Silsila is an Arabic word meaning chain, connection used in various senses of lineage. In particular, it may be translated as " order" or "spiritual genealogy" where one Sufi Master transfers his khilfat to his spiritual descendant; every tariqa has a silsila. Silsilas originated with the initiation of Sufi orders which dates back to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Most silsilas trace their lineage back to his cousin and son-in-law Ali bin Abi Talib such as the Qadiriyyah, the Chishtiyya, the Noorbakhshia and the Suhrawardiyyah orders. However, other silsilas owe their ancestry to other caliphs such as the Naqshbandiyyah order of South Asia is through the Caliph Abu Bakr. Centuries ago, Arabia did not have schools for formal education. Students went to masters. Upon completion of their study, they received ijazah which acted as the certification of their education. A graduate acted as a master having his own students or disciples; this chain of masters was known as lineage. Somewhat analogous to the modern situation where degrees are only accepted from recognized universities, the certification of a master having a verifiable chain of masters was the only criteria which accorded legitimacy: "Theoretically one can only receive instruction in these practices from an authorised teacher of the tariqa, only after pledging a vow of obedience to this shaikh.
The shaikh gives his disciples permission to practice the tariqa: he may authorise one or more of them to teach it to others, i.e. appoint them as his khalîfa. In this way a hierarchically ordered; each shaikh can show a chain of authorities for the tarekat he teaches, his silsila or spiritual genealogy. The silsila reaches back from one's own teacher up to the Prophet, with whom all tarekats claim to have originated although there have been modifications along the way. A Sufi's silsila is his badge of source of legitimation. All Hafiz, Qaries are given a chain of credible narrators linking to the Islamic prophet Mohammad. For Muslims, the Chain of Authenticity is an important way to ascertain the validity of a saying of Mohammad; the Chain of Authenticity relates the chain of people who have heard and repeated the saying of Mohammad through the generations, until that particular Hadith was written down. A similar idea appears in Sufism in regards to the lineage and teachings of Sufi masters and students.
This string of master to student is called a silsila meaning “chain”. The focus of the silsila like the Chain of Authenticity is to trace the lineage of a Sufi order to Mohammad through his Companions: Ali bin Abi Talib, Abu Bakr, Umar; when a Sufi order can be traced back to Mohammad through one of the three aforementioned Companions the lineage is called the Silsilat al-Dhahab or the “Chain of Gold”. In early Islamic history, gold was an desired prize and was used for currency, to show wealth and power, for scientific purposes including medicine. Thus, gold was the most desired commodity in the material world, just as the Golden Chain is the most desired commodity of Sufi orders; when Sufism began in the second century of Islam, according to some experts, it was an individual choice. This included removing oneself from society and other people in general; as Sufism became a greater movement in Islam, individual Sufis began to group together. These groups were based on a common master; this common master began spiritual lineage, a connection between a Sufi order in which there is a common spiritual heritage based on the master’s teachings called tariq or tariqah.
As the number of Sufi orders grew, there arose a need for legitimacy of the orders to establish each order was following the teachings of Mohammad directly. If a Sufi order is able to trace its student to master lineage back to one of the three major caliphs who provide a straight link to Mohammad the order is considered righteous and directly following the teachings of Mohammad. In possessing the Golden Chain, a Sufi order is able to establish their order prominently in the mystical world. Shias use it idiomatically to mean a lineage of authentic Masters. Among Chinese Muslims, the concept of silsilah has developed into that of a menhuan: a Chinese-style Sufi order whose leaders trace a lineage chain going back to the order's founder in China, beyond, toward his teachers in Arabia; the term is used as the title of royal family trees and family records of the rulers in the palaces of Java. Tariqa Isnad, Islamic System of Certification Ehrenkreutz, A. S. "ḎH̲ahab." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second edition.
Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W. P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2010. Brill Online. Augustana. 8 April 2010 "Silsila." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W. P. Heinrichs
Murāqabah refers to meditation in Sufi terminology. Through murāqbah a person watches over their heart and gains insight into the heart’s relation with its creator and its own surroundings. Murqābah is a core concept in found ṭarīqas; the objective of murāqbah is to purge one's base characters and develop lofty character in its place. The word murāqabah is derived from the base of rā-qāf-bāʿ; the base has the meaning of guarding and watching over with the expectation of noticing any change, unique qualities or abnormalities of a given thing. The word is on verb scale three, which gives a connotation of exaggeration and partnership; this implies that the one, doing murāqabah is diligent and hardworking with the expectation that someone else is doing a similar task. In ancient Arabic, the word murāqabah referred to one, they would scan the sky in hopes to see the first signs of early stars to begin their journey. Due to the intense heat and difficult terrain of the Arabian Peninsula, the ability to recognize the constellations and their seasonal divergences was a critical skill.
In the classic poem, “the observer of the night is as vigilant as a fish in search of water”. This etymology can be connected to the modern linguistical and technical meaning of what murāqabah is understood to be today. Murāqabah is seen to be both with a connotation of persistence and exertion. According to al-Qushayrī and al-Jurjānī murāqabah is for one to be aware that their lord is perpetually aware of his subordinates. Not only is the person continuously in a state of mindfulness but they are cognizant that their lord is aware as well, creating a reciprocal relation. One of the most significant sentiments of the great philosopher and theologian Al-Ghāzālī centers around God-consciousness; that is to obey him. The Creator’s eternal knowledge encompasses the ephemeral existence of mortals, from before their conception to the ages after they have passed on, his Knowledge envelops the internal and the metaphysical. He is the creator. Once one understands this, they must follow a level of etiquette and protocol which are but not limited to: Having humility and modesty Staying silent and only speaking when appropriate, as it is mentioned in the narration, “the one who believes in Allah and the last day should only speak good or stay quiet”.
Resolve to do the best that one can in every action. Rush to do good deeds and avoiding sin. To be content with what one must deal with daily. Continuous reflection on one's internal world around them. Standing up for the truth; the physical benefits of murāqabah is akin to the benefits of standard meditation. Metaphysically speaking, the intended result of murāqabah is to refrain from any actions contrary to What is obligatory. and maintain one’s mindfulness in a state that one’s Lord finds them where He is pleased with them and not one where he is displeased with them. To continue to progress in murāqabah one must be consistent for a lengthy period of time to experience the aforementioned benefits. Although it may prove difficult in the beginning, one may always regain their state of mindfulness after recognizing a change from their initial state. Here are the Maqāmāt in which Sufis have broadly categorised their journey of ascension; the categorization is an arbitrary one, each level is further divided into several sublevels.
During the process of enlightenment, some stages overlap each other. Fanāʾ Fī al-Shaykh - Become One or Annihilated in or with the Master, Teacher or Murshid Fanāʾ Fī al-Rasūl - Become One and Annihilated in or with Muhammad Fanāʾ Fī al-Qurʾān- Become One and Annihilated with or in Quran and its commandments. Fanāʾ Fī ʾilāh - Become One and Annihilated in or with God; this is the starting level of meditation. A person who starts meditation enters a somnolent or sleep state. With the passage of time, the person goes into a state between sleep and wakefulness; the person can remember seeing something but not what it is. With continuous practice of meditation, the sleepiness from meditation decreases; when the conscious mind is not suppressed by sleep and is able to focus, the person can receive the spiritual knowledge from his subconscious mind. At this stage, the person is unable to see or hear anything but is able to experience or perceive it; when Idrāk becomes deep, it is exhibited as sight. The stage of Wurūd starts when somnolence is at its minimum.
As soon as the mind is focused, the spiritual eye is activated. The conscious mind is not used to see through the spiritual eye so concentration goes; the mind gets used to this kind of visions, the mental focus is sustained. With practice, the visions/experience becomes so deep that the person starts considering himself a part of the experience rather than considering himself an observer. Kashf or ʾlhām is the stage of starting to get information that most other people are unable to observe. In the beginning, this occurs without personal control. With practice, the mind gets so energized. A person can get any information about any event/person at will; this stage is broadly categorized according to activation of the senses: The person c
İsmailağa Jamia or İsmail Ağa Jamia is a branch of the Gümüşhanevî Dergâh of Nakşibendi-Khālidī Ṭarīqah in Turkey. It takes its name from the İsmailağa Mosque in Istanbul, it is aligned with the Naqshbandi spiritual order of Sunni Islam Sufism in the silsilah of Khalidiyya and is led by Mahmut Ustaosmanoğlu, imam of the İsmailağa Mosque from 1954 to 1996. It has significant influence over daily life in few streets of Fatih, the capital district of Istanbul. However, once in 2006 a politician had described the whole district of Fatih as an "İsmailağa republic". There are communities including Erzincan. According to Ahmet Hakan Coşkun, the jamia requires strict Islamic-clothing, with members wearing beards and shalwar trousers, turbans of white muslin when praying. Women wear a face-covering Çarşaf. A number of leading Turkish politicians are associated with the wider Naqshbandi order; this might explain how the wire-tapping ordered by public prosecutor İlhan Cihaner in 2007 to 2009 in relation to İsmailağa included Erdoğan.
Their most famous imam is Ahmet Mahmut Ünlü. In the 1990s the group sent missionaries to parts of the Caucasus, trained people at its madrassa in the İsmailağa Mosque; the work continued more after new restrictions on religious activities in Turkey 1997. The İsmailağa Jamia came to wider public attention in Turkey through three murders committed in the İsmailağa Mosque - the son-in-law of Mahmut Ustaosmanoğlu in 1998 and in 2006 a retired imam and the man who stabbed him, lynched. From 2007 to 2009 the local Chief Public Prosecutor in Erzincan, İlhan Cihaner, investigated the community and ordered wire-tapping after reports of the community offering unauthorised Koran courses and preventing girls from attending school. Www.ismailaga.org.tr Picture series of the mosque
Bektashi Order or Shī‘ah Imāmī Alevī-Bektāshī Ṭarīqah is a Sufi dervish order named after the 13th century Alevi Wali Haji Bektash Veli from Khorasan, but founded by Balım Sultan. The order, whose headquarters is in Tirana, Albania, is found throughout Anatolia and the Balkans, was strong in Albania and among Ottoman era Greek Muslims from the regions of Epirus and Macedonia. However, the Bektashi order does not seem to have attracted quite as many adherents from among Bosnian Muslims, who tended to favor more mainstream Sunni orders such as the Naqshbandiyya and Qadiriyya; the order represents the official ideology of Bektashism. In addition to the spiritual teachings of Haji Bektash Veli, the Bektashi order was significantly influenced during its formative period by the Hurufis, the Qalandariyya stream of Sufism, to varying degrees the Shia beliefs circulating in Anatolia during the 14th to 16th centuries; the mystical practices and rituals of the Bektashi order were systematized and structured by Balım Sultan in the 16th century after which many of the order's distinct practices and beliefs took shape.
A large number of academics consider Bektashism to have fused a number of Shia and Sufi concepts, although the order contains rituals and doctrines that are distinct. Throughout its history Bektashis have always had wide appeal and influence among both the Ottoman intellectual elite as well as the peasantry; the Bektashi Order is a Sufi order and shares much in common with other Islamic mystical movements, such as the need for an experienced spiritual guide—called a baba in Bektashi parlance — as well as the doctrine of "the four gates that must be traversed": the "Sharia", "Tariqah", "Marifa", "Haqiqah". Bektashism places much emphasis on the concept of Wahdat-ul-Wujood وحدة الوجود, the "Unity of Being", formulated by Ibn Arabi; this has been labeled as pantheism, although it is a concept closer to panentheism. Bektashism is heavily permeated with Shiite concepts, such as the marked reverence of Ali, The Twelve Imams, the ritual commemoration of Ashurah marking the Battle of Karbala; the old Persian holiday of Nowruz is celebrated by Bektashis as Imam Ali's birthday.
In keeping with the central belief of Wahdat-ul-Wujood the Bektashi see reality contained in Haqq-Muhammad-Ali, a single unified entity. Bektashi do not consider this a form of trinity. There are many other practices and ceremonies that share similarity with other faiths, such as a ritual meal and yearly confession of sins to a baba. Bektashis base their practices and rituals on their non-orthodox and mystical interpretation and understanding of the Quran and the prophetic practice, they have no written doctrine specific to them, thus rules and rituals may differ depending on under whose influence one has been taught. Bektashis revere Sufi mystics outside of their own order, such as Ibn Arabi, Al-Ghazali and Jelalludin Rumi who are close in spirit to them. Bektashis hold that the Quran has two levels of meaning: an inner, they hold the latter to be superior and eternal and this is reflected in their understanding of both the universe and humanity. Bektashism is initiatic and members must traverse various levels or ranks as they progress along the spiritual path to the Reality.
First level members are called aşıks عاشق. They are those who, while not having taken initiation into the order, are drawn to it. Following initiation one becomes a mühip محب. After some time as a mühip, one can become a dervish; the next level above dervish is that of baba. The baba is considered to be the head of a qualified to give spiritual guidance. Above the baba is the rank of halife-baba. Traditionally there were twelve of these; the dedebaba was considered to be the highest ranking authority in the Bektashi Order. Traditionally the residence of the dedebaba was the Pir Evi, located in the shrine of Hajji Bektash Wali in the central Anatolian town of Hacıbektaş, known as Hajibektash complex; the Bektashi are the disciples of some of his descendants. The Bektashi order was widespread in the Ottoman Empire, their lodges being scattered throughout Anatolia as well as many parts of the southern Balkans and in the imperial city of Constantinople; the order had close ties with the Janissary corps, the elite infantry corp of the Ottoman Army, therefore became associated with Anatolian and Balkan Muslims of Eastern Orthodox convert origin Albanians and northern Greeks.
With the abolition of Janissaries, the Bektashi order was banned throughout the Ottoman Empire by Sultan Mahmud II in 1826. This decision was supported by the Sunni religious elite as well as the leaders of other, more orthodox, Sufi orders. Bektashi tekkes were closed and their dervishes were exiled. Bektashis regained freedom with the coming of the Tanzimat era. After the foundation of republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk banned all Sufi orders and shut down the lodges in 1925; the Bektashi leadership moved to Albania and established their headquarters in the city of Tirana. Among the most famous follower
Dhikr are devotional acts in Islam in which short phrases or prayers are recited silently within the mind or aloud. It can be counted through fingers of the hand. A person who recites the Dhikr is called a ḏākir. Tasbih is a form of dhikr; the content of the prayers includes a duʿāʾ taken from the hadith or the Quran. There are several verses in the Quran that emphasize the importance of remembering the will of God by saying phrases such as "God willing," "God knows best," and "If it is your will.' This is the basis for dhikr. Sura 18, ayah 24 states a person who forgets to say, "God Willing," should remember God by saying, "May my Lord guide me to do better next time." Other verses include sura 33, ayah 41, "O ye who believe! Celebrate the praises of Allah, do this often," and sura 13, ayah 28, "They are the ones whose hearts rejoice in remembering God. By remembering God, the hearts rejoice." Muhammad said,'The best is La ilaha illa’llah, the best supplicatory prayer is Al-hamdu li’llah. Muslims believe dhikr is one of the best ways to enter the higher level of Heaven and to glorify the Oneness of Allah.
To Sufis, dhikr is seen as a way to gain spiritual enlightenment and achieve union or annihilation in God. All Muslim sects endorse individual rosaries as a method of meditation, the goal of, to obtain a feeling of peace, separation from worldly values, and, in general, strengthen Iman. There are several phrases that are read when remembering Allah. Here are a few: Allāh- الله is the Arabic word for God and mentioned in Quran most of the verses. Allāhu ʾakbar - الله أَكْبَر means "God is greater" or "God is the greatest" Subhan Allah - سبحان الله means "Glory be to God" or "How pure is God" or "Exalted be God" Alhamdulillah - الحمد لله means "All praise is due to God", an expression of gratitude Lā ʾilāha ʾillā llah - لا إله إلا الله means "There is no god but Allah" Lā ḥawla wa-lā quwwata ʾillā bi-llāh - لا حول ولاقوة إلا بالله means "There is no power or strength except with God." Bi-smi llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm - means "In the name of God, the gracious, the merciful", said before anything of spiritual significance.
Audhubillah - means "I seek refuge in Allah". Laa ilaaha illal laahu wahdahoo laa sharikalahoo lahul mulku wa lahul hamdu wa huwa'alaa kulli shai'in qadeer - means "There is no god but Allah, without partner, his is the sovereignty, His the praise, He has power over everything". SubhanAllah wa biHamdihi - means "Glory be to Allah and Praise Him". SubhanAllahi wa biHamdihi, Subhan-Allahi'l-`adheem Some of these can be said together.e.g- Subhan'Allahi wal hamdulillaahi wa laa ilaaha ilallaahu wAllahu Akbar - means "Glory be to Allah, All Praise is for Allah, There is No God but Allah, Allah is the Greatest". Subhan'Allahi wal hamdulillaahi wa laa ilaaha ilallaahu wAllahu Akbar wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa billaahil'aleeul azeem. Laa ilaaha illal laahu wahdahoo laa sharikalahoo lahul mulku wa lahul hamdu wa huwa'alaa kulli shai'in qadeer - means "There is No God But Allah Alone, who has no partner, his is the dominion and His is the raise, He is Able to do all things". Subhan'Allahi wal hamdulillaahi wa laa ilaaha ilallaahu wAllahu Akbar wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa billaahil'aleeul azeem.
Laa ilaaha illa Anta, subhaanaka inni kuntu min al-zaalimeen. Reciting the Quran sincerely is considered a kind of Dhikr. E.g.- Reciting Sura Ikhlas / Tawheed is equal to one-third of the Quran. Reciting Sura Ikhlas 10 times gives a palace in Heaven. Reciting Sura Kaafiroon is equal to one-fourth of the Quran. Reciting Sura Nasr is equal to one-fourth of the Quran. Reciting Sura Zalzalah is equal to half of the Quran. "Shall I tell you about the best of deeds, the most pure in the Sight of your Lord, about the one, of the highest order and is far better for you than spending gold and silver better for you than meeting your enemies in the battlefield where you strike at their necks and they at yours?" The companions replied, "Yes, O Messenger ﷺ of Allah!" He replied, "Remembrance of Allah ﷻ". "People will not sit in an assembly in which they remember Allah ﷻ without the angels surrounding them, mercy covering them, Allah ﷻ Mentioning them among those who are with Him" “There is nothing, a greater cause of salvation from the punishment of Allah than the remembrance of Allah" Hadhrat Mu`adh ibn Jabal said that the Prophet ﷺ said: "The People of Paradise will not regret except one thing alone: the hour that passed them by and in which they made no remembrance of Allah ﷻ."
It is mentioned in hadith that where people are oblivious to dhikir, remembrance of Allah is like being steadfast in jihad when others are running away. Followers of Sufism engage in ritualized dhikr ceremonies, the details of which sometimes vary between Sufi orders or tariqah; each order, or lineage within an order, has one or more forms for group dhikr, the liturgy of which may include recitation, music, d
Sufi whirling is a form of physically active meditation which originated among Sufis, and, still practiced by the Sufi Dervishes of the Mevlevi order and other orders such as the Rifa'i-Marufi. It is a customary meditation practice performed within the Sema, or worship ceremony, through which dervishes aim to reach the source of all perfection, or kamal; this is sought through abandoning one's nafs, egos or personal desires, by listening to the music, focusing on God, spinning one's body in repetitive circles, seen as a symbolic imitation of planets in the Solar System orbiting the sun. The Mevlevi practice gave rise to an Egyptian form, distinguished by the use of a multicolored skirt; this has developed into a performance dance by non-Sufis, including dancers outside the Islamic world. "In the 12th century, Sufi fraternities were first organized as an established leadership in which a member followed a prescribed discipline in service to a sheikh or master in order to establish rapport with him."
A member of such a fraternity is referred to as a Persian darwish. These turuk were responsible for organizing an Islamic expression of religious life founded by independent saints or resulted from the division of existing orders; each Sufi tariqa stems from a unique silsila, or "chain of order" in which a member must learn, as the silsila binds each member to Allah through one's chain of order. One's silsila extends through the member's individual teacher, to their teacher and so on, through time until one is connected to the Prophet and thus Allah; the Prophet himself is revered as the originator of Sufism, which has in turn been traced down through a series of saints. A dervish practices multiple rituals, the primary of, the dhikr, a remembering of Allah; the dhikr involves recitation of devotional Islamic prayer. This dhikr is coupled with physical exertions of movement dancing and whirling, in order to reach a state assumed by outsiders to be one of "ecstatic trances"; as explained by Sufis: In the symbolism of the Sema ritual, the semazen's camel's hair hat represents the tombstone of the ego.
By removing his black cloak, he is spiritually reborn to the truth. At the beginning of the Sema, by holding his arms crosswise, the semazen appears to represent the number one, thus testifying to God's unity. While whirling, his arms are open: his right arm is directed to the sky, ready to receive God's beneficence; the semazen conveys God's spiritual gift to those. Revolving from right to left around the heart, the semazen embraces all humanity with love; the human being has been created with love. Mevlâna Jalâluddîn Rumi says, "All loves are a bridge to Divine love. Yet, those who have not had a taste of it do not know!" Among the Mevlevi order, the practice of dhikr is performed in a traditional dress: a tennure, a sleeveless white frock, the destegul, a long sleeved jacket, a belt, a black overcoat or khirqa to be removed before the whirling begins. As the ritual dance begins, the dervish dons a felt cap, a sikke, in addition to a turban wrapped around the head, a trademark of the Mevlevi order.
The sheikh leads the ritual with strict regulations. To begin, The sheikh stands in the most honored corner of the dancing place, the dervishes pass by him three times, each time exchanging greetings, until the circling movement starts; the rotation itself is on the left foot, the center of the rotation being the ball of the left foot and the whole surface of the foot staying in contact with the floor. The impetus for the rotation is provided in a full 360-degree step. If a dervish should become too enraptured, another Sufi, in charge of the orderly performance, will touch his frock in order to curb his movement, The dance of the dervishes is one of the most impressive features of the mystical life in Islam, the music accompanying it is of exquisite beauty, beginning with the great hymn in honor of the Prophet and ending with short, enthusiastic songs, some things sung in Turkish; the Western world, having witnessed Sufi whirling through tourism, have described the various forms of dhikr as "barking, dancing, etc."
The practice of each tariqa is unique to its individual order, specific traditions and customs may differ across countries. The same tariqa in one country will not mirror that of another country as each order's ritual stresses "emotional religious life" in various forms; the Mevleviyah order, like many others, practice the dhikr by performing a whirling meditation. Accompanying the dhikr practices of whirling and prayer, the custom of sama serves to further one's "nourishment of the soul" through devotional "hearing" of the "'subtle' sounds of the hidden world or of the cosmos." In contrast to the use of sama and devotional prayer in the practice of dhikr, the tariqa orders perform Sufi whirling in addition to playing musical instruments, consuming glowing embers, live scorpions and glass, puncturing body parts with needles and spikes, or practicing clairvoyance and levitation. The dervish practice can be performed by community residents or lay members, members have been those of lower classes.
Within Islamic faith, unlike Middle Eastern law, women have equal status to men, allowing women to participate in dhikr as dervishes themselves. Women were received into a tariqa order by a male sheikh
A fakir, or faqir, derived from faqr is a Sufi Muslim ascetic who has taken vows of poverty and worship, renouncing all relations and possessions. Fakirs are prevalent in the Middle South Asia. A fakir only possesses the spiritual need for God. Faqirs are characterized by their attachment to dhikr. Sufism gained adherents among a number of Muslims as a reaction against the worldliness of the early Umayyad Caliphate. Though, Sufis have spanned several continents and cultures over a millennium expressing their beliefs in Arabic, before spreading into Persian, Indian languages and a dozen other languages; the term is applied to Hindu ascetics. These usages developed in the Mughal era in the Indian subcontinent. There is a distinct clan of faqirs found in North India, descended from communities of faqirs who took up residence at Sufi shrines. During the 17th century, another noble and spirited Muslim scholar and saint, Sultan Bahoo, revolutionized Sufism and reinstated the definition of faqr and faqir.
The terms tasawwuf and faqer were first used by Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad. He wrote a book, Mirat ul Arfeen, on this topic, said to be the first book on Sufism and tasawwuf. However, under Ummayad rule, neither could this book be published nor was it allowed to discuss tasawwuf, Sufism or faqr openly. For a long time, after Husayn ibn Ali, the information and teachings of faqr and Sufism kept on transferring from heart to heart. In the 10th century reputed Muslim Abdul-Qadir Gilani, the founder of Qadri silsila, which has the most followers in Muslim Sufism, elaborated Sufism and faqr. In the 13th century, Ibn Arabi was the first vibrant Muslim scholar who not only started this discussion publicly but wrote hundreds of books about Sufism and faqr. In English, faqir or fakir meant a mendicant dervish. In mystical usage, the word fakir refers to man's spiritual need for God, who alone is self-sufficient. Although of Muslim origin, the term has come to be applied in India to Hindus as well replacing gosvamin, sadhu and other designations.
Fakirs are regarded as holy men who are possessed of miraculous powers. Among Muslims, the leading Sufi orders of fakirs are the Shadhiliyyah, Qadiriyah and Suhrawardiyah; the Cambridge English Dictionary defines faqir as "a member of an Islamic religious group, or a holy man". Winston Churchill is known to have referred to the peaceful resistance promoting independence leader of India, Mahatma Gandhi, as a "seditious fakir"; the attributes of a fakir have been defined by scholars. The early Muslim saint, Abdul-Qadir Gilani, defined Sufism and faqr in a conclusive manner. Explaining the attributes of a fakir, he says, "faqir is not who can not do anything and is nothing in his self-being, but faqir has all the commanding powers and his orders can not be revoked."Ibn Arabi explained Sufism, including faqr, in more details. He wrote more than 500 books on the topic, he was the first Muslim scholar to introduce the idea of Wahdat al-wujud. His writings are considered a solid source, that defied timeAnother dignified Muslim saint, Sultan Bahoo, describes a fakir as one "who has been entrusted with full authority from Allah".
In the same book, Sultan Bahoo says, "Faqir attains eternity by dissolving himself in oneness of Allah. He, eliminates himself from other than Allah, his soul reaches to divinity." He says. First step he takes from eternity to this mortal world, second step from this finite world to hereafter and last step he takes from hereafter to manifestation of Allah." In the Fourth Way teaching of G. I. Gurdjieff the word fakir is used to denote the physical path of development, as opposed to the words yogi and monk; the Fakir and Goshai was with the stronger religious influence, there are Bauls who would shave their heads as in their past and kept on practicing and believing in many of the basic creeds of Vaishnava-Sahajiya. So all followers of different religions and religious practices came under the nomenclature Baul, which has its etymological origin in the Sanskrit words Vatula, or Vyakula and used for someone, possessed or crazy, they were known as performers'mad' in a worshiping trance of joy - transcending above both good and bad.
Though fond of both Hinduism and Islam, the Baul evolved into a religion focused on the individual and centered on a spiritual quest for God from within. They believe the soul. Dervish Ghous-e-Azam Ibn Arabi Madariyya Mirin Dajo Qalandariyya Sai Baba of Shirdi Shramana Sultan Bahoo Yogi Monk List of Books of Sultan Bahoo Ibn Arabi Books