Akera bullata

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Akera bullata
Akera bullata.jpg
drawing of Akera bullata
Akera bullata shell.jpg
shells of Akera bullata
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Heterobranchia
clade Euthyneura
clade Euopisthobranchia
clade Aplysiomorpha
Superfamily: Akeroidea
Family: Akeridae
Genus: Akera
Species: A. bullata
Binomial name
Akera bullata
O. F. Müller, 1776[1]
  • Possibly Aaera bullata[2][3]
  • Acera bullata (Müller O.F., 1776)[4]
  • Acera elegans Locard, 1886
  • Aceras elegans Locard, 1886
  • Akera flexilis Brown, 1844
  • Bulla akera Gmelin, 1791
  • Bulla elastica Danilo & Sandri, 1856
  • Bulla farrani Norman, 1890
  • Bulla fragilis Lamarck, 1822
  • Bulla hanleyi Adams A. in Sowerby G.B. II, 1850
  • Bulla norwegica Bruguière, 1792
  • Bulla resiliens Donovan, 1801
  • Eucampe donovani Leach, 1847 (substitute name for Bulla akera)

Akera bullata is a species of sea snail (or sea slug), a marine opisthobranch gastropod mollusk in the family Akeridae, a family that is related to the sea hares.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11] This species is the only European representative of the genus Akera.


This species occurs from Norway to the Canaries, and also in the Mediterranean.[12][13][14]


This is a herbivorous bottom dweller (up to 370 m deep), which feeds on seagrasses in the genera Zostera and Posidonia.[citation needed]


The body has a maximum length of about 6 cm. Its color varies from gray to orange, with white or dark specks. Its fragile and smooth shell is white or brown. This sea hare is not an agile swimmer. It uses its broad parapodia (fleshy protrusions), held together funnelwise above the head, to paddle away when disturbed.[15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22]


Acera bullata is an orthographic variant[4] with considerable currency.

The NLBIF lists a large number of synonyms in addition to the above; including: Bulla akera (Gmelin, J.F., 1791),[23] Bulla norwegica (Bruguière, J.G., 1789),[23] Bulla canaliculata (Olivi, 1792), Bulla resiliens (Donovan, E., 1801),[23] Bulla fragilis (Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de, 1822),[23] Akera flexilis (Brown, 1844), Bulla hanleyi (Adams A. in Sowerby G.B. II, 1850/1855),[23] Eucampe donovani (Leach, W.E., 1852),[23] Bulla elastica (Sandri & Danilo, 1856), Acera bullata var. nana (Jeffreys, 1867), Acera elegans (Locard, 1886), Bulla farrani (Norman, 1890), Bulla globosa (Cantraine, F.J., 1840),[23][24] Akera tenuis (Brusina, S., 1866)[23] and Akera farrani (Winckworth, R., 1932).[21][23][25][26]


  1. ^ Müller O. F. (1776). Zoologiæ Danicæ prodromus, seu animalium Daniæ et Norvegiæ indigenarum characteres, nomina, et synonyma imprimis popularium. pp. I-XXXII [= 1-32], 1-274. Havniæ. (Hallager). page 242.
  2. ^ http://www.organismnames.com/details.htm?lsid=4262764
  3. ^ https://archive.org/details/faunaderkielerbu01meye
  4. ^ a b http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138734
  5. ^ http://www.eol.org/pages/451975
  6. ^ http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=7197357
  7. ^ http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=2688881
  8. ^ http://www.ubio.org/browser/details.php?namebankID=506662
  9. ^ http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/itisca/next?v_tsn=78019&taxa=&p_format=&p_ifx=cbif&p_lang=
  10. ^ http://www.catalogueoflife.org/show_species_details.php?record_id=855776[permanent dead link]
  11. ^ http://data.gbif.org/species/browse/taxon/13780485
  12. ^ http://www.iobis.org/OBISWEB/ObisControllerServlet?category=all&names=data&action=lookupbyname&searchCategory=&classificationCode=&view=searchResults&category=&autocomplete=n&searchTypeSelect=%2FSciNameServlet&searchName=Akera%20bullata#
  13. ^ http://data.gbif.org/species/13780485
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-07-02. Retrieved 2010-03-08. [0].s=20&c[0].p=0&c[0].o=13780485
  15. ^ http://www.organismnames.com/details.htm?lsid=2785448[permanent dead link]
  16. ^ http://www.organismnames.com/details.htm?lsid=385773
  17. ^ http://www.organismnames.com/details.htm?lsid=4213870
  18. ^ http://www.catalogueoflife.org/show_reference_details.php?record_id=855776[permanent dead link]
  19. ^ http://species-identification.org/species.php?species_group=mollusca&menuentry=soorten&id=532&tab=beschrijving
  20. ^ http://www.marbef.org/data/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=138734
  21. ^ a b http://www.gastropods.com/5/Shell_5525.shtml
  22. ^ http://www.seaslugforum.net/factsheet/akerbull
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i Marine Mollusca of the Faroes. p. 95.
  24. ^ (in German) European Marine Snails. p. 26
  25. ^ http://www.nlbif.nl/species_details.php?name=Akera+bullata
  26. ^ http://species-identification.org/species.php?species_group=mollusca&menuentry=soorten&id=532&tab=synoniemen

Further reading[edit]

  • Proposed use of the Plenary Powers for the purpose of securing that the name bullata Muller (O. F.), 1776, as published in the combination Akera bullata, shall be the oldest available name for the species currently so known (Class Gastropoda).
  • Ecology and taxonomic status of the aplysiomorph Akera bullata in the British Isles.
  • The marine fauna of the Sizewell area 1: brackish lagoons.
  • Akera bullata Mueller O.F., 1792 in the southeastern Mediterranean (Israel).
  • Marine invertebrates.
  • Phylogenetic analysis of learning-related neuromodulation in molluscan mechanosensory neurons.
  • Die Conchylien des Mittelmeers. Band ii. Mollusca cephala.
  • Hayward, P.J., Wigham, G.D. & N. Yonow, 1990. Mollusca I: Polyplacophora, Scaphopoda, and Gastropoda. In: The Marine Fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe. (ed. P.J. Hayward & J.S. Ryland). Clarendon Press, Oxford: 628-730.
  • Poppe, G.T. & Y. Goto, 1991. European Seashells. Vol. I. 352 pp. Wiesbaden/Verlag Christa Hemmen.
  • Seaward, D.R., 1990. Distribution of the marine molluscs of north west Europe. Nature Conservancy Council.
  • Sowerby, G.B., 1859: Illustrated Index of British Shells. London.
  • Thompson, T.E., 1988. Molluscs: Benthic Opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Synopses of the British fauna (NS), 8: 1-356.
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