Sir William Turner Walton, OM was an English composer. During a sixty-year career, he wrote music in several classical genres and styles, from film scores to opera, his best-known works include Façade, the cantata Belshazzar's Feast, the Viola Concerto, the First Symphony, the British coronation anthems Crown Imperial and Orb and Sceptre. Born in Oldham, the son of a musician, Walton was a chorister and an undergraduate at Christ Church, Oxford. On leaving the university, he was taken up by the literary Sitwell siblings, who provided him with a home and a cultural education, his earliest work of note was a collaboration with Edith Sitwell, Façade, which at first brought him notoriety as a modernist, but became a popular ballet score. In middle age, Walton left Britain and set up home with his young wife Susana on the Italian island of Ischia. By this time, he had ceased to be regarded as a modernist, some of his compositions of the 1950s were criticised as old-fashioned, his only full-length opera and Cressida, was among the works to be so labelled and has made little impact in opera houses.
In his last years, his works came back into critical fashion. Walton was a slow worker, painstakingly perfectionist, his complete body of work across his long career is not large, his most popular compositions continue to be performed in the 21st century, by 2010 all his works had been released on CD. Walton was born into a musical family in Oldham, the second son in a family of three boys and a girl, his father, Charles Alexander Walton, was a musician who had trained at the Royal Manchester College of Music under Charles Hallé, made a living as a singing teacher and church organist. Charles's wife, Louisa Maria, had been a singer before their marriage. William Walton's musical talents were spotted when he was still a young boy, he took piano and violin lessons, though he never mastered either instrument, he was more successful as a singer: he and his elder brother sang in their father's choir, taking part in performances of large-scale works by Handel, Haydn and others. Walton was sent to a local school, but in 1912 his father saw a newspaper advertisement for probationer choristers at Christ Church Cathedral School in Oxford and applied for William to be admitted.
The boy and his mother missed their intended train from Manchester to Oxford because Walton's father had spent the money for the fare in a local public house. Louisa Walton had to borrow the fares from a greengrocer. Although they arrived in Oxford after the entrance trials were over, Mrs Walton pleaded for her son to be heard, he was accepted, he remained at the choir school for the next six years. The Dean of Christ Church, Dr Thomas Strong, noted the young Walton's musical potential and was encouraged in this view by Sir Hubert Parry, who saw the manuscripts of some of Walton's early compositions and said to Strong, "There's a lot in this chap, it is sometimes said that he was Oxford's youngest undergraduate since Henry VIII, though this is not correct, he was nonetheless among the youngest. He came under the influence of the dominant figure in Oxford's musical life. Allen introduced Walton to modern music, including Stravinsky's Petrushka, enthused him with "the mysteries of the orchestra".
Walton spent much time in the university library, studying scores by Stravinsky, Sibelius and others. He neglected his non-musical studies, though he passed the musical examinations with ease, he failed the Greek and algebra examinations required for graduation. Little survives from Walton's juvenilia, but the choral anthem A Litany, written when he was fifteen, anticipates his mature style. At Oxford Walton befriended several poets including Roy Campbell, Siegfried Sassoon and, most for his future, Sacheverell Sitwell. Walton was sent down from Oxford in 1920 without any firm plans. Sitwell invited him to lodge in London with him and his literary brother and sister and Edith. Walton took up residence in the attic of their house in Chelsea recalling, "I went for a few weeks and stayed about fifteen years"; the Sitwells looked after their protégé both materially and culturally, giving him not only a home but a stimulating cultural education. He took music lessons with Ferruccio Busoni and Edward J. Dent.
He attended the Russian ballet, met Stravinsky and Gershwin, heard the Savoy Orpheans at the Savoy Hotel and wrote an experimental string quartet influenced by the Second Viennese School, performed at a festival of new music at Salzburg in 1923. Alban Berg heard the performance and was impressed enough to take Walton to meet Arnold Schoenberg, Berg's teacher and the founder of the Second Viennese School. In 1923, in collaboration with Edith Sitwell, Walton had his first great success, though at first it was a succès de scandale. Façade was first performed in public at London, on 12 June; the work consisted of Edith's verses, which she recited through a megaphone from behind a screen, while Walton conducted an ensemble of six players in his accompanying music. The press was condemnatory. Walton's biographer Michael Kennedy cites as typical a contemporary headline: "Drivel That They Paid to Hear"; the Daily Express admitted that it was naggingly memorable. The Manchester Guardian wrote of "relentless cacophony".
The Observer condemned the verses and dismissed Walton's music as "harmless". In The
Max Christian Friedrich Bruch was a German Romantic composer and conductor who wrote over 200 works, including three violin concertos, the first of which has become a staple of the violin repertory. Bruch was born Max Karl August Bruch in 1838 in Cologne to Wilhelmine, a singer, August Carl Friedrich Bruch, a lawyer who became vice president of the Cologne police. Max had Mathilde, he received his early musical training under the composer and pianist Ferdinand Hiller, to whom Robert Schumann dedicated his piano concerto in A minor. The Bohemian composer and piano virtuoso Ignaz Moscheles recognized his aptitude. At the age of nine, Bruch wrote a song for his mother's birthday. From on music was his passion, his studies were enthusiastically supported by his parents, he wrote many minor early works including motets, psalm settings, piano pieces, violin sonatas, a string quartet, orchestral works such as the prelude to a planned opera, Joan of Arc. Few of these early works have survived, the whereabouts of most of his surviving compositions is unknown.
The first music theory lesson he had was in 1849 in Bonn. At this time, Bruch was staying at an estate in Bergisch Gladbach; the farm notary called Neissen, who lived in it with his unmarried sister. The estate was bought by the Zanders, family who owned a large paper mill; the young Bruch was taught English conversation by his father. In years, Maria Zanders became a friend and patron. Bruch had a long career as a teacher and composer, moving among musical posts in Germany: Mannheim, Sondershausen and Bonn, where he spent 1873–78 working privately. At the height of his career he spent three seasons as conductor of the Liverpool Philharmonic Society, he taught composition at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik from 1890 until his retirement in 1910. Notable students included the German pianist and writer Clara Mathilda Faisst. See: List of music students by teacher: A to B#Max Bruch. Bruch married Clara Tuczek, a singer whom he had met on tour, in Berlin on 3 January 1881; the couple took lodgings in Sefton Park.
Their daughter, was born in Liverpool in 1882. Bruch died in his house in Berlin-Friedenau in 1920, he was buried, next to his wife, at the Old St. Matthäus churchyard at Berlin-Schöneberg. Margaretha had carved on the gravestone "Music is the language of God". Bruch's complex and well-structured works in the German Romantic musical tradition placed him in the camp of Romantic classicism exemplified by Johannes Brahms, rather than the opposing "New Music" of Franz Liszt and Richard Wagner. In his time he was known as a choral composer, to his chagrin was overshadowed by his friend Brahms, more popular and regarded. Today, as it was during his life, Bruch's Violin Concerto No. 1, in G minor, Op. 26 is one of the most popular Romantic violin concertos. It uses several techniques from Felix Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto in E minor, including the linking of movements, as well as omitting the Classical opening orchestral exposition and other conservative formal structural devices of earlier concertos.
Despite these modifications to the conventional Romantic style, Bruch was considered a conservative composer. The two other works of Bruch which are still played were written for solo string instrument with orchestra: the Scottish Fantasy for violin and orchestra, which includes an arrangement of the tune "Hey Tuttie Tatie", best known for its use in the song "Scots Wha Hae" by Robert Burns; this work may well have inspired Ernest Bloch's Schelomo of 1916, an more passionate and extended one-movement composition with a Jewish subject and for solo cello and orchestra. The success of Kol Nidrei led to the assumption by many that Bruch was of Jewish ancestry, although the composer himself refuted this. Indeed, as long as the National Socialist Party was in power, performance of his music was restricted because he was considered a possible Jew for having written music with an Jewish theme, despite repeated denials by his surviving family; as a result, his music was forgotten in German-speaking countries.
There is no evidence, that Bruch was Jewish. As far as can be ascertained, none of his ancestors was a Jew. Bruch himself was given the middle name Christian, was raised Protestant. In the realm of chamber music, Bruch is not well known, although his "Eight Pieces for Clarinet and Piano" are revived, there being little other music written for this rare combination of instruments; as with Brahms, who had produced his clarinet compositions with a particular clarinetist in mind, so did Bruch write these trios for his own son Max. These pieces do not stand however, in Bruch's output, he wrote many pieces in the chamber music tradition, of which his septet is noteworthy. His first major pieces, composed at the start of his career, are two string quartets that are similar in tone and intensity to Schumann's string quartets; the composition of his second piano quintet is intriguing, as he began while cond
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
International Tchaikovsky Competition
The International Tchaikovsky Competition is a classical-music competition held every four years in Moscow, for pianists and cellists between 16 and 32 years of age, singers between 19 and 32 years of age. The competition is named after Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and is an active member of the World Federation of International Music Competitions; the International Tchaikovsky Competition was the first international music competition held in the Soviet Union. For the XIV competition in 2011, Valery Gergiev was appointed the competition's chairman, Richard Rodzinski, former president of the Van Cliburn Foundation, was appointed general director. A new voting system was instituted, created by mathematician John MacBain, used by the International Violin Competition of Indianapolis, the Van Cliburn International Piano Competition, the Cleveland International Piano Competition. All rules and regulations underwent a complete revision. Emphasis was placed on the composition of the jury, which consisted of well-known and respected performing artists.
For all competitions from 2011 forward, a first prize will always be awarded. The XIV International Tchaikovsky Competition was held in Moscow and St. Petersburg, from June 14 to July 1, 2011, under the auspices of the Russian federal government and its Ministry of Culture; the competition disciplines were piano, violin and voice. The XV competition took place in June 2015.. The XVI competition will take place June 2019, in Moscow and St. Petersburg. Cash prizes are awarded to the top-five competitors in each discipline of piano, cello, to each of the top four competitors in the men's and women's solo vocal categories. First prize is 20,000 Euro. An additional prize, a Grand Prix of 100,000 Euro, may be awarded to one of the gold medalists deemed outstanding by the juries. Additional awards are given for best performance of the chamber concertos and the commissioned new work. For the 2019 competition, the prizes are as follows: Held every four years, the first competition, in 1958, included two disciplines – piano and violin.
Beginning with the second competition, in 1962, a cello category was added, the vocal division was introduced during the third competition in 1966. In 1990, a fifth discipline was announced for the IX International Tchaikovsky Competition — a contest for violin makers which traditionally comes before the main competition. Winners of the top four prizes awarded in category. Official website for the XV International Tchaikovsky Competition Official website for the XIV International Tchaikovsky Competition Live Webcasts from XIV International Tchaikovsky Competition Directory of International Piano Competitions Intermezzo-Productions.com Mariinsky
Vladimir Davidovich Ashkenazy is an internationally recognized solo pianist, chamber music performer, conductor. He is from Russia and has held Icelandic citizenship since 1972, he has lived in Switzerland since 1978. Ashkenazy has collaborated with well-known soloists. In addition, he has recorded a large storehouse of romantic works, his recordings have earned him five Grammy awards plus Iceland's Order of the Falcon. Ashkenazy was born in Gorky, Soviet Union, to the pianist and composer David Ashkenazi and to the actress Yevstolia Grigorievna, born Plotnova, his father was Jewish and his mother was the daughter of a family of Russian Orthodox parents. He began playing piano at the age of six, he was accepted to the Central Music School at age eight studying with Anaida Sumbatyan. Ashkenazy attended the Moscow Conservatory where he studied with Boris Zemliansky, he won second prize in the International Chopin Piano Competition in Warsaw in 1955 and the first prize in the Queen Elisabeth Music Competition in Brussels in 1956.
He shared the first prize in the 1962 International Tchaikovsky Competition with British pianist John Ogdon. As a student, like many in that period, he was harassed by the KGB to become an "informer", he did not cooperate, despite pressures from the authorities. In 1961, he married the Iceland-born Þórunn Jóhannsdóttir, who studied piano at the Moscow Conservatory. To marry Ashkenazy, Þórunn was forced to give up her Icelandic citizenship and declare that she wanted to live in the USSR. After numerous bureaucratic procedures, the Soviet authorities agreed to allow the Ashkenazys to visit the West for musical performances and for visits to his parents-in-law with their first grandson. In his memoirs, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev recollects that Ashkenazy had married an Englishwoman and on a visit to London refused to return to the Soviet Union. Khrushchev mentions that Ashkenazy sought advice from the Soviet Embassy in London, who in turn referred the matter to Moscow. Khrushchev claims to have been of the opinion that to require Ashkenazy to return to the USSR would have made him an "Anti-Soviet".
He further claims that this was a good example of an artist being able to come and go in and out of the USSR which Ashkenazy himself said was a gross "distortion of the truth.". In 1963 Ashkenazy decided to leave the USSR permanently, establishing residence in London where his wife's parents lived; the couple moved to Iceland in 1968. In 1970 he helped to found the Reykjavík Arts Festival. In 1978 the couple and their four children moved to Switzerland, their fifth child, Alexandra Inga, was born in 1979. As of 1989, Ashkenazy resides in Meggen, his eldest son Vladimir, who uses his nickname'Vovka' as a stage name, is a pianist, as well as a teacher at the Imola International Piano Academy. His second son, Dimitri, is a clarinetist. Ashkenazy has recorded a wide range of both solo works and concerti, his recordings include: Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier Bach's French Suites 24 Preludes and Fugues of Shostakovich complete sonatas by Beethoven complete sonatas by Scriabin the complete works for piano by Rachmaninoff the complete works for solo piano by Chopin the complete works for piano by SchumannHis concerto recordings include: the complete piano concertos of Mozart three cycles of the 5 Beethoven concerti with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra under Sir Georg Solti with Zubin Mehta and the Vienna Philharmonic conducting from the piano with the Cleveland OrchestraBrahms with Bernard Haitink Bartók Prokofiev two cycles of the Rachmaninoff concerti with André Previn and the London Symphony Orchestra with Bernard Haitink and the Concertgebouw OrchestraIn public piano performances, Ashkenazy was known for rejecting a tie and button shirt in favor of a white turtleneck and for running onstage and offstage.
He has performed and recorded chamber music. Moreover, Ashkenazy has had an acclaimed collaborative career, including an acclaimed recording of Beethoven's complete violin sonatas with Itzhak Perlman, as well as the cello sonatas with Lynn Harrell, the piano trios with Harrell and Perlman. Midway through his pianistic career, Ashkenazy branched into conducting. In Europe, Ashkenazy was principal conductor of the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra from 1987 to 1994, of the Czech Philharmonic from 1998 to 2003. Ashkenazy is conductor laureate of the Philharmonia Orchestra, conductor laureate of the Iceland Symphony Orchestra, music director of the European Union Youth Orchestra. In July 2013 he became director of the Accademia Pianistica Internazionale di Imola, succeeding its founder and director Franco Scala, his recordings as a conductor include complete cycles of the symphonies of Sibelius and of Rachmaninoff, as well as orchestral works of Prokofiev, Scriabin, Richard Strauss, Stravinsky and Tchaikovsky.
Outside of Europe, Ashkenazy served as music director of the NHK Symphony Orchestra from 2004 to 2007. He was chief conductor of the Sydney Symphony Orchestra from 2009 to 2013. Ashkenazy has recorded for Decca since 1963.
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
Berlin University of the Arts
The Universität der Künste Berlin, situated in Berlin, Germany, is the largest art school in Europe. It is a public art and design school, one of the four research universities in the city; the university is known for being one of the biggest and most diversified universities of the arts worldwide. It has four colleges specialising in fine arts, architecture and design, music and the performing arts with around 3,500 students, thus the UdK is one of only three universities in Germany to unite the faculties of art and music in one institution. The teaching offered at the four colleges encompasses the full spectrum of the arts and related academic studies in more than 40 courses. Having the right to confer doctorates and post-doctoral qualifications, Berlin University of the Arts is one of Germany's few art colleges with full university status. Outstanding professors and students at all its colleges, as well as the steady development of teaching concepts, have publicly defined the university as a high standard of artistic and art-theoretical education.
All the study courses at Berlin University of the Arts are part of a centuries-old tradition. Thus Berlin University of the Arts gives its students- at an early stage of rigorously selected artists and within the protected sphere of a study course – the opportunity to investigate and experiment with other art forms in order to recognise and extend the boundaries of their own discipline. Within the field of Visual Arts, the university is known for the intense competition that involves the selection of its students, the growth of applicants worldwide has increased during the years, due to Berlin's important current role in the cultural innovation worldwide. In the same way, the University of the Arts is publicly recognized for being on the cutting edge in the areas of Visual Arts, Fashion Design, Industrial Design and Experimental Design, its roots institutions date back to the foundation of Academie der Mal-, Bild- und Baukunst, the Prussian Academy of Arts, at the behest of Elector Frederick III of Brandenburg.
The two predecessor organisations were Königlich Akademischen Hochschule für ausübende Tonkunst established in 1869 under Joseph Joachim, which had adopted the tradition of the famous Stern Conservatory, the Berlin State School of Fine Arts founded in 1875. In 1975, both art schools merged under the name Hochschule der Künste Berlin, HdK; the organization received the title of a university on 1 November 2001. The exchange program with UDK is a direct enrollment program offered during the fall and academic year to students interested in the arts and with four semesters of German language study; each academic year the school receives 100 exchange students on the basis of institutional agreements. Students participating in the exchange are required to subsidize their own accommodations with little help from the school. Annually, the university opens its doors to the public in its four colleges, offering one of the most important art fairs in Berlin due to new proposals that highlight its young artists.
Claudio Arrau, pianist Claudia Barainsky, soprano Esther Berlin-Joel, graphic designer F. W. Bernstein, cartoonist and academic Sebastian Bieniek, artist Norbert Bisky, painter Antonio Piedade da Cruz, Indian painter and sculptor Daniela Comani, painter SEO, artist Marie Fillunger, opera singer Caroline Fischer, pianist Eduard Franck Catherine Gayer, coloratura soprano Ria Ginster, soprano Leopold Godowsky, pianist Günter Grass, sculptor, 1999 Nobel prize in Literature Burkhard Held, painter Carla Henius, mezzo-soprano Philip A. Herfort, orchestra leader Arnulf Herrmann, composer Christian Leden, ethno-musicologist. Leo van Doeselaar 1995– Jean-Philippe Vassal 2012– Vivienne Westwood 1993–2005 Josef Wolfsthal 1926–1931 Ji-Yeoun You 2009- Isang Yun 1970–85 Siegfried Zielinski 2007- Walter Zimmermann 1993- Thomas Zipp 2008- Spandauer Kirchenmusikschule, which became part of the Musikhochschule Berlin in 1998 Universities and research instituti