Silifke is a town and district in south-central Mersin Province, Turkey,80 km west of the city of Mersin, on the west end of Çukurova. Silifke is near the Mediterranean coast, on the banks of the Göksu River, Silifke was formerly called Seleucia on the Calycadnus — variously cited over the centuries as Seleucia Cilicia, Seleucia Isauria, Seleucia Trachea, and Seleucia Tracheotis —. The city took its name from its founder, King Seleucus I Nicator, the ancient Greek city of Olba was within the boundaries of modern-day Silifke. The modern name is a corruption of the Latin Seleucia, the economy of the district depends on agriculture and raising livestock. The town of Silifke is as a market for the plain, which produces beans, sesame, orange, cotton, lentils, tobacco. An irrigation project located at Silifke supplies the fertile Göksu delta, in recent years there has been a large investment in glasshouses for producing strawberries and other fruit and vegetables in the winter season. Silifke is a town, well-connected with other urban areas and producing beverages, clothes, glass, pottery.
Silifke has a climate with hot and dry summers and mild. It is probable there were already towns called Olbia and Hyria. The city grew to include the settlement of Holmi which had been established earlier as an Ionian colony but being on the coast was vulnerable to raiders. Cilicia thrived as a province of the Romans, and Seleucia became a center with a renowned 2nd century Temple of Jupiter. It was the site of a school of philosophy and literature. The stone bridge was built by the governor L. Octavius Memor in 77 AD, around 300 AD Isauria was established as an independent state with Seleucia as the capital. Early Christian bishops held a Council of Seleucia in 325,359, in the 5th century the imperial governor in residence at Seleucia had two legions at his disposal, the Legio II Isaura and the Legio III Isaura. From this period, and perhaps later, dates the Christian necropolis, west of the town, according to the Notitia Episcopatuum of Antioch, in the 6th century, the Metropolitan of Seleucia had twenty-four suffragan sees.
In 705 Seleucia was captured by the Arab armies of Islam and was recovered by the Byzantines, in the Notitiae of Leo VI the Wise Seleucia had 22 suffragan bishoprics, in that of Constantine Porphyrogenitus it had 23. In 968 Antioch again fell into the power of the Byzantines, in the 11th century, the city was captured by the Seljuk Turks, they met with resistance and in 1137, Seleucia was besieged by Leon of Cilician Armenia. During this period of struggle between Armenians, Byzantines and Turks a stronghold was built on the heights overlooking the city, on June 10,1190, the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa was drowned trying to cross the Calycadnus, near Seleucia during the Third Crusade
Port of Mersin
The Port of Mersin, aka Mersin International Port, is a major port located on the north-eastern coast of Mediterranean Sea at Mersin in southern Turkey. It is the second largest port after Ambarli, near Istanbul. Owned by the Turkish State Railways, its right is transferred on May 11,2007 to PSA – Akfen consortium for a period of 36 years. The ports rail connection brings heavy freight traffic to Mersin. The railway infrastructure within the Port of Mersin is one of the best in Turkey with Derince, containers can be handled without any need of shunting. 5 of the berths has railway connection, where loading/unloading to/from vessels can be done directly, the port has bulk cargo, container, Ro-Ro and oil terminals
According to some, the first kaymakam in history was ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib, who is supposed to have been appointed by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, as the first rightful caliph. Thus, ‘Alī was considered to be serving in the place of Muhammad, in this context, the word may be spelled caimacam, while the Romanian term for the office is căimăcămie. Similarly, three ruling native hakims of the emirate of Kuwait, were Kaymakam of a kazas in the same province,1871 till a British protectorate. The practice began in the 16th century, or perhaps even earlier, the kaymakam enjoyed the full plenitude of powers of the Grand Vizier, but was not allowed to intervene in the conduct of the military campaigns. In the last decades of the Empire, the post of kaymakam was filled by the members of the imperial cabinet, the modernization and Westernization reforms instituted in the 19th century added new meanings to the term. With the establishment of the regular Asakir-i Mansure-i Muhammediye troops in 1826, kaymakam became a rank in the Ottoman army, equivalent to a lieutenant colonel.
It remained in use throughout the century of the Empire, and continued in use in the Turkish Republic until the 1930s. The system was retained by modern Turkey, where a sub-province is still headed by a kaymakam, the rank is attested in use with a British officer commanding the Equatorial Battalion in East Africa,1918, Kaimakam R F White DSO who was an officer of the Essex Regiment. Subdivisions of the Ottoman Empire WorldStatesMen. org, see present nations
Toroslar is a municipality and district governorate in Greater Mersin, Turkey. Mersin is one of 30 metropolitan centers in Turkey with more than one municipality within city borders, now in Mersin there are four second-level municipalities in addition to Greater Mersin municipality. The mayor of Toroslar is Hamit Tuna ), Toroslar composes the northern quarters of Mersin at about 36°49′N 34°37′E. The sister municipality of Akdeniz lies in the south, müftü River and the sister municipality of Yenişehir lie in the south west. Southern slopes of Toros mountains lie in the north, the ruins of one of the earliest human settlements in Anatolia is in Toroslar. Excavations by John Garstang and Seton Lloyd both of which were directors of the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, revealed 23 levels of occupation, the site however was abandoned during Byzantine Empire period. Modern settlement began in the 19th century, originally a part of Mersin municipality, the municipality of Toroslar was established in 1993 as a secondary level municipality and the corresponding district governorate was established in 2008.
According to 2011 figures the population of Toroslar is 253,446, approximately, %30 of Mersin citizens live in Toroslar. There are 32 villages and five towns in the area of Toroslar. Mersin Mersin province Akdeniz Mezitli Yenişehir Mersin Interfaith Cemetery Mersin Bus Station
The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning inland or in the middle of land and it covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, but its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. The Strait of Gibraltar is a strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar. In oceanography, it is called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The Mediterranean Sea has a depth of 1,500 m. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia and it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, the seas average north-south length, from Croatia’s southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has an area of approximately 2,510,000 square km.
The sea was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade, the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri, the term Mediterranean derives from the Latin word mediterraneus, meaning amid the earth or between land, as it is between the continents of Africa and Europe. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, between + γη, earth) and it can be compared with the Ancient Greek name Mesopotamia, meaning between rivers. The Mediterranean Sea has historically had several names, for example, the Carthaginians called it the Syrian Sea and latter Romans commonly called it Mare Nostrum, and occasionally Mare Internum. Another name was the Sea of the Philistines, from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites, the sea is called the Great Sea in the General Prologue by Geoffrey Chaucer.
In Ottoman Turkish, it has been called Bahr-i Sefid, in Modern Hebrew, it has been called HaYam HaTikhon, the Middle Sea, reflecting the Seas name in ancient Greek and modern languages in both Europe and the Middle East. Similarly, in Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ, in Turkish, it is known as Akdeniz, the White Sea since among Turks the white colour represents the west. Several ancient civilisations were located around the Mediterranean shores, and were influenced by their proximity to the sea. It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages, due to the shared climate and access to the sea, cultures centered on the Mediterranean tended to have some extent of intertwined culture and history. Two of the most notable Mediterranean civilisations in classical antiquity were the Greek city states, when Augustus founded the Roman Empire, the Romans referred to the Mediterranean as Mare Nostrum
Free economic zone
Free economic zones, free economic territories or free zones are a class of special economic zone designated by the trade and commerce administrations of various countries. The term is used to designate areas in which companies are taxed very lightly or not at all to encourage economic activity, the taxation rules are determined by each country. The World Trade Organization Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures has content on the conditions, some special economic zones are called free ports. Sometimes they have historically been endowed with favorable customs regulations such as the port of Trieste. In recent years the port system has been accused of facilitating international art crime. An early type of special economic zone was free ports, these historically were endowed with favorable customs regulations such as the port of Trieste. In modern times free port has come to mean a type of special economic zone
Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. Turkey is a democratic, unitary, parliamentary republic with a cultural heritage. The country is encircled by seas on three sides, the Aegean Sea is to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, Ankara is the capital while Istanbul is the countrys largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Approximately 70-80% of the countrys citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks, other ethnic groups include legally recognised and unrecognised minorities. Kurds are the largest ethnic minority group, making up approximately 20% of the population, the area of Turkey has been inhabited since the Paleolithic by various ancient Anatolian civilisations, as well as Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. After Alexander the Greats conquest, the area was Hellenized, a process continued under the Roman Empire.
The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, the empire reached the peak of its power in the 16th century, especially during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. During the war, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states. Turkey is a member of the UN, an early member of NATO. Turkeys growing economy and diplomatic initiatives have led to its recognition as a regional power while her location has given it geopolitical, the name of Turkey is based on the ethnonym Türk. The first recorded use of the term Türk or Türük as an autonym is contained in the Old Turkic inscriptions of the Göktürks of Central Asia, the English name Turkey first appeared in the late 14th century and is derived from Medieval Latin Turchia. Similarly, the medieval Khazar Empire, a Turkic state on the shores of the Black.
The medieval Arabs referred to the Mamluk Sultanate as al-Dawla al-Turkiyya, the Ottoman Empire was sometimes referred to as Turkey or the Turkish Empire among its European contemporaries. The Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world, various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period. Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family, in fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated. The European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty years ago. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date, the settlement of Troy started in the Neolithic Age and continued into the Iron Age
Müftü River is a short river in Mersin Province, Turkey. It was originally called Efrenk River, after a mosque named Müftü Mosque was built by the river in Mersin, it was popularly renamed Müftü River. The headwaters are in the Toros Mountains, near the town of Arslanköy, the river runs east and south, flowing to the Mediterranean Sea within the city of Mersin at 36°47′06″N 34°37′16″E. In fact the river is the borderline between the second level municipalities of Mersin, Yenişehir is to the west and Akdeniz and Toroslar are to the east of the river, there are five bridges within Mersin and one on the Çukurova motorway just north of the city. The drainage basin is only 480 square kilometres in area, but the altitudes of the headwaters are about 1,500 metres. Like the other locations of the Mediterranean Region annual precipitation is mostly in the spring, so the flow rate is highly irregular depending on the season. While the average rate is quite low,303 m3/s had been recorded during the flood of 2001.
Arslanköy pond is a pond on the upper reaches of the river. The storage capacity is 1.3 hm3 and the irrigation area is about 1.78 km2
Mersin is a large city and a port on the Mediterranean coast of southern Turkey. It is part of an interurban agglomeration – the Adana-Mersin Metropolitan Area – and lies on the part of Çukurova, a geographical, economical. Mersins nickname within Turkey is Pearl of the Mediterranean and the city hosted the 2013 Mediterranean Games, Mersin is the provincial capital of the eponymous Mersin Province of Turkey. As of 2014, the population of the city is 1,071,703 and this coast has been inhabited since the 9th millennium BC. Excavations by John Garstang of the hill of Yumuktepe have revealed 23 levels of occupation, fortifications were put up around 4500 BC, but the site appears to have been abandoned between 350 BC and 300 BC. In subsequent centuries, the city became a part of states and civilizations including the Hittites, Persians, Greeks. During the Ancient Greek period, the city bore the name Zephyrion and was mentioned by ancient authors. Apart from its harbor and strategic position along the trade routes of southern Anatolia.
Ancient sources attributed the best molybdenum to the city, which minted its own coins. The area became a part of the Roman province of Cilicia, the city, whose name was Latinized to Zephyrium, was renamed as Hadrianopolis in honor of the Roman emperor Hadrian. After the death of the emperor Theodosius I in 395 and the subsequent permanent division of the Roman Empire, the city was an episcopal see under the Patriarchate of Antioch. The bishopric is included in the Catholic Churchs list of titular sees, the area of Cilicia was conquered by the Arabs in the early 7th century, by which time it appears it was a deserted site. During the American Civil War, the became a major supplier of cotton to make up for the high demand due to shortage. Railroads were extended to Mersin in 1866 from where cotton was exported by sea, in 1909, Mersins port hosted 645 steamships and 797,433 tons of goods. Before World War I, Mersin exported mainly sesame seeds, cottonseed and cereals, cotton was exported to Europe, grain to Turkey, and livestock to Egypt.
Coal was the most prevalent import into Mersin at this time, messageries Maritimes was the largest shipping line to use the port at Mersin. In 1918, Mersin was occupied by French and British troops in accordance with the Treaty of Sevrès and it was recovered by the Turkish army in 1920. In 1924, Mersin was made a province, and in 1933 Mersin, as of 1920, Mersin had five piers at its port, with one privately owned by a railroad company serving Mersin and Adana
A cement is a binder, a substance used in construction that sets and adheres to other materials, binding them together. Cement is seldom used solely, but is used to bind sand, Cement is used with fine aggregate to produce mortar for masonry, or with sand and gravel aggregates to produce concrete. Non-hydraulic cement will not set in wet conditions or underwater, rather, it sets as it dries and it is resistant to attack by chemicals after setting. Hydraulic cements set and become adhesive due to a reaction between the dry ingredients and water. The chemical reaction results in mineral hydrates that are not very water-soluble and so are quite durable in water and this allows setting in wet condition or underwater and further protects the hardened material from chemical attack. The chemical process for hydraulic cement found by ancient Romans used volcanic ash with added lime, the word cement can be traced back to the Roman term opus caementicium, used to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder.
The volcanic ash and pulverized brick supplements that were added to the burnt lime, to obtain a hydraulic binder, were referred to as cementum, cimentum, cäment. In modern times, organic polymers are used as cements in concrete. Non-hydraulic cement, such as slaked lime, hardens by carbonation in the presence of carbon dioxide which is present in the air. The carbonation reaction requires the dry cement to be exposed to air and this whole process is called the lime cycle. Conversely, hydraulic cement hardens by hydration when water is added, Hydraulic cements are made of a mixture of silicates and oxides, the four main components being, Alite, Tricalcium aluminate, Brownmillerite. The chemistry of the above listed reactions is not completely clear and is still the object of research, chemically speaking, is a product that includes lime as the primary curing ingredient, but is far from the first material used for cementation. The Babylonians and Assyrians used bitumen to bind together burnt brick or alabaster slabs, in Egypt stone blocks were cemented together with a mortar made of sand and roughly burnt gypsum, which often contained calcium carbonate.
Lime was used on Crete and by the ancient Greeks, there is evidence that the Minoans of Crete used crushed potshards as an artificial pozzolan for hydraulic cement. A kind of powder which from natural causes produces astonishing results and it is found in the neighborhood of Baiae and in the country belonging to the towns round about Mt. Vesuvius. This substance when mixed with lime and rubble not only lends strength to buildings of other kinds, the Greeks used volcanic tuff from the island of Thera as their pozzolan and the Romans used crushed volcanic ash with lime. This mixture was able to set under water increasing its resistance, the material was called pozzolana from the town of Pozzuoli, west of Naples where volcanic ash was extracted. In the absence of ash, the Romans used powdered brick or pottery as a substitute