International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda was an international court established in November 1994 by the United Nations Security Council in Resolution 955 in order to judge people responsible for the Rwandan genocide and other serious violations of international law in Rwanda, or by Rwandan citizens in nearby states, between 1 January and 31 December 1994. In 1995, it became located in Arusha, under Resolution 977.. In 1998 the operation of the tribunal was expanded in Resolution 1165. Through several resolutions, the Security Council called on the tribunal to complete its investigations by end of 2004, complete all trial activities by end of 2008, complete all work in 2012; the tribunal had jurisdiction over genocide, crimes against humanity, violations of Common Article Three and Additional Protocol II of the Geneva Conventions. As of 2009, the tribunal had finished 50 trials and convicted 29 accused persons, another 11 trials were in progress and 14 individuals were awaiting trial in detention.
13 others were still at large, some suspected to be dead. The first trial, of Jean-Paul Akayesu, began in 1997. Jean Kambanda, interim Prime Minister, pleaded guilty. According to the ICTR's Completion Strategy, in accordance with Security Council Resolution 1503, all first-instance cases were to have completed trial by the end of 2008 and all work was to be completed by 2010, it had been discussed that these goals may not be realistic and were to change. The United Nations Security Council called upon the tribunal to finish its work by 31 December 2014 to prepare for its closure and transfer of its responsibilities to the International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals which had begun functioning for the ICTR branch on 1 July 2012; as of spring 2015, the Residual Mechanism had taken over much of the operations of the tribunal, the tribunal announced on 2 February 2015 that it was reducing staff with the goal of wrapping up operations and closing the tribunal by the end of 2015. The Tribunal was closed on 31 December 2015.
In March 2010, the ICTR announced plans to digitize all video recordings of the trials, both audio and video, in all three languages. This was part of a larger project; the Rwandan genocide refers to the mass slaughter of more than 800,000 ethnic Tutsi and politically moderate Hutu by government-directed gangs of Hutu extremist soldiers and police in Rwanda. The duration of the 1994 genocide is described as 100 days, beginning on April 6 and ending in mid-July. Tension between the majority Hutu and the minority Tutsi had developed over time but was emphasized late in the nineteenth century and early in the twentieth century as a result of German and Belgian colonialism over Rwanda; the ethnic categorization of the two were an imposed and an arbitrary construct based more on physical characteristics than ethnic background. However, the social differences between the Hutu and the Tusi have traditionally allowed the Tutsi, with a strong pastoralist tradition, to gain social and political ascendancy over the Hutu, who were agriculturalists.
The distinction under colonial powers allowed Tutsis to establish ruling power, until a Hutu revolution in 1959 abolished the Tutsi monarchy by 1961. The hostility between the two groups continued, as “additional rounds of ethnic tension and violence flared periodically and led to mass killings of Tutsi in Rwanda, such as in 1963, 1967, 1973.” The establishment of the Rwandan Patriotic Front and its invasion from Uganda furthered ethnic hatred. A ceasefire in these hostilities led to negotiations between the government and the RPF in 1992. On April 6, 1994 a plane carrying President Juvenal Habyarimana, Cyprien Ntaryamira of Burundi was shot down, killing everyone on board; the Hutu held the RPF accountable, began the genocide, targeted at both Tutsis and Hutu moderates. Most of the killing during the Rwandan genocide was carried out by the radical Hutu groups known as the Interahamwe and the Impuzamugambi. Radio broadcasts were an integral part of the genocide, which further fueled the genocide by encouraging Hutu civilians to kill their Tutsi neighbours, labeled as “cockroaches” in need of extermination.
Despite its colossal scale within such a short period of time, the genocide was carried out entirely by hand with the utilization of machetes and clubs. Various atrocities committed include the rape of thousands of Tutsi women, as well as the dismemberment and disfigurement of victims; the killers were people the victims knew personally—neighbours, former friends, sometimes relatives through marriage. At least 500,000 Tutsis were killed, 2 million refugees left for refugee camps of neighboring Burundi, Tanzania and former Zaire; the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda is regarded as a major failure. The international response to the Rwandan genocide was poor. For weeks, the major power nations denied; the United States refused to call the incident "genocide" because using the term would make an obligation for the United States to send troops. In July 1994, after the genocide was over, the UN Security Council called for an investigation of the events, acted
Nyamata Genocide Memorial Centre
The Nyamata Genocide Memorial is based around a former church 30 km south of Kigali in Rwanda, which commemorates the Rwandan genocide in 1994. The remains of 50,000 people are buried here; the memorial is based around a former church, about 30 km south of Kigali in Rwanda, which commemorates the Rwandan genocide in 1994. This memorial centre is one of six in Rwanda; the others are the Murambi Memorial Centre, Bisesero Genocide Memorial Centre and Ntarama Genocide Memorial Centre and others at Kigali and Nyarubuye. The Rwandan genocide began in April 1994. Many Tutsi people gathered here. About 10,000 people gathered here and the people locked themselves in; the church walls today show how the perpetrators made holes in the walls of the church so that grenades could be thrown into the church. After this the people inside were killed with machetes; the ceiling of the church shows the altar cloth is still stained with blood. Most of the remains have been buried but clothing and identity cards are left.
The identity cards were what identified people as either Hutu. People in the surrounding area were killed after the massacre at the church; the remains of 50,000 people are buried here. Nyamata Nyamata Liberation day, panoramic tour in 2014, The Guardian Genocide Archive of Rwanda
History of Rwanda
Human occupation of Rwanda is thought to have begun shortly after the last ice age. By the 16th century, the inhabitants had organized into a number of kingdoms. In the 19th century, Mwami Rwabugiri of the Kingdom of Rwanda conducted a decades-long process of military conquest and administrative consolidation that resulted in the kingdom coming to control most of what is now Rwanda; the colonial powers and Belgium, allied with the Rwandan court. A convergence of anti-colonial, anti-Tutsi sentiment resulted in Belgium granting national independence in 1962. Direct elections resulted in a representative government dominated by the majority Hutu under President Grégoire Kayibanda. Unsettled ethnic and political tensions were worsened when Juvénal Habyarimana, Hutu, seized power in 1973. In 1990, the Rwandan Patriotic Front, a rebel group composed of 10,000 Tutsi refugees from previous decades of unrest, invaded the country, starting the Rwandan Civil War; the war ground on, as the Hutu feared losing their gains.
The assassination of Habyarimana was the catalyst for the eruption of the 1994 genocide, in which hundreds of thousands of Tutsis and some moderate Hutus were killed including the prime minister Agatha Uwilingiyimana. The Tutsi RPF conquered Rwanda, thousands of Hutu were imprisoned pending the establishment of the Gacaca courts. Millions of Hutu fled as refugees, contributing to large refugee camps of Hutu in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo, where there were refugees from other countries; these were disbanded by an RPF-sponsored invasion in 1996 that replaced the new Congolese president as the result of the First Congo War. A second invasion to replace the new Congolese president initiated the Second Congo War, the deadliest war since World War II and one involving many African nations including Rwanda; the territory of present-day Rwanda has been green and fertile for many thousands of years during the last ice age, when part of Nyungwe Forest was fed by the alpine ice sheets of the Rwenzoris.
It is not known when the country was first inhabited, but it is thought that humans moved into the area shortly after that ice age, either in the Neolithic period, around ten thousand years ago, or in the long humid period which followed, up to around 3000 BC. The earliest inhabitants of the region are thought to have been the Twa, a group of Pygmy forest hunters and gatherers, whose descendants still live in Rwanda today. Archaeological excavations conducted from the 1950s onwards have revealed evidence of sparse settlement by hunter gatherers in the late stone age, followed by a larger population of early iron age settlers; these groups were found to have manufactured artifacts, including a type of dimpled pottery, iron tools and implements. Hundreds of years ago, the Twa were supplanted by the immigration of a Bantu group, the ancestors of the agriculturalist ethnic group, today known as the Hutus; the Hutu began to clear forests for their permanent settlements. The exact nature of the third major immigration, that of a predominantly pastoralist people known as Tutsi, is contested.
Oral histories of the Kingdom of Rwanda trace the origins of the Rwandan people back nearly 10,000 ago to a legendary king named Gihanga, to whom metalworking and other modernizing technologies are commonly attributed. By the 15th century, many of the Bantu-speakers, including both Hutu and Tutsi, had organized themselves into small states. According to Ogot, these included at least three; the oldest state, which has no name, was established by the Renge lineages of the Singa clan and covered most of modern Rwanda, besides the northern region. The Mubari state of the Zigaba clan covered an extensive area; the Gisaka state in southeast Rwanda was powerful, maintaining its independence until the mid-19th century. However, the latter two states are unmentioned in contemporary discussion of Rwandan civilization. In the 19th century, the state became far more centralized, the history far more precise. Expansion continued; this expansion was less about military conquest and more about a migrating population spreading Rwandan agricultural techniques, social organization, the extension of the political control of a Mwami.
Once this was established camps of warriors were established along the vulnerable borders to prevent incursions. Only against other well developed states such as Gisaka and Burundi was expansion carried out by force of arms. Under the monarchy the economic imbalance between the Hutus and the Tutsis crystallized, a complex political imbalance emerged as the Tutsis formed into a hierarchy dominated by a Mwami or'king'; the King was treated as a semi-divine being, responsible for making the country prosper. The symbol of the King was the sacred drum; the Mwami's main power base was in control of over a hundred large estates spread through the kingdom. Including fields of banana trees and many head of cattle, the estates were the basis of the rulers' wealth; the most ornate of the estates would each be home to one of the king's wives, monarchs having up to twenty. It was between these estates that his retinue would travel. All the people of Rwanda were expected to pay tribute to the Mwami. Beneath the Mwami was a Tutsi ministerial council of great chiefs,some of them were the chiefs of cattle, chiefs of land and last but not least the military chiefs.
Batware b'intebe, while below them was a group of lesser Tutsi chiefs, who for the large part governed the country in districts, each district having a cattle chief and a land chief. The cattle chief collected tribute in lives
First Congo War
The First Congo War nicknamed Africa's First World War, was a foreign invasion of Zaire led by Rwanda that replaced President Mobutu Sésé Seko with the rebel leader Laurent-Désiré Kabila. Destabilization in eastern Zaire resulting from the Rwandan genocide was the final factor that caused numerous internal and external factors to align against the corrupt and inept government in the capital, Kinshasa; the new government renamed the country Democratic Republic of the Congo, but it brought little true change. Kabila alienated his Ugandan allies. To avert a coup, Kabila expelled all Ugandan forces from the Congo; this event was a major cause of the Second Congo War the following year. Some experts prefer to view the two conflicts as one war. An ethnic Ngbandi, Mobutu came to power in 1965 and enjoyed support from the United States government because of his anti-communist stance while in office. However, Mobutu's authoritarian rule and policies allowed the Zairian state to decay, evidenced by a 65% decrease in Zairian GDP between independence in 1960 and the end of Mobutu's rule in 1997.
Following the end of the Cold War circa 1992, the United States stopped supporting Mobutu in favour of what it called a "new generation of African leaders", including Rwanda's Paul Kagame and Uganda's Yoweri Museveni. A wave of democratisation swept across Africa during the 1990s. Under substantial internal and external pressure for a democratic transition in Zaire, Mobutu promised reform, he ended the one-party system he had maintained since 1967, but proved unwilling to implement broad reform, alienating allies both at home and abroad. In fact, the Zairian state had all but ceased to exist; the majority of the Zairian population relied on an informal economy for their subsistence, since the official economy was not reliable. Furthermore, the Zairian national army, Forces Armées Zaïroises, was forced to prey upon the population for survival. Mobutu's rule encountered considerable internal resistance, given the weak central state, rebel groups could find refuge in Zaire's eastern provinces, far from the capital, Kinshasa.
Opposition groups included leftists who had supported Patrice Lumumba, as well as ethnic and regional minorities opposed to the dominance of Kinshasa. Laurent-Désiré Kabila, an ethnic Luba from Katanga province who would overthrow Mobutu, had fought Mobutu's régime since its inception; the inability of the Mobutuist régime to control rebel movements in its eastern provinces allowed its internal and external foes to ally. Tensions had existed between various ethnic groups in eastern Zaire for centuries between the agrarian tribes native to Zaire and semi-nomadic Tutsi tribes that had emigrated from Rwanda at various times; the earliest of these migrants arrived before colonisation in the 1880s, followed by emigrants whom the Belgian colonizers forcibly relocated to Congo to perform manual labour, by another significant wave of emigrants fleeing the social revolution of 1959 that brought the Hutu to power in Kigali. Tutsi who emigrated to Zaire before Congolese independence in 1960 are known as Banyamulenge, meaning "from Mulenge", had the right to citizenship under Zairian law.
Tutsi who emigrated to Zaire following independence are known as Banyarwanda, although the native locals do not distinguish between the two, call them both Banyamulenge and consider them foreigners. After coming to power in 1965, Mobutu gave the Banyamulenge political power in the east in hopes that they, as a minority, would keep a tight grip on power and prevent more populous ethnicities from forming an opposition; this move aggravated the existing ethnic tensions by strengthening the Banyamulenge's hold over important stretches of land in North Kivu that indigenous people claimed as their own. From 1963 to 1966 the Hunde and Nande ethnic groups of North Kivu fought against Rwandan emigrants — both Tutsi and Hutu – in the Kanyarwandan War, which involved several massacres. Despite a strong Rwandan presence in Mobutu's government, in 1981, Zaire adopted a restrictive citizenship law which denied the Banyamulenge and Banyarwanda citizenship and therewith all political rights. Though never enforced, the law angered individuals of Rwandan descent and contributed to a rising sense of ethnic hatred.
From 1993 to 1996 Hunde and Nyanga youth attacked the Banyamulenge, leading to a total of 14,000 deaths. In 1995 the Zairian Parliament ordered all peoples of Rwandan or Burundian descent repatriated to their countries of origin, including the Banyamulenge. Due to political exclusion and ethnic violence, as early as 1991 the Banyamulenge developed ties to the Rwandan Patriotic Front, a Tutsi rebel movement based in Uganda but with aspirations to power in Rwanda; the deciding event in precipitating the war was the genocide in neighbouring Rwanda in 1994, which sparked a mass exodus of refugees known as the Great Lakes refugee crisis. During the 100-day genocide, hundreds of thousands of Tutsis and sympathizers were massacred at the hands of predominantly Hutu aggressors; the genocide ended when the Hutu government in Kigali was overthrown by the Tutsi-dominated Rwandan Patriotic Front. Of those who fled Rwanda during the crisis, about 1.5 million settled in eastern Zaire. These refugees included Tutsi who fled the Hutu génocidaires as well as one million Hutus that fled the Tutsi RPF's subsequent retaliation.
Prominent among the latter group were the génocidaires themselves, such as elements of the former Rwandan Army, Forces armées rwandaises, independent Hutu extremist groups known as Interahamwe. These Hutu forces allied themselves
The Tutsi, or Abatutsi, are a social class or ethnic group of the African Great Lakes region. They were referred to as the Watutsi, Wahuma, Wahima or the Wahinda; the Tutsi form a subgroup of the Banyarwanda and the Barundi peoples, who reside in Rwanda and Burundi, but with significant populations found in Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Tanzania.. Tutsis are nilotic and the second largest population division among the three largest groups in Rwanda and Burundi. Small numbers of Hema and Furiiru people live near the Tutsi in Rwanda; the Northern Tutsi who reside in Rwanda are called Ruguru, while southern Tutsi that live in Burundi are known as Hima, the Tutsis who resides in Masisi, in Kivu and they are known as Banyamasisi and the Tutsi that inhabit the Kivu plateau in the Congo go by Banyamulenge. The definitions of "Hutu" and "Tutsi" people may have changed through location. Social structures were not stable throughout Rwanda during colonial times under the Belgian rule.
The Tutsi aristocracy or elite was distinguished from Tutsi commoners, wealthy Hutu were indistinguishable from upper-class Tutsi. When the Belgian colonists conducted censuses, they wanted to identify the people throughout Rwanda-Burundi according to a simple classification scheme, they defined "Tutsi" as anyone owning more than ten cows or with the physical feature of a longer nose, or longer neck associated with the Tutsi. Tutsis were said to have arrived in the Great Lakes region from the Horn of Africa. Tutsis have lived in the areas where they are for 400–500 years, leading to considerable intermarriage with the Hutu, a Bantu people in the area. Due to the history of intermingling and intermarrying of Hutus and Tutsis and historians have come to agree that Hutu and Tutsis cannot be properly called distinct ethnic groups. Modern-day genetic studies of the Y-chromosome indicate that the Tutsi, like the Hutu, are of Bantu extraction. Paternal genetic influences associated with the Horn of Africa and North Africa are few, are ascribed to much earlier inhabitants who were assimilated.
However, the Tutsi have more haplogroup B paternal lineages than do the Hutu. Trombetta et al. found 22.2% of E1b1b in a small sample of Tutsis from Burundi, but no bearers of the haplogroup among the local Hutu and Twa populations. The subclade was of the M293 variety, which suggests that the ancestors of Tutsis in this area may have assimilated some Southern Cushitic-speaking pastoralists, its parental marker E-V1515 is thought to have originated in the northern part of the Horn of Africa around 12,000 to 14,000 years ago. There are no peer-reviewed genetic studies of the Tutsi's maternal lineages. However, Fornarino et al. report that unpublished data indicates that one Tutsi individual from Rwanda carries the India-associated mtDNA haplogroup R7. In general, the Tutsi appear to share a close genetic kinship with neighboring Bantu populations the Hutus. However, it is unclear whether this similarity is due to extensive genetic exchanges between these communities through intermarriage or whether it stems from common origins: generations of gene flow obliterated whatever clear-cut physical distinctions may have once existed between these two Bantu peoples – renowned to be height, body build, facial features.
With a spectrum of physical variation in the peoples, Belgian authorities mandated ethnic affiliation in the 1920s, based on economic criteria. Formal and discrete social divisions were imposed upon ambiguous biological distinctions. To some extent, the permeability of these categories in the intervening decades helped to reify the biological distinctions, generating a taller elite and a shorter underclass, but with little relation to the gene pools that had existed a few centuries ago; the social categories are thus real, but there is little if any detectable genetic differentiation between Hutu and Tutsi. Tishkoff et al. found their mixed Hutu and Tutsi samples from Rwanda to be predominately of Bantu origin, with minor gene flow from Afro-Asiatic communities. Their average height is 5 feet 9 inches, although individuals have been recorded as being taller than 7 feet. Prior to the arrival of colonists, Rwanda had been ruled by a Tutsi-dominated monarchy after mid-1600. Beginning in about 1880, Roman Catholic missionaries arrived in the Great Lakes region.
When German forces occupied the area during World War I, the conflict and efforts for Catholic conversion became more pronounced. As the Tutsi resisted conversion, missionaries found success only among the Hutu. In an effort to reward conversion, the colonial government confiscated traditionally Tutsi land and reassigned it to Hutu tribes. In Burundi, Tutsi domination was more entrenched. A ruling faction, the Ganwa, soon emerged from amongst the Tutsi and assumed effective control of the country's administration; the area was ruled as a colony by Belgium. Because the Tutsi had been the traditional governing elite, both colonial powers kept this system and allowed only the Tutsi to be educated and to participate in the colonial government; such discriminatory policies engendered resentment. When the Belgians took over, they believed it could be better governed if they continued to identify the different populations. In the 1920s, they required people to identi
Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines
Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines was a Rwandan radio station which broadcast from July 8, 1993 to July 31, 1994. It played a significant role during the April–July 1994 Rwandan genocide; the station's name is French for "Thousand Hills Free Radio and Television", deriving from the description of Rwanda as "Land of a Thousand Hills". It received support from the government-controlled Radio Rwanda, which allowed it to transmit using their equipment. Listened to by the general population, it projected racist propaganda against Tutsis, moderate Hutus and the United Nations mission UNAMIR, it is regarded by many Rwandan citizens as having played a crucial role in creating the atmosphere of charged racial hostility that allowed the genocide to occur. A working paper published at Harvard University found that RTLM broadcasts were an important part of the process of mobilising the population, which complemented the mandatory Umuganda meetings. Planning for RTLM begun in 1992 by Hutu hard-liners, in response to the non-partisan stance of Radio Rwanda and growing popularity of Rwandan Patriotic Front's Radio Muhabura.
RTLM was established the next year, began broadcasting in July 1993. The station railed against the on-going peace talks between the predominantly Tutsi RPF and President Juvenal Habyarimana, whose family supported the radio station, it became a popular station since it offered frequent contemporary musical selections, unlike state radio, developed a faithful audience among youth-aged Rwandans, who made up the bulk of the Interahamwe militia. Félicien Kabuga was heavily involved in the founding and bankrolling of RTLM, as well as Kangura magazine. In 1993, at an RTLM fundraising meeting organized by the MRND, Felicien Kabuga publicly defined the purpose of RTLM as the defence of Hutu Power; the station is considered to have preyed upon the deep prejudices of many Hutus. The hateful rhetoric was placed alongside the sophisticated use of popular Zairean music, it referred to Tutsis as "cockroaches". Critics claim that the Rwandan government fostered the creation of RTLM as "Hate Radio", to circumvent the fact they had committed themselves to a ban against "harmful radio propaganda" in the UN's March 1993 joint communiqué in Dar es Salaam.
However RTLM director Ferdinand Nahimana claimed that the station was founded to counter the propaganda by RPF's Radio Muhabura. In January 1994, the station broadcast messages berating UNAMIR commander Roméo Dallaire for failing to prevent the killing of 50 people in a UN-demilitarized zone. After Habyarimana's private plane was shot down on April 6, 1994, RTLM joined the chorus of voices blaming Tutsi rebels, began calling for a "final war" to "exterminate" the Tutsi. Radio Rwanda played classical music in the time after the crash while RTML gave news about the situation. During the genocide, the RTLM acted as a source for propaganda by inciting hatred and violence against Tutsis, against Hutus who were for the peace accord, against Hutus who married Tutsis, by advocating the annihilation of all Tutsis in Rwanda; the RTLM reported the latest massacres and political event in a way that promoted their anti-Tutsi agenda. In an attempt to dehumanize and degrade, the RTLM referred to Tutsis and the RPF as'cockroaches' during their broadcasts.
The music of Hutu Simon Bikindi was played frequently. He had two songs, "Bene Sebahinzi", "Nanga Abahutu", which were interpreted as inciting hatred and genocide. One of the major reasons that RTLM was so successful in communication was because other forms of news sources such as televisions and newspapers were not able to be as popularized because of lack of resources. In addition to this communication barrier, areas where there were high rates of illiteracy and lack of education amongst the citizens remain some of the most violent areas during the genocide; the villages outside of the transmission zone of RTLM experienced spillover violence from villages that received the radio transmissions. An estimated 10% of all the violence within the Rwandan Genocide is resulted from the hateful radio transmissions sent out from RTLM. Not only did RTLM increase general violence, but full radio coverage areas increased the number of persons prosecuted for any violence by about 62-69%. However, a recent paper questions the findings of that study.
Following the Rwandan genocide in 1994, the first relief workers on the scene reported seeing hundreds of Tutsi fleeing their villages with little more than the clothes on their backs and transistor radios pressed to their ears. As the genocide was taking place, the United States military drafted a plan to jam RTLM's broadcasts, but this action was never taken because of the cost of the operation and the legal implications of interfering with Rwanda's sovereignty; when French forces entered Rwanda during Opération Turquoise, ostensibly to provide a safe zone for those escaping the genocide but was alleged to be in support of the Hutu-dominated interim government, RTLM broadcast from Gisenyi, calling on'you Hutu girls to wash yourselves and put on a good dress to welcome our French allies. The Tutsi girls are all dead, so you have your chance.'When the Tutsi-led RPF army won control of the country in July, RTLM took mobile equipment and fled to Zaire with Hutu refugees. Félicien Kabuga, "Chairman Director-general" or "President of the General Assembly of all shareholders" Ferdinand Nahimana, director Jean Bosco Barayagwiza, chairman of the executive committee Gaspard
United Nations Security Council Resolution 935
United Nations Security Council resolution 935, adopted unanimously on 1 July 1994, after recalling all resolutions on Rwanda 918 and 925, the Council requested the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali to establish a Commission of Experts to investigate violations of international humanitarian law during the Rwandan genocide. The Council stressed the need for the early deployment of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda so that it could fulfill its mandate. Statements by the President of the Security Council and Secretary-General concerning violations of international humanitarian law in Rwanda were recalled, with the Council noting that only a full investigation could establish the facts of what occurred and therefore determine responsibility. A visit by the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the appointment of a Special Rapporteur for Rwanda was welcomed. Concern was expressed at the continuing reports of systematic killings in Rwanda, including reports of genocide, noting those responsible for the acts committed should be brought to justice.
In this regard, the Council requested that the Secretary-General establish an impartial Commission of Experts to investigate reports of violations of international humanitarian law and report to the Secretary-General. All states and international organisations were urged to collect information in a similar manner to the Commission of Experts and additionally on breaches of the Genocide Convention, making the information gathered available within 30 days of the adoption of the present resolution; the Secretary-General was requested to report to the Council on the establishment of the Commission of Experts and to report on its findings within four months. The Secretary-General was required, along with the High Commissioner for Human Rights, to make information submitted to the Special Rapporteur for Rwanda available to the Commission. All concerned were urged to co-operate with the Commission in order for it to accomplish its mandate. History of Rwanda International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 901 to 1000 Rwandan Civil War Rwandan genocide United Nations Observer Mission Uganda–Rwanda Text of the Resolution at undocs.org