Harry Andrew Blackmun was an American lawyer and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1970 until 1994. Appointed by Republican President Richard Nixon, Blackmun became one of the most liberal justices on the Court, he is best known as the author of the Court's opinion in Roe v. Wade, which prohibits many state and federal restrictions on abortion. Raised in Saint Paul, Blackmun graduated from Harvard Law School in 1932, he practiced law in Minneapolis, representing clients such as the Mayo Clinic. In 1959, he was appointed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. After the defeat of two previous nominees, President Richard Nixon nominated Blackmun to the Supreme Court to replace Associate Justice Abe Fortas. Blackmun and his close friend, conservative Chief Justice Warren Burger, were referred to as the "Minnesota Twins," but Blackmun drifted away from Burger during their tenure on the court.
Blackmun retired from the Court during the administration of President Bill Clinton, was succeeded by Stephen Breyer. Aside from Roe v. Wade, notable majority opinions written by Blackmun include Bates v. State Bar of Arizona, Bigelow v. Commonwealth of Virginia, Stanton v. Stanton, he joined part of Justice Sandra Day O'Connor's opinion in Planned Parenthood v. Casey but filed a separate opinion, warning that Roe was in jeopardy, he wrote dissenting opinions in notable cases such as Furman v. Georgia, Bowers v. Hardwick, DeShaney v. Winnebago County. Harry Blackmun was born in Illinois, to Theo Huegely and Corwin Manning Blackmun. Three years his baby brother, Corwin Manning Blackmun, Jr. died soon after birth. Blackmun grew up in Dayton's Bluff, a working-class neighborhood in Saint Paul, Minnesota, he attended the same grade school as future Chief Justice Warren E. Burger, with whom he served on the Supreme Court for some sixteen years, he attended Harvard University on scholarship, earning an Artium Baccalaureus degree summa cum laude in mathematics and graduating Phi Beta Kappa in 1929.
While at Harvard, Blackmun sang with the Harvard Glee Club. He attended Harvard Law School, graduating with a Bachelor of Laws in 1932, he served in a variety of positions including private counsel, law clerk, adjunct faculty at the University of Minnesota Law School and William Mitchell College of Law. Blackmun's practice as an attorney at the law firm now known as Dorsey & Whitney focused in its early years on taxation and estates, civil litigation, he married Dorothy Clark in 1941 and had three daughters with her, Nancy and Susan. Between 1950 and 1959, Blackmun served as resident counsel for the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, he would describe his time at Mayo as "his happiest time". In the late 1950s, Blackmun's close friend Warren E. Burger an appellate judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit encouraged Blackmun to seek a judgeship. Judge John B. Sanborn Jr. of the Eighth Circuit, whom Blackmun had clerked for after graduating from Harvard, told Blackmun of his plans to assume senior status.
He said that he would suggest Blackmun's name to the Eisenhower administration if Blackmun wished to succeed him. After much urging by Sanborn and Burger, Blackmun agreed to accept the nomination, duly offered by Eisenhower and members of the Justice Department. Blackmun was nominated by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on August 18, 1959, to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit vacated by Judge John B. Sanborn Jr; the American Bar Association Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary gave him an high rating of "exceptionally well qualified", he was confirmed by the United States Senate on September 14, 1959, received his commission on September 21, 1959. Over the next decade, Blackmun would author 217 opinions for the Eighth Circuit, his service terminated on June 1970, due to his elevation to the Supreme Court. Blackmun was nominated to the Supreme Court by President Richard Nixon on April 14, 1970, was confirmed by the United States Senate on May 12, 1970, by a 94–0 vote.
He received his commission on May 14, 1970 and took the oath of office on June 9, 1970. Blackmun was Nixon's third choice to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of Abe Fortas on May 14, 1969, his confirmation followed contentious battles over two previous, failed nominations forwarded by Nixon in 1969–1970, those of Clement Haynsworth and G. Harrold Carswell. Nixon's original choice, Lewis F. Powell Jr. turned him down but joined the Court in 1972. Blackmun served as Circuit Justice for the Eighth Circuit from June 9, 1970 to August 2, 1994 and for the First Circuit from August 7, 1990 to October 8, 1990. Blackmun, a lifelong Republican, was expected to adhere to a conservative interpretation of the Constitution; the Court's Chief Justice at the time, Warren Burger, a long-time friend of Blackmun's and best man at his wedding, had recommended Blackmun for the job to Nixon. The two were referred to as the "Minnesota Twins" because of their common history in Minnesota and because they so voted together.
Indeed, Blackmun voted with
William Hubbs Rehnquist was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States for 33 years, first as an Associate Justice from 1972 to 1986, as the 16th Chief Justice of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2005. Considered a conservative, Rehnquist favored a conception of federalism that emphasized the Tenth Amendment's reservation of powers to the states. Under this view of federalism, the court, for the first time since the 1930s, struck down an act of Congress as exceeding its power under the Commerce Clause. Born in Shorewood, Rehnquist pursued a legal career in Phoenix, Arizona after graduating from Stanford Law School, he clerked for Associate Justice Robert H. Jackson during the Supreme Court's 1952–1953 term and served as a legal adviser for Republican presidential nominee Barry Goldwater in the 1964 election. In 1969, President Richard Nixon appointed Rehnquist as Assistant Attorney General of the Office of Legal Counsel. In 1971, Nixon nominated Rehnquist to succeed Associate Justice John Marshall Harlan II, Rehnquist won Senate confirmation that same year.
Rehnquist established himself as the most conservative member of the Burger Court. In 1986, President Ronald Reagan nominated Rehnquist to succeed retiring Chief Justice Warren Burger, Rehnquist again won Senate confirmation. Rehnquist served as Chief Justice for nearly 19 years, making him the fourth-longest-serving Chief Justice, the eighth-longest-serving Justice, he became an intellectual and social leader of the Rehnquist Court, earning respect from the Justices who opposed his opinions. Though he remained a member of the conservative wing of the court, Associate Justices Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas were regarded as more conservative; as Chief Justice, Rehnquist presided over the impeachment trial of President Bill Clinton. Rehnquist wrote the majority opinions in United States v. Lopez and United States v. Morrison, holding in both cases that Congress had exceeded its power under the Commerce Clause, he opposed the court's Roe v. Wade decision and continued to argue that Roe had been incorrectly decided in Planned Parenthood v. Casey.
In Bush v. Gore, he voted with the court's majority to end the Florida recount. Rehnquist grew up in the Milwaukee suburb of Shorewood, his father, William Benjamin Rehnquist, was a sales manager at various times for printing equipment and medical supplies and devices. His paternal grandparents immigrated from Sweden. Rehnquist graduated from Shorewood High School in 1942, he attended Kenyon College, in Gambier, for one quarter in the fall of 1942, before entering the U. S. Army Air Forces, he served from March 1943 – 1946 in assignments in the United States. He was put into a pre-meteorology program and assigned to Denison University until February 1944, when the program was shut down, he served three months at Will Rogers Field in Oklahoma City, three months in Carlsbad, New Mexico, went to Hondo, for a few months. He was chosen for another training program, which began at Chanute Field and ended at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey; the program was designed to teach the repair of weather instruments. In the summer of 1945, Rehnquist went overseas as a weather observer in North Africa.
After the war, Rehnquist attended Stanford University with assistance under the provisions of the G. I. Bill. In 1948, he received both a Master of Arts degree in political science. In 1950, he attended Harvard University, where he received another Master of Arts, this time in government, he returned to Stanford, graduated from the Stanford Law School in the same class as Sandra Day O'Connor, with whom he would serve on the Supreme Court. They dated at Stanford and Rehnquist proposed marriage, though O'Connor declined as she was by dating her future husband. Rehnquist graduated first in his class. Rehnquist went to Washington, D. C. to work as a law clerk for Justice Robert H. Jackson of the United States Supreme Court during the court's 1952–1953 term. There, he wrote a memorandum arguing against federal court-ordered school desegregation while the court was considering the landmark case of Brown v. Board of Education, decided in 1954. Rehnquist's 1952 memo, entitled "A Random Thought on the Segregation Cases", defended the "separate-but-equal" doctrine.
In that memo, Rehnquist said: I realize that it is an unpopular and unhumanitarian position, for which I have been excoriated by "liberal" colleagues, but I think Plessy v. Ferguson was right and should be reaffirmed. To the argument that a majority may not deprive a minority of its constitutional right, the answer must be made that while this is sound in theory, in the long run it is the majority who will determine what the constitutional rights of the minority are. In both his 1971 Senate confirmation hearing for associate justice and his 1986 hearing for chief justice, Rehnquist testified that the memorandum reflected the views of Justice Jackson rather than his own views. Rehnquist said, "I believe that the memorandum was prepared by me as a statement of Justice Jackson's tentative views for his own use." Elsie Douglas, long-time secretary and confidante of Justice Jackson, stated during Rehnquist's 1986 hearings that his allegation was "a smear of a great man, for whom I served as secretary for many years.
Justice Jackson did not ask law clerks to express his views. He expressed his own and they express
Thurgood Marshall was an American lawyer, serving as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from October 1967 until October 1991. Marshall was its first African-American justice. Prior to his judicial service, he argued several cases before the Supreme Court, including Brown v. Board of Education. Born in Baltimore, Marshall graduated from the Howard University School of Law in 1933, he established a private legal practice in Baltimore before founding the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, where he served as executive director. In that position, he argued several cases before the Supreme Court, including Smith v. Allwright, Shelley v. Kraemer, Brown v. Board of Education, which held that racial segregation in public education is a violation of the Equal Protection Clause. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy appointed Marshall to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. Four years President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Marshall as the United States Solicitor General.
In 1967, Johnson nominated Marshall to succeed retiring Associate Justice Tom C. Clark. Marshall retired during the administration of President George H. W. Bush, was succeeded by Clarence Thomas. Marshall was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on July 2, 1908, he was descended from enslaved peoples on both sides of his family. His original name was Thoroughgood, his father, William Canfield Marshall, worked as a railroad porter, his mother Norma Arica, as a teacher. Marshall first learned how to debate from his father, who took Marshall and his brother to watch court cases; the family debated current events after dinner. Marshall said, he did it by teaching me to argue, by challenging my logic on every point, by making me prove every statement I made."Marshall attended Frederick Douglass High School in Baltimore and was placed in the class with the best students. He graduated a year early in 1925 with a B-grade average, placed in the top third of the class, he went to Lincoln University, a black university in Pennsylvania.
It is reported that he intended to study medicine and become a dentist. But according to his application to Lincoln University, Marshall said his goal was to become a lawyer. Among his classmates were poet Langston Hughes and musician Cab Calloway, he did not take his studies and was suspended twice for hazing and pranks against fellow students. He was not politically active at first. In his first year Marshall opposed the integration of African-American professors at the university. Hughes described Marshall as "rough and ready and wrong". In his second year Marshall participated in a sit-in protest against segregation at a local movie theater; that year he was initiated as a member of Alpha Phi Alpha, the first fraternity founded by and for blacks. In September 1929 he married Vivien Buster Burey and began to take his studies graduating from Lincoln with honors Bachelor of Arts in Humanities, with a major in American literature and philosophy. Marshall wanted to study in his hometown law school, the University of Maryland School of Law, but did not apply because of the school's segregation policy.
Marshall attended Howard University School of Law. His views on discrimination were influenced by the dean, Charles Hamilton Houston. In 1933, Marshall graduated first in his law class at Howard. After graduating from law school, Marshall started a private law practice in Baltimore, he began his 25-year affiliation with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1934 by representing the organization in the law school discrimination suit Murray v. Pearson. In 1936, Marshall became part of the national staff of the NAACP. In Murray v. Pearson, Marshall represented Donald Gaines Murray, a black Amherst College graduate with excellent credentials, denied admission to the University of Maryland Law School because of its segregation policy. Black students in Maryland wanting to study law had to attend segregated establishments, Morgan College, the Princess Anne Academy, or out-of-state black institutions. Using the strategy developed by Nathan Margold, Marshall argued that Maryland's segregation policy violated the "separate but equal" doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson because the state did not provide a comparable educational opportunity at a state-run black institution.
The Maryland Court of Appeals ruled against the state of Maryland and its Attorney General, who represented the University of Maryland, stating, "Compliance with the Constitution cannot be deferred at the will of the state. Whatever system is adopted for legal education must furnish equality of treatment now." At the age of 32, Marshall won U. S. Supreme Court case Chambers v. Florida, 309 U. S. 227. That same year, he founded and became the executive director of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund; as the head of the Legal Defense Fund, he argued many other civil rights cases before the Supreme Court, most of them including Smith v. Allwright, 321 U. S. 649. S. 1. S. 629. S. 637. His most famous case as a lawyer was Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U. S. 483, the case in which the Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" public education, as established b
Chief Justice of the United States
The Chief Justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States, as such the highest-ranking judge of the federal judiciary. Article II, Section 2, Clause 2 of the Constitution grants plenary power to the President of the United States to nominate, with the advice and consent of the United States Senate, appoint a chief justice, who serves until they resign, are impeached and convicted, retire, or die; the chief justice has significant influence in the selection of cases for review, presides when oral arguments are held, leads the discussion of cases among the justices. Additionally, when the Court renders an opinion, the chief justice, if in the majority, chooses who writes the Court's opinion; when deciding a case, the chief justice's vote counts no more than that of any associate justice. Article I, Section 3, Clause 6 of the Constitution designates the chief justice to preside during presidential impeachment trials in the Senate. While nowhere mandated, the presidential oath of office is administered by the Chief Justice.
Additionally, the chief justice serves as a spokesperson for the federal government's judicial branch and acts as a chief administrative officer for the federal courts. The Chief Justice presides over the Judicial Conference and, in that capacity, appoints the director and deputy director of the Administrative Office; the Chief Justice is an ex officio member of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution and, by custom, is elected chancellor of the board. Since the Supreme Court was established in 1789, 17 people have served as chief justice; the first was John Jay. The current chief justice is John Roberts. John Rutledge, Edward Douglass White, Charles Evans Hughes, Harlan Fiske Stone, William Rehnquist served as associate justice prior to becoming chief justice; the United States Constitution does not explicitly establish an office of Chief Justice, but presupposes its existence with a single reference in Article I, Section 3, Clause 6: "When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside."
Nothing more is said in the Constitution regarding the office. Article III, Section 1, which authorizes the establishment of the Supreme Court, refers to all members of the Court as "judges"; the Judiciary Act of 1789 created the distinctive titles of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1866, at the urging of Salmon P. Chase, Congress restyled the chief justice's title to the current Chief Justice of the United States; the first person whose Supreme Court commission contained the modified title was Melville Fuller in 1888. The associate justices' title was not altered in 1866, remains as created; the chief justice, like all federal judges, is nominated by the President and confirmed to office by the U. S. Senate. Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution specifies that they "shall hold their Offices during good Behavior"; this language means that the appointments are for life, that, once in office, justices' tenure ends only when they die, resign, or are removed from office through the impeachment process.
Since 1789, 15 presidents have made a total of 22 official nominations to the position. The salary of the chief justice is set by Congress; the practice of appointing an individual to serve as chief justice is grounded in tradition. There is no specific constitutional prohibition against using another method to select the chief justice from among those justices properly appointed and confirmed to the Supreme Court. Constitutional law scholar Todd Pettys has proposed that presidential appointment of chief justices should be done away with, replaced by a process that permits the Justices to select their own chief justice. Three incumbent associate justices have been nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate as chief justice: Edward Douglass White in 1910, Harlan Fiske Stone in 1941, William Rehnquist in 1986. A fourth, Abe Fortas, was not confirmed; as an associate justice does not have to resign his or her seat on the Court in order to be nominated as chief justice, Fortas remained an associate justice.
When associate justice William Cushing was nominated and confirmed as chief justice in January 1796, but declined the office, he too remained on the Court. Two former associate justices subsequently returned to service on the Court as chief justice. John Rutledge was the first. President Washington gave him a recess appointment in 1795. However, his subsequent nomination to the office was not confirmed by the Senate, he left office and the Court. In 1933, former associate justice Charles Evans Hughes was confirmed as chief justice. Additionally, in December 1800, former chief justice John Jay was nominated and confirmed to the position a second time, but declined it, opening the way for the appointment of John Marshall. Along with his general responsibilities as a member of the Supreme Court, the Chief Justice has several unique duties to fulfill. Article I, section 3 of the U. S. Constitution stipulates that the Chief Justice shall preside over impeachment trials of the President of the United States in the U.
S. Senate. Two Chief Justices, Salmon P. Chase and William Rehnquist, have presided over the trial in the Senate that follows an impeachment of the president – Chase in 1868 over the proceedings against President Andrew Johnson and Rehnquist in
Your Honour and Your Honor redirect here. For a list of English honorifics, see Style. For other uses, see Your Honour A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges; the powers, method of appointment and training of judges vary across different jurisdictions. The judge is supposed to conduct the trial impartially and in an open court; the judge hears all the witnesses and any other evidence presented by the barristers of the case, assesses the credibility and arguments of the parties, issues a ruling on the matter at hand based on his or her interpretation of the law and his or her own personal judgment. In some jurisdictions, the judge's powers may be shared with a jury. In inquisitorial systems of criminal investigation, a judge might be an examining magistrate; the ultimate task of a judge is to settle a legal dispute in a final and public manner, thus affirm the rule of law. Judges exercise significant governmental power, they can order police, military or judicial officials to execute searches, imprisonments, distrainments, seizures and similar actions.
However, judges supervise that trial procedures are followed, in order to ensure consistency and impartiality and avoid arbitrariness. The powers of a judge are checked by higher courts such as supreme courts. Before the trial, a pre-trial investigation collecting the facts has been conducted by police officials, such as police officers and coroners, prosecutors or public procurators; the court has three main trained court officials: the judge, the prosecutor and the defence attorney. The role of a judge varies between legal systems. In an adversarial system, as in effect in the U. S. and England, the judge functions as an impartial referee ensuring correct procedure, while the prosecution and the defense present their case to a jury selected from common citizens. The main factfinder is the jury, the judge will finalize sentencing. In smaller cases judges can issue summary judgments without proceeding to a jury trial. In an inquisitorial system, as in effect in continental Europe, there is no jury and the main factfinder is the judge, who will do the presiding and sentencing on his own.
As such, the judge is expected to apply the law directly, as in the French expression Le juge est la bouche de la loi. Furthermore, in some system investigation may be conducted by the judge, functioning as an examining magistrate. Judges may work alone in smaller cases, but in criminal and other significant cases, they work in a panel. In some civil law systems, this panel may include lay judges. Unlike professional judges, lay judges are not trained, but unlike jurors, lay judges are volunteers and may be politically appointed. Judges are assisted by law clerks and notaries in legal cases and by bailiffs or similar with security. There are professional judges. A volunteer judge, such as an English magistrate, is not required to have legal training and is unpaid. Whereas, a professional judge is required to be educated. S. this requires a degree of Juris Doctor. Furthermore, significant professional experience is required. S. judges are appointed from experienced attorneys. Judges are appointed by the head of state.
In some U. S. jurisdictions, judges are elected in a political election. Impartiality is considered important for rule of law. Thus, in many jurisdictions judges may be appointed for life, so that they cannot be removed by the executive. However, in non-democratic systems, the appointment of judges may be politicized and they receive instructions on how to judge, may be removed if their conduct doesn't please the political leadership. Judges must be able to research and process extensive lengths of documents and other case material, understand complex cases and possess a thorough understanding of the law and legal procedure, which requires excellent skills in logical reasoning and decision-making. Excellent writing skills are a necessity, given the finality and authority of the documents written. Judges work with people all the time. Judges are required to have good moral character, i.e. there must be no history of crime. Professional judges enjoy a high salary, in the U. S. the median salary of judges is $101,690 per annum, federal judges earn $208,000–$267,000 per annum.
A variety of traditions have become associated with the occupation. Gavels are used by judges in many countries, to the point that the gavel has become a symbol of a judge. In many parts of the world, judges sit on an elevated platform during trials. American judges wear black robes. American judges have ceremonial gavels, although American judges have court deputies or bailiffs and contempt of court power as their main devices to maintain decorum in the courtroom. However, in some of the Western United States, like California, judges did not always wear robes and instead wore everyday clothing. Today, some members of state supreme courts, such as the Maryland Court of Appeals wear distinct dress. In Italy and Portugal, both judges and lawyers wear particular black robes. In some countries in the Commonwealth of Nations, judges wear wigs; the long wig associated with judges is now reserved for ceremonial occasions, although it was par
Lewis F. Powell Jr.
Lewis Franklin Powell Jr. was an American lawyer and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving from 1971 to 1987. Powell compiled a conservative record on the Court and cultivated a reputation as a swing vote with a penchant for compromise. Born in Suffolk, Virginia, he graduated from both Washington and Lee Law School and Harvard Law School and served in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II, he worked for a large law firm in Richmond, focusing on corporate law and representing clients such as the Tobacco Institute. In 1971, President Richard Nixon appointed Powell to succeed Associate Justice Hugo Black, he retired from the Court during the administration of President Ronald Reagan, was succeeded by Anthony Kennedy. His tenure overlapped with that of Chief Justice Warren Burger, Powell was a key swing vote on the Burger Court, his majority opinions include First National Bank of Boston v. Bellotti and McCleskey v. Kemp, he wrote an influential opinion in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke.
He notably joined the majority in cases such as United States v. Nixon, Roe v. Wade, Plyler v. Doe, Bowers v. Hardwick. Powell was born in Suffolk, the son of Mary Lewis and Louis Franklin Powell Sr. Powell set out to attend Washington and Lee University where he became president of his fraternity, managing editor of the student newspaper, a member of the yearbook staff, his major was in commerce, but he studied law. Powell had always planned on becoming a lawyer, he graduated in 1929 with a B. A. magna cum laude. Powell would attend Washington and Lee Law School where he graduated first in his class in 1931, he received a Master of Laws degree from Harvard Law School in 1932. His LL. M. Thesis at Harvard was entitled "Relation between the Virginia Court of Appeals and the State Corporation Commission." Along with Sherman Minton, Powell is one of two U. S. Supreme Court justices to have earned an LL. M. degree. He was elected president of the student body as an undergraduate with the help of Mosby Perrow Jr. and the two served together on the Virginia State Board of Education in the 1960s.
Powell was a member of the Sigma Society. At a leadership conference, he met Edward R. Murrow, they became close friends. In 1936, he married Josephine Pierce Rucker with whom he had one son, she died in 1996. During World War II, he first tried to join the US Navy. After he was rejected because of poor eyesight, he joined the US Army Air Forces as an Intelligence officer. After receiving his commission as a First Lieutenant in 1942, he completed training at bases near Miami and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, he was assigned to the 319th Bombardment Group, which moved to England that year. He served in North Africa during Operation Torch and was assigned to the Headquarters of the Northwest African Air Forces. There, Powell served in Sicily during the Allied invasion of Sicily. In August 1943, he was assigned to the Intelligence staff of the Army Air Forces in Washington, D. C. Slated for assignment as an instructor at the facility near Harrisburg, he worked instead on several special projects for the AAF headquarters until February 1944.
He was assigned to the Intelligence staff of the Department of War and the Intelligence staff of United States Strategic Air Forces in Europe. Powell was assigned to the Ultra project, as one of the officers designated to monitor the use of intercepted Axis communications, he worked in England and in the Mediterranean Theater and ensured that the use of Ultra information was in compliance with the laws and rules of war, that the use of such information did not reveal the source, which would have alerted that the code had been broken. He advanced through the ranks to Colonel, received the Legion of Merit, Bronze Star Medal, French Croix de Guerre with bronze palm, he was discharged in October 1945. In 1941, Powell served as Chairman of the American Bar Association's Young Lawyers Division. Powell was a partner for over a quarter of a century at Hunton, Gay and Gibson, a large Virginia law firm, with its primary office in Richmond. Powell practiced in the areas of corporate law and in railway litigation law.
He had been a board member of Philip Morris from 1964 until his court appointment in 1971 and had acted as a contact point for the tobacco industry with the Virginia Commonwealth University. Through his law firm, Powell represented the Tobacco Institute and various tobacco companies in numerous law cases. Powell served as Chair of the American Bar Association's Standing Committee on the Economics of Law Practice from 1961 to 1962, which evolved into the current ABA Law Practice Division. During his tenure as Chair of the Committee, The Lawyers Handbook was first published and distributed to all attorneys who joined the ABA that year. In its preface, Powell wrote, "The basic concept of freedom under law, which underlies our entire structure of government, can only be sustained by a strong and independent bar, it is plainly in the public interest that the economic health of the legal profession be safeguarded. One of the means toward this end is to improve the efficiency and productivity of lawyers."He was subsequently elected President of the ABA from 1964 to 1965.
Powell led the way in attempting to provide legal services to the poor, he made a key decision to cooperate with the federal government's Legal Services Program. Powell was involved in the development of Colonial Williamsburg, where he was bo
William J. Brennan Jr.
William Joseph Brennan Jr. was an American judge who served as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1956 to 1990. As the seventh longest-serving justice in Supreme Court history, he was known for being a leader of the Court's liberal wing. Born in Newark, New Jersey, Brennan graduated from Harvard Law School in 1931, he entered private practice in New Jersey and served in the United States Army during World War II. He was appointed in 1951 to the Supreme Court of New Jersey. Shortly before the 1956 presidential election, President Dwight D. Eisenhower used a recess appointment to place Brennan on the Supreme Court. Brennan won Senate confirmation the following year, he remained on the Court until his retirement in 1990, was succeeded by David Souter. On the Supreme Court, Brennan was known for his outspoken progressive views, including opposition to the death penalty and support for abortion rights, he authored several landmark case opinions, including Baker v. Carr, establishing that the apportionment of legislative districts is a justiciable issue, New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, which required "actual malice" in libel suits brought by public officials.
Due to his ability to shape a variety of wide opinions and "bargain" for votes in many cases, he was considered to be among the Court's most influential members. Justice Antonin Scalia called Brennan "probably the most influential Justice of the century." Brennan was born in the second of eight children. His parents and Agnes Brennan, were Irish immigrants, they met in the United States, although both were from County Roscommon in Ireland. His father had little education. However, he rose to a position of leadership, serving as the Commissioner of Public Safety for the city of Newark from 1927 to 1930. Brennan attended public schools in Newark, graduated from Barringer High School in 1924, he attended the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, where he graduated cum laude with a degree in economics in 1928. While there, he joined Delta Tau Delta Fraternity. Brennan graduated from Harvard Law School near the top of his class in 1931 and was a member of the Harvard Legal Aid Bureau; when he was 21, Brennan married Marjorie Leonard.
They had three children: William III, Hugh. After graduating from Harvard Law School, Brennan entered private practice in his home state of New Jersey, where he practiced labor law at the firm of Pitney Hardin. During World War II, Brennan commissioned in the Army as a major in March 1942, left as a colonel in 1945, he did legal work for the ordnance division. In 1949, Brennan was appointed to the Superior Court by Governor of New Jersey Alfred E. Driscoll. In 1951, Driscoll appointed him to the Supreme Court of New Jersey. Brennan was named to the U. S. Supreme Court through a recess appointment by Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1956, shortly before the 1956 presidential election. Presidential advisers thought the appointment of a Roman Catholic Democrat from the Northeast would woo critical voters in the upcoming re-election campaign for Eisenhower, a Republican. Brennan gained the attention of Herbert Brownell, United States Attorney General and Eisenhower's chief legal affairs adviser, when Brennan had to give a speech at a conference.
To Brownell, Brennan's speech seemed to suggest a marked conservatism on criminal matters. His nomination faced a small amount of controversy from two angles; the National Liberal League opposed the nomination of a Catholic, thinking he would rely on his religious beliefs rather than the Constitution when ruling, Senator Joseph McCarthy had read transcripts of Brennan's speech where he decried overzealous anti-Communist investigations as "witch-hunts." After a confirmation hearing in 1957 in which Brennan defended himself against McCarthy's attacks and proclaimed that he would rule on the basis of the Constitution and not on Church law, he was confirmed by a near-unanimous vote, with only Senator McCarthy voting against him. Other factors playing into Brennan's appointment were his status as a state court judge – no state judge had been appointed to the High Court since Benjamin N. Cardozo in 1932 – and Eisenhower's desire to appear bipartisan after his appointments of two Republicans: Earl Warren and John Marshall Harlan II.
Brennan filled the seat vacated by Justice Sherman Minton. He held the post until his retirement on July 1990, for health reasons. Brennan taught at Georgetown University Law Center until 1994. With 1,360 opinions, he is second only to William O. Douglas in number of opinions written while a Supreme Court justice. An outspoken liberal throughout his career, he played a leading role in the Warren Court's expansion of individual rights. Brennan played a behind-the-scenes role during the Warren Court, coaxing more conservative colleagues to join the Court's decisions. Brennan's opinions with respect to voting, criminal proceedings, the free speech and establishment clauses of the First Amendment, civil rights were some of the most important opinions of the Warren Era. Brennan's role in expanding free speech rights under the First Amendment is notable, as he wrote the Court's opinion in 1964's New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, which created constitutional restrictions on the law of libel, it was Brennan who coined the phrase "chilling effect", in 1965's Dombrowski v. Pfister