Ashikaga Yoshiteru, known as Yoshifushi or Yoshifuji, was the 13th shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate who reigned from 1546 to 1565 during the late Muromachi period of Japan. He was the eldest son of the 12th shogun, Ashikaga Yoshiharu, when he became shogun in 1546 at age 11, Yoshiterus name was Yoshifushi, but some years in 1554, he changed his name to the one by which he is conventionally known today. His younger brother Ashikaga Yoshiaki would become the fifteenth shogun, after his father, was forced to retire in 1546 over a political struggle with Hosokawa Harumoto, Yoshiteru became Seii Taishogun, albeit a puppet shogun like his father. Yoshiteru was only 11 at the time and his ceremony was held at Sakamoto, Ōmi Province. Yoshiteru had barely been confirmed as shogun when his father Yoshiharu made a truce with Harumoto in order to return to Kyoto, in 1550, Yoshiharu died in Ōmi, unable to return to Kyoto. In 1552, Yoshiteru made a peace with Nagayoshi to return to Kyoto, the next year and Harumoto started a war against Nagayoshi to remove his influence.
With the help of Rokkaku Yoshikata, the war went well for Yoshiteru. Nagayoshi did not press on after the victory to kill Yoshiteru for fear of being accused of killing a shogun, Nagayoshi continued as the real power in Kyoto, with Yoshiteru nothing more than a rubber stamp. Significant events shaped the period during which Yoshiteru was shogun,1550 – Yoshiharu dies in exile,1551 – Sue Harukata rebels against Ōuchi Yoshitaka. 1552 – Yoshiteru returns to Kyoto, actual power being held by Miyoshi Nagayoshi, 1554–1564 – Ōuchis retainer Mōri Motonari succeeds him and consolidates his power. 1558 – Nagayoshi drives out Yoshiteru who, however, is reinstated,1560 – Oda Nobunaga slays Imagawa Yoshimoto. 1564 – Uesugi Kenshin and Takeda Shingen reach a stalemate at Kawanakajima after continuous battles,1565 – Matsunaga invests Kyoto, Yoshiteru commits suicide. Lacking resources, Yoshiteru nevertheless saw opportunities to assign his kanji 輝 on various samurai such as Mōri Terumoto to become something close to a godfather, Yoshiteru was well respected for his actions and many researchers credit him as being the last effective shogun to hold the post.
Oda Nobunaga and Uesugi Kenshin were among the many daimyōs and samurai who travelled to Kyoto to pay their respects to the shogun, in 1564, Nagayoshi died of illness and Yoshiteru saw an opportunity to fully reclaim the shoguns authority. In 1565, and Miyoshi Yoshitsugu laid siege against a collection of buildings where Yoshiteru lived, with no help arriving in time from the daimyōs that could have supported him and the few troops under him were overrun by Miyoshi. Three years passed before his cousin Ashikaga Yoshihide became the fourteenth shogun, one of his sword-fighting instructors was Tsukahara Bokuden, the founder of Kashima Shintō-ryū. His governance was highly credited but to have killed in spite of his efforts completely destroyed what little recognition. The waka Yoshiteru was said to have left on his death shows the extent of his aspirations compared with the limits of achievements, there were more than one era name or nengō in which Yoshiteru was identified as Shogun
Mino Province, one of the old provinces of Japan, encompassed the southern part of modern-day Gifu Prefecture. Mino Province bordered Echizen, Ise, Mikawa, Ōmi, although the ancient provincial capital was near Tarui, the main castle town was at Gifu, the home of Inabayama Castle. In 713, the crossing through Mino and Shinano provinces was widened to accommodate increasing numbers of travelers. Mino Province served an important military and political role as the path to Kyoto as well as to Tokaido, during the Kamakura and Muromachi Period, Mino Province was governed by the Toki clan and in Azuchi period controlled by Oda Nobunaga. His heirs continued to control it after Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi took power, the Battle of Sekigahara took place at the western edge of Mino, near the mountains between the Chūbu Region and the Kinki Region. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5, OCLC58053128 Titsingh, paris, Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. Media related to Mino Province at Wikimedia Commons Murdochs map of provinces,1903
Mon, monshō, and kamon, are Japanese emblems used to decorate and identify an individual or family. While mon is a term that may refer to any such device, kamon. An authoritative mon reference compiles Japans 241 general categories of mon based on structural resemblance, the devices are similar to the badges and coats of arms in European heraldic tradition, which likewise are used to identify individuals and families. Mon are often referred to as crests in Western literature, another European heraldic device similar to the mon in function, mon may have originated as fabric patterns to be used on clothes in order to distinguish individuals or signify membership of a specific clan or organization. By the twelfth century, sources give an indication that heraldry had been implemented as a distinguishing feature. It is seen on flags and equipment, like European heraldry, mon were initially held only by aristocratic families, and were gradually adapted by commoners. On the battlefield, mon served as standards, even though this usage was not universal.
Mon were adapted by various organizations, such as merchant and artisan guilds and shrines, theater troupes, in an illiterate society, they served as useful symbols for recognition. Japanese traditional formal attire generally displays the mon of the wearer, commoners without mon often used those of their patron or the organization they belonged to. In cases when none of those were available, they used one of the few mon which were seen as vulgar, or invented or adapted whatever mon they wished. It was not uncommon for shops, and therefore shop-owners, to develop mon to identify themselves, rules regulating the choice and use of mon were somewhat limited, though the selection of mon was generally determined by social customs. It was considered improper to use a mon that was known to be held by someone else, when mon came into conflict, the lower-ranked person sometimes changed their mon to avoid offending their superior. The mon held by the clans of Japan, such as Tokugawas hollyhock mon. Occasionally, patron clans granted the use of their mon to their retainers as a reward, similar to the granting of the patrons surnames, this was considered a very high honor.
Alternatively, the clan may have added elements of its mon to that of its retainer. There are no set rules in the design of a mon, most consist of a roundel encircling a figure of plant, man-made, natural or celestial objects, all abstracted to various degrees. Religious symbols, geometric shapes and kanji were used as well. Similar to the blazon in European heraldry, mon are named by the content of the design, unlike in European heraldry, this blazon is not prescriptive—the depiction of a mon does not follow the name—instead the names only serve to describe the mon
The Seiwa Genji were the most successful and powerful line of the Japanese Minamoto clan that were descended from Emperor Seiwa. Tokugawa Ieyasu, founder of the Tokugawa shogunate, claimed descent from this lineage, the family is named after Emperor Seiwa, who was the grandfather of Minamoto no Tsunemoto who founded the Seiwa Genji. Emperor Seiwa was father of Imperial Prince Sadazumi, who was in turn the father of Minamoto no Tsunemoto, founder of the Seiwa Genji, the Shimazu clan served the Tsuchiya clan loyally for many years. The Shimazu and Tokugawa clans claimed to belong to this line, a group of Shinto shrines connected closely with the clan is known as the Three Genji Shrines. The following family trees are a non-exhaustive listing of the Seiwa Genji, Solid lines represent blood relationship, dashed lines represent adoptions. Ōta clan Sakai clan Sansom, George, a History of Japan to 1334
Oda Nobunaga was a powerful Daimyō of Japan in the late 16th century who attempted to unify Japan during the late Sengoku period. Nobunaga is regarded as one of three unifiers of Japan along with his retainers Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, Nobunaga was widely known as one of the most brutal figures in history, eliminating anyone who stood in his way. He was both a ruler and keen businessman, strategizing at both the micro- and macroeconomic scales. He met his demise when his retainer Akechi Mitsuhide rebelled against him at Honnō-ji, Oda Nobunaga was the first for whom this goal seemed attainable. Nobunaga had gained control over most of Honshu before his death during the 1582 Honnō-ji incident and it is not certain whether Nobunaga was killed in the attack or else committed seppuku. The motivations behind Mitsuhides betrayal was never revealed to anyone who survived the incident, following the incident, Akechi Mitsuhide declared himself master over Nobunagas domains, but was quickly defeated by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who regained control of and greatly expanded the Oda holdings.
Oda Nobunaga was born on June 23,1534, in the Owari domain and he was the second son of Oda Nobuhide, a deputy shugo with land holdings in Owari Province. He is said to have born in Nagoya Castle, although this is subject to debate. Through his childhood and early years, he was well known for his bizarre behavior. He was known to run around with other youths from the area, with the introduction of firearms into Japan, however, he became known for his fondness of tanegashima firearms. In 1551, Oda Nobuhide died unexpectedly, Nobunaga was said to have acted outrageously during his funeral, throwing ceremonial incense at the altar. This convinced many Oda retainers of Nobunagas mediocrity and lack of discipline, they began to side with his soft-spoken and well-mannered brother, Nobuyuki. Hirate Masahide, a mentor and retainer to Nobunaga, was ashamed by Nobunagas behavior. This had an effect on Nobunaga, who built a temple to honor Masahide. Although Nobunaga was Nobuhides legitimate successor, the Oda clan was divided into factions.
Oda Nobutomo, the deceased Nobuhides brother and deputy to the shugo, used the weak Yoshimune as his puppet, Nobutomo murdered Yoshimune when it was discovered that he supported and attempted to aid Nobunaga. This ensured that the Imagawa clan would have to stop attacking Owaris borders, although Nobuyuki and his supporters were still at large, Nobunaga brought an army to Mino Province to aid Saitō Dōsan after Dōsans son, Saitō Yoshitatsu, turned against him. The campaign failed, as Dōsan was killed in the Battle of Nagara-gawa, a few months Nobuyuki, with support from Shibata Katsuie and Hayashi Hidesada, rebelled against Nobunaga
The Sengoku period is a period in Japanese history marked by social upheaval, political intrigue and near-constant military conflict. Japanese historians named it after the otherwise unrelated Warring States period in China and it came to an end when all political power was unified under the Tokugawa shogunate. In the years preceding this era the Shogunate gradually lost influence, many of these Lords began to fight uncontrollably with each other for control over land and influence over the shogunate. As trade with China grew, the developed, and the use of money became widespread as markets. This, combined with developments in agriculture and small-scale trading, led to the desire for local autonomy throughout all levels of the social hierarchy. As early as the beginning of the 15th century, the caused by earthquakes and famines often served to trigger armed uprisings by farmers weary of debt. The Ōnin War, a conflict rooted in economic distress and brought on by a dispute over succession, is generally regarded as the onset of the Sengoku period.
The eastern army of the Hosokawa family and its allies clashed with the army of the Yamana. Fighting in and around Kyoto lasted for nearly 11 years, leaving the city almost completely destroyed, the conflict in Kyoto spread to outlying provinces. The period culminated with a series of three warlords, Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu, who gradually unified Japan, after Tokugawa Ieyasus final victory at the siege of Osaka in 1615, Japan settled down into several centuries of peace under the Tokugawa Shogunate. The Ōnin War in 1467 is usually considered the point of Sengoku period. There are several events which could be considered the end of it, The Siege of Odawara, the Battle of Sekigahara, the upheaval resulted in the further weakening of central authority, and throughout Japan regional lords, called daimyōs, rose to fill the vacuum. There were many, whose positions eroded and were usurped by more capable underlings. One of the earliest instances of this was Hōjō Sōun, who rose from humble origins.
Building on the accomplishments of Sōun, the Late Hōjō clan remained a power in the Kantō region until its subjugation by Toyotomi Hideyoshi late in the Sengoku period. Well-organized religious groups gained power at this time by uniting farmers in resistance. The monks of the Buddhist True Pure Land sect formed numerous Ikkō-ikki and this in turn provided Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who had risen through the ranks from ashigaru to become one of Odas most trusted generals, with the opportunity to establish himself as Odas successor. Toyotomi eventually consolidated his control over the remaining daimyōs and, although he was ineligible for the title of Seii Taishogun because of his common birth, during his short reign as Kampaku, Toyotomi attempted two invasions of Korea
Japanese names in modern times usually consist of a family name, followed by a given name. More than one name is not generally used. Japanese names are written in kanji, which are characters usually Chinese in origin. The kanji for a name may have a variety of possible Japanese pronunciations, Names written in hiragana or katakana are phonetic renderings, and so lack the visual meaning of names expressed in the logographic kanji. Japanese family names are extremely varied, according to estimates, there are over 100,000 different surnames in use today in Japan, the three most common family names in Japan are Satō, and Takahashi. Many Japanese family names derive from features of the landscape, for example, Ishikawa means stone river, Yamamoto means the base of the mountain. While family names follow relatively consistent rules, given names are more diverse in pronunciation. Unusual pronunciations have especially become common, with this trend having increased significantly since the 1990s, male names often end in -rō or -ta, or contain ichi, kazu, ji, or dai while female names often end in -ko or -mi.
Other popular endings for female names include -ka and -na, the majority of Japanese people have one surname and one given name with no other names, except for the Japanese imperial family, whose members bear no surname. The family name – myōji, uji or sei – precedes the given name, the given name may be referred to as the lower name because, in vertically written Japanese, the given name appears under the family name. People with mixed Japanese and foreign parentage may have middle names, historically, myōji, uji and sei had different meanings. Sei was originally the patrilineal surname which is why up till now it has granted only by the emperor as a title of male rank. The lower form of the name sei being tei which is a name in Japanese men. Although there was an ancestor in ancient Japan from whom the name Sei originally came. There were relatively few sei, and most of the noble clans trace their lineage either directly to these sei or to the courtiers of these sei. Uji was another name used to designate patrilineal descent, but merged with myōji around the same time, myōji was, what a family chooses to call itself, as opposed to the sei granted by the emperor.
While it was passed on patrilineally in male ancestors including in male ancestors called haku, multiple Japanese characters have the same pronunciations, so several Japanese names have multiple meanings. A particular kanji itself can have multiple meanings and pronunciations, in some names, Japanese characters phonetically spell a name and have no intended meaning behind them
Tsutsui Junkei son of Tsutsui Junshō, and a daimyo of the province of Yamato. Early in his career, Matsunaga Hisahide, one of the most powerful warriors of the region, defeated Junkei, by joining the forces of Oda Nobunaga, Junkei defeated Hisahide at Mount Shigi in 1577. Junkeis original castle was reclaimed after the battle, but shortly afterward he had to abandon it and he was appointed to the position of daimyo over Yamato, and was allowed to build a new castle, which was called Kōriyama Castle, now in Yamatokōriyama, Nara. During the Battle of Yamazaki in 1582, Junkei refused to either side. His governance over Yamato was guaranteed by the victorious Toyotomi Hideyoshi, after Junkei’s death the Tsutsui clan was succeeded by Tsutsui Sadatsugu, a cousin and adopted son of Junkei. The Tsutsui subsequently lost governance of Yamato to Toyotomi Hidenaga, Hideyoshis stepbrother, the Tsutsui themselves were moved to the Iga Province by orders of Hideyoshi
There are ancient-era clan names called Uji-na or Honsei. The Imperial clan - possibly descended from the Five kings of Wa and its emperors and other clan members have no clan name but had been called the royal clan if necessary. Gempeitōkitsu,4 noble clans of Japan, Minamoto clan - known as Genji,21 cadet branches of Imperial House of Japan, Daigo Genji - descended from 60th emperor Daigo. Go-Daigo Genji - descended from 96th emperor Go-Daigo, Go-Fukakusa Genji - descended from 89th emperor Go-Fukakusa. Go-Nijō Genji - descended from 94th emperor Go-Nijō, Go-Saga Genji - descended from 88th emperor Go-Saga. Go-Sanjō Genji - descended from 71st emperor Go-Sanjō, Go-Shirakawa Genji - descended from 77th emperor Go-Shirakawa. Juntoku Genji - descended from 84th emperor Juntoku, Kameyama Genji - descended from 90th emperor Kameyama. Kazan Genji - descended from 65th emperor Kazan, Kōkō Genji - descended from 58th emperor Kōkō. Montoku Genji - descended from 55th emperor Montoku, Murakami Genji - descended from 62nd emperor Murakami.
Nimmyō Genji - descended from 54th emperor Nimmyō, Ōgimachi Genji - descended from 106th emperor Ōgimachi. Reizei Genji - descended from 63rd emperor Reizei, Saga Genji - descended from 52nd emperor Saga. Sanjō Genji - descended from 67th emperor Sanjō, Seiwa Genji - descended from 56th emperor Seiwa, origin of many samurai clans. Kawachi Genji - known as Genke, descended from Minamoto no Yorinobu, origin of Hitachi Genji, Ishikawa Genji, Settsu Genji - descended from Minamoto no Yorimitsu, origin of Tada Genji, Mino Genji and Shinano Genji. Yamato Genji - descended from Minamoto no Yorichika, Uda Genji - descended from 59th emperor Uda, origin of Ōmi Genji. Yōzei Genji - descended from 57th emperor Yōzei, Taira clan - known as Heishi,4 cadet branches of Imperial House of Japan. Kanmu Heishi - descended from 50th emperor Kanmu, famous for Taira no Masakado, bandō8 Heishi - descended from Taira no Yoshifumi. Ise Heishi - known as Heike, descended from Taira no Korehira, Kōkō Heishi - descended from 58th emperor Kōkō.
Montoku Heishi - descended from 55th emperor Montoku, Nimmyō Heishi - descended from 54th emperor Nimmyō
Ashikaga Yoshiaki was the 15th shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate in Japan who reigned from 1568 to 1573. His father, Ashikaga Yoshiharu was the shogun, and his brother. Ashikaga Yoshihide, the shogun, was deposed without ever entering the capital. Most historians consider 1573 to have been the year in which the Ashikaga shogunate ended, the power of the Ashikaga was effectively destroyed on August 27,1573 when Nobunaga drove Yoshiaki out of Kyoto. Yoshiaki became a Buddhist monk, shaving his head and taking the name Sho-san, some note that Yoshiaki did not formally relinquish his empty title, and for this reason, the empty shell of the shogunate could be said to have continued for several more years. 1569 – Yoshiakis Nijō residence is built,1570 – Ikkō monks defeat Oda Nobunaga. 1571 – Oda Nobunaga destroys Enryaku-ji,1573 – Takeda Shingen dies, Yoshiaki is deposed. 1588 – Yoshiaki officially resigns from his post as Shogun, the span of years in which Yoshiaki was shogun are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō.
Lessons from History, the Tokushi Yoron, ISBN9780702214851, OCLC7574544 Titsingh, Isaac. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran, ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon, Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland
Battle of Yamazaki
The Battle of Yamazaki was fought in 1582 in Yamazaki, located in current day Kyoto Prefecture. This battle is referred to as the Battle of Mt. Tennō. In the Honnō-ji Incident Akechi Mitsuhide, a retainer of Oda Nobunaga, attacked Nobunaga as he rested in Honnō-ji, Mitsuhide took over Nobunagas power and authority around the Kyoto area. Thirteen days later, Toyotomi Hideyoshi met Mitsuhide at Yamazaki and defeated him, avenging his lord and taking Nobunagas authority, when Nobunaga died, Hideyoshi was busy fighting the Mōri clan. After betraying and defeating Nobunaga at Honnō-ji, Mitsuhide sent a letter to the Mōri, the letter contained a request for an alliance to crush Hideyoshi, but the letters messenger was captured by Hideyoshis forces and the plot was revealed. Once the treaty was secured, he led his troops on a forced march towards Kyoto. Akechi Mitsuhide controlled two castles in the Yamazaki region, due to his lack of men for the impending battle with Hideyoshi, he attempted to win the hearts of the people in that region in order to gain more troops.
However, his appeals to Hosokawa Fujitaka were fruitless, and so he was unable to add significant strength to his forces, less than two weeks after Mitsuhides betrayal, Hideyoshis army finally arrived and attacked Mitsuhides inferior forces at Yamazaki. Learning of the size of Hideyoshis army and not wanting to be caught inside a castle with his force divided, Mitsuhide resolved to prepare for battle somewhere to the south. Due to its position between a river and a mountain, Yamazaki provided Mitsuhide with choke points that could ease the number of enemies his forces would have to face at any one time. Meanwhile, Hideyoshi decided that an area called Mount Tennōzan. He sent a detachment under Nakagawa Kiyohide to secure this area and his forces took over the mountain and gained a significant advantage. Mitsuhide arranged his army behind a river, which provided an excellent defensive position. That night, Hideyoshis men sent a number of ninja into the Mitsuhide camp, setting fire to buildings and generally causing fear and confusion.
They were driven back by fire, and so Hideyoshi felt confident enough to launch the right wing of his forces across the river. They made some progress, and were joined by the left wing. The majority of Mitsuhides men fled, with the exception of the 200 men under Mimaki Kaneaki, panic set in among the Akechi army, and Hideyoshis army chased them back to Shōryūji. Mitsuhide himself fled much further, to the town of Ogurusu, Hideyoshi used this victory as a stepping-stone to gain control over Nobunagas former territories and eventually all of Japan