war, closed to mark the arrival of peace. As a god of transitions, he had functions pertaining to birth and to journeys and exchange, in his association with Portunus, a similar harbor and gateway god, he was concerned with travelling and shipping. Janus had no flamen or specialised priest assigned to him, but the King of the Sacred Rites himself carried out his ceremonies. Janus had an ubiquitous presence in religious ceremonies throughout the year; as such, Janus was ritually invoked at the beginning of each ceremony, regardless of the main deity honored on any particular occasion.
The ancient Greeks had no equivalent to Janus. Three etymologies were proposed by ancient erudites, each of them bearing implications about the nature of the god; the first one is based on the definition of Chaos given by Paul the Deacon: hiantem, hiare, be open, from which word Ianus would derive by loss of the initial aspirate. In this etymology, the notion of Chaos would define the primordial nature of the god. Another etymology proposed by Nigidius Figulus is related by Macrobius: Ianus would be Apollo and Diana Iana, by the addition of a D for the sake of euphony; this explanation has been accepted by A. B. Cook and J. G. Frazer, it supports all the assimilations of Janus to the sun and the moon. It supposes a former *Dianus, formed on *dia- < *dy-eð2 from Indo-European root *dey- shine represented in Latin by dies day and Iuppiter. However the form Dianus postulated by Nigidius is not attested. A third etymology indicated by Cicero and Macrobius, which explains the name as Latin, deriving it from the verb ire is based on the interpretation of Janus as the god of beginnings and transitions.
Modern scholars have conjectured that it derives from the Indo-European root meaning transitional movement. Iānus would be an action name expressing the idea of going, formed on the root *yā- < *y-eð2- theme II of the root *ey- go from which eō, ειμι. Other modern scholars object to an Indo-European etymology either from Dianus or from root *yā-. From Ianus derived ianua, hence the English word "janitor". While the fundamental nature of Janus is debated, in most modern scholars' view the god's functions may be seen as being organized around a single principle: presiding over all beginnings and transitions, whether abstract or concrete, sacred or profane. Interpretations concerning the god's fundamental nature either limit it to this general function or emphasize a concrete or particular aspect of it or else see in the god a sort of cosmological principle, interpreting him as a uranic deity. All of these modern explanations were formulated by the ancients, his function as god of beginnings has been expressed in numerous ancient sources, among them most notably Cicero and Varro.
As a god of motion, Janus looks after passages, causes actions to start and presides over all beginnings. Since movement and change are interconnected, he has a double nature, symbolised in his two headed image, he has under his tutelage the stepping in and out of the door of homes, the ianua, which took its name from him, not vice versa. His tutelage extends to the covered passages named iani and foremost to the gates of the city, including the cultic gate of the Argiletum, named Ianus Geminus or Porta Ianualis from which he protects Rome against the Sabines, he is present at the Sororium Tigillum, where he guards the terminus of the ways into Rome from Latium. He has an altar a temple near the Porta Carmentalis, where the road leading to Veii ended, as well as being present on the Janiculum, a gateway from Rome out to Etruria; the connection of the notions of beginning, movement and thence time was expressed by Cicero. In general, Janus is at the origin of time as the guardian of the gates of Heaven: Jupiter himself can move forth and back because of Janus's working.
In one of his temples that of Forum Holitorium, the hands of his statue were positioned to signify the number 355 365, symbolically expressing his mastership over time. He presides over the concrete and abstract beginnings of the world, such as religion and the gods themselves, he too holds the access to Heaven and to other gods: this is the reason why men must invoke him first, regardless of the god they want to pray to or placate, he is the initiator of human life, of new historical ages, financial enterprises: according to myth he was the first to mint coins and the as, first coin of the liberal series, bears his effigy on one face. Janus symbolized change and transitions such as the progress of past to future, from one condition to another, from one vision to another, young people's growth to adulthood, he represented time, because he could see in
A tutelary is a deity or spirit, a guardian, patron, or protector of a particular place, geographic feature, lineage, culture, or occupation. The etymology of "tutelary" expresses the concept of safety, thus of guardianship. In late late Greek and Roman religion, one type of tutelary deity, the genius, functions as the personal deity or daimon of an individual from birth to death. Another form of personal tutelary spirit is the familiar spirit of European folklore. Chinese folk religion, both past and present, includes a myriad of tutelary deities. Exceptional individuals may become deified after death. Guan Yu is a well-known tutelary. See City God and Tudigong. In Hinduism, tutelary deities are known as Kuldevi or Kuldevta. Gramadevata are guardian deities of villages. Devas can be seen as tutelary. Shiva is patron of renunciants; the City goddesses include: Mumbadevi Sachchika Kuladevis include: Ambika Mahalakshmi In Korean shamanism and sotdae were placed at the edge of villages to frighten off demons.
They were worshiped as deities. In Philippine animism, Diwata or Lambana are deities or spirits that inhabit sacred places like mountains and mounds and serve as guardians.* Maria Makiling is the deity who guards Mt. Makiling. * Maria Cacao and Maria Sinukuan. In Shinto, the spirits, or kami, which give life to human bodies come from nature and return to it after death. Ancestors are therefore themselves tutelaries to be worshiped. Thai provincial capitals palladiums; the guardian spirit of a house is known as Pra Poom. Every Buddhist household in Thailand has a miniature shrine housing this tutelary deity, known as a spirit house. Tibetan Buddhism has Yidam as a tutelary deity. Dakini is the patron of those. Socrates spoke of hearing the voice of his personal spirit or daimonion: You have heard me speak of an oracle or sign which comes to me …; this sign I have had since I was a child. The sign is a voice which comes to me and always forbids me to do something which I am going to do, but never commands me to do anything, this is what stands in the way of my being a politician.
The Greeks thought deities guarded specific places: For instance, Athena was the patron goddess of the city of Athens. Tutelary deities who guard and preserve a place or a person are fundamental to ancient Roman religion; the tutelary deity of a man was that of a woman her Juno. In the Imperial era, the Genius of the Emperor was a focus of Imperial cult. An emperor might adopt a major deity as his personal patron or tutelary, as Augustus did Apollo. Precedents for claiming the personal protection of a deity were established in the Republican era, when for instance the Roman dictator Sulla advertised the goddess Victory as his tutelary by holding public games in her honor; each town or city had one or more tutelary deities, whose protection was considered vital in time of war and siege. Rome itself was protected by a goddess; the Capitoline Triad of Juno and Minerva were tutelaries of Rome. The Italic towns had their own tutelary deities. Juno had this function, as at the Latin town of Lanuvium and the Etruscan city of Veii, was housed in an grand temple on the arx or other prominent or central location.
The tutelary deity of Praeneste was Fortuna. The Roman ritual of evocatio was premised on the belief that a town could be made vulnerable to military defeat if the power of its tutelary deity were diverted outside the city by the offer of superior cult at Rome; the depiction of some goddesses such as the Magna Mater as "tower-crowned" represents their capacity to preserve the city. A town in the provinces might adopt a deity from within the Roman religious sphere to serve as its guardian, or syncretize its own tutelary with such; each Roman home had a set of protective deities: the Lar or Lares of the household or familia, whose shrine was a lararium. The poet Martial lists the tutelary deities; the architecture of a granary featured niches for images of the tutelary deities, who might include the genius loci or guardian spirit of the site, Silvanus, Fortuna Conservatrix and in the Greek East Aphrodite and Agathe Tyche. The Lares Compitales were the tutelary gods of a neighborhood, each of which had a compitum devoted to these.
During the Republic, the cult of local or neighborhood tutelaries sometimes became rallying points for political and social unrest. Some tutelary deities are known to exist in Slavic Europe, a more prominent example being that of Leshy. Animal spirit Dvarapala Eudaemon Guardian angel Landvættir Nagual National god Patron saint Power animal Totem Tulpa Uay