Abe no Hirafu
Abe no Hirafu was a notable Japanese general of the Asuka period. Events in his life are accounted in the Nihon Shoki and Kojiki, both written several decades after his death, his father's name and origin are unknown, as the written sources contradict one another, may have been altered to glorify the genealogy of then-living clans. After reaching adulthood, Abe was a governor of Koshi Province. In 658, he defeated the Mishihase in "Watarishima" at the request of the native inhabitants, his men continued to raid and plunder in Hokkaido and Okushiri Island until 660, bringing numerous trophies and prisoners to court. His trophies included at least 2 live bears, 70 bear hides, 353 prisoners. In March 660, local allies asked for his military assistance at Ishikari River in Hokkaido, where he was victorious again. In 662 his lord assigned him and the captive prince Buyeo Pung to participate in an expedition to the Korean peninsula to restore the fallen allied kingdom of Baekje. Abe was assigned the command of the rear division out of three divisions available.
His division was an naval unit. He arrived on the continent in August 662 and was recalled after the defeat in the Battle of Baekgang in August 663. Abe no Hirafu might be the ancestor of one or more of the Abe clans, as well as the Ando and Akita clans. Mishihase This article incorporates text from OpenHistory; this article incorporates material from the Japanese Wikipedia page 阿倍比羅夫, accessed 27 July 2017
Akita Prefecture is a prefecture located in the Tōhoku region of Japan. The capital is the city of Akita; the area of Akita has been created from the ancient provinces of Mutsu. Separated from the principal Japanese centres of commerce and population by several hundred kilometres and the Ōu and Dewa mountain ranges to the east, Akita remained isolated from Japanese society until after the year 600. Akita was a region of principally nomadic tribes; the first historical record of what is now Akita Prefecture dates to 658, when the Abe no Hirafu conquered the native Ezo tribes at what are now the cities of Akita and Noshiro. Hirafu governor of Koshi Province, established a fort on the Mogami River, thus began the Japanese settlement of the region. In 733, a new military settlement—later renamed Akita Castle—was built in modern-day Akita city at Takashimizu, more permanent roads and structures were developed; the region was used as a base of operations for the Japanese empire as it drove the native Ezo people from northern Honshū.
It shifted hands several times. During the Tokugawa shogunate it was appropriated to the Satake clan, who ruled the region for 260 years, developing the agriculture and mining industries that are still predominant today. Throughout this period, it was classified as part of Dewa Province. In 1871, during the Meiji Restoration, Dewa Province was reshaped and the old daimyō domains were abolished and administratively reconstructed, resulting in the modern-day borders of Akita; the famous Heian period waka poet, Ono no Komachi, is said to have been born in Yuzawa City, Ogachi Town, located in the southeast of the prefecture. Located in the north of Honshu, Akita Prefecture faces the Sea of Japan in the west and is bordered by four other prefectures: Aomori in the north, Iwate in the east, Miyagi in the southeast, Yamagata in the south. Akita Prefecture is rectangular in shape 181 km from north to south and 111 km from west to east; the Ōu Mountains mark the eastern border of the prefecture, the higher Dewa Mountains run parallel through the center of the prefecture.
Like much of northern Japan, the prefecture has cold winters away from the sea. The Oga Peninsula is a prominent feature of the coastline. Thirteen cities are located in Akita Prefecture: These are the towns and villages in each district: Like much of the Tōhoku Region, Akita's economy remains dominated by traditional industries, such as agriculture and forestry; this has led many young people to migrate to other large cities. Akita Prefecture is, it has the lowest number of children as a percentage of the population, at 11.2%. As of 2010, it has a population of just over 1 million people; the high rate of depopulation in Akita Prefecture has led to the merging of smaller communities, which has affected the smallest of the merged communities. As depopulation in these communities and the migration to larger communities continues and health facilities have closed in some areas, leading to the continuation of the migration of families to larger cities for better access to health and educational opportunities.
The decline in younger generations has led to concerns for sustaining rural communities facing issues of aging and depopulation. Akita is famous for its sake breweries, it is well known for having the highest consumption of sake in Japan, thought to be the origin of the Akita breed of dog which carries the prefecture's name. The women of the region, referred to as Akita bijin, have gained widespread renown for their white skin, rounded faces and high voices, all of which are considered desirable. Ono no Komachi is a famous example of an Akita bijin. Akita is known for the following regional specialties: Kiritanpo Nabe Gakko Rice – Akita komachi Sake Recently there have been efforts to revitalize rural communities facing depopulation with different forms of green tourism as well as agritourism; these efforts aim at urbanites and in some cases foreign tourists, advertising the pristine forests of Akita prefecture as well as its many intangible cultures and sprawling rice fields. In Akita there has been a push for home stays, farmers markets for locally produced foods, the integration of outsiders into local cultural practices, for example the Namahage ritual on New Year's Eve, which draws a large number of tourists to Akita Prefecture every year.
Near Lake Tazawa, there are a number of hot springs resorts. These are popular with tourists from all over Japan. In addition, its numerous seasonal festivals offer a glimpse of traditional Japan; some famous examples are the Akita Kantō, the Omagari Fireworks, Namahage Festival, the Yokote Kamakura Festivals. Kakunodate is a charming old town, known as the little Kyoto, full of preserved samurai houses; the Aoyagi house is the former residence of Odano Naotake, the man who illustrated Japan's first modern guide to the human anatomy. The house is now a gallery of medical illustrations and traditional crafts. Starting in 2009, Akita began experiencing a huge surge in Korean tourism after the airing of the popular drama Iris, which featured several scenes shot in Akita, most notably at Lake Tazawa and Oga's GAO Aquarium. Kariwano Big Tug Festival, Daisen Amekko Festival, Odate Kamakura Snow Statue Event, Yokote Tsuchizaki Shinmei Festival, Akita Akita Kanto Festival, Akita Nishimonai Bon Dancing Festival, Ugo Kemanai Bon Dancing Fe
The Asuka period was a period in the history of Japan lasting from 538 to 710, although its beginning could be said to overlap with the preceding Kofun period. The Yamato polity evolved during the Asuka period, named after the Asuka region, about 25 km south of the modern city of Nara; the Asuka period is characterized by its significant artistic and political transformations, having their origins in the late Kofun period but affected by the arrival of Buddhism from China. The introduction of Buddhism marked a change in Japanese society; the Asuka period is distinguished by the change in the name of the country from Wa to Nihon. The term "Asuka period" was first used to describe a period in the history of Japanese fine-arts and architecture, it was proposed by fine-arts scholars Sekino Tadasu and Okakura Kakuzō around 1900. Sekino dated the Asuka period as ending with the Taika Reform of 646. Okakura, saw it as ending with the transfer of the capital to the Heijō Palace of Nara. Although historians use Okakura's dating, many historians of art and architecture prefer Sekino's dating and use the term "Hakuhō period" to refer to the successive period.
The Yamato polity was distinguished by powerful great clans or extended families, including their dependents. Each clan was headed by a patriarch who performed sacred rites for the clan's kami to ensure the long-term welfare of the clan. Clan members were the High Nobility, the Imperial line that controlled the Yamato polity was at its pinnacle; the Asuka period, as a sub-division of the Yamato period, is the first time in Japanese history when the Emperor of Japan ruled uncontested from modern-day Nara Prefecture known as Yamato Province. The Yamato polity was concentrated in the Asuka region and exercised power over clans in Kyūshū and Honshū, bestowing titles, some hereditary, on clan chieftains; the Yamato name became synonymous with all of Japan as the Yamato rulers suppressed other clans and acquired agricultural lands. Based on Chinese models, they developed a central administration and an imperial court attended by subordinate clan chieftains but with no permanent capital. By the mid-seventh century, the agricultural lands had grown to a substantial public domain, subject to central policy.
The basic administrative unit of the Gokishichidō system was the county, society was organized into occupation groups. Most people were farmers; the Soga clan intermarried with the imperial family, by 587 Soga no Umako, the Soga chieftain, was powerful enough to install his nephew as emperor and to assassinate him and replace him with the Empress Suiko. Suiko, the first of eight sovereign empresses, is sometimes considered a mere figurehead for Umako and Prince Regent Shōtoku Taishi; however she wielded power in her own right, the role of Shōtoku Taishi is exaggerated to the point of legend. Shōtoku, recognized as a great intellectual of this period of reform, was a devout Buddhist and was well-read in Chinese literature, he was influenced by Confucian principles, including the Mandate of Heaven, which suggested that the sovereign ruled at the will of a supreme force. Under Shōtoku's direction, Confucian models of rank and etiquette were adopted, his Seventeen-article constitution prescribed ways to bring harmony to a chaotic society in Confucian terms.
In addition, Shōtoku adopted the Chinese calendar, developed a system of trade roads, built numerous Buddhist temples, had court chronicles compiled, sent students to China to study Buddhism and Confucianism, sent Ono no Imoko to China as an emissary. Six official missions of envoys and students were sent to China in the seventh century; some remained twenty years or more. The sending of such scholars to learn Chinese political systems showed significant change from envoys in the Kofun period, in which the five kings of Wa sent envoys for the approval of their domains. In a move resented by the Chinese, Shōtoku sought equality with the Chinese emperor by sending official correspondence, addressed, "From the Son of Heaven in the Land of the Rising Sun to the Son of Heaven of the Land of the Setting Sun." Some would argue that Shōtoku's bold step set a precedent: Japan never again accepted a "subordinate" status in its relations with China, except for Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, who accepted such a relationship with China in the 15th century.
As a result, Japan in this period received no title from Chinese dynasties, while they did send tribute. From the Chinese point of view, the class or position of Japan was demoted from previous centuries in which the kings received titles. On the other hand, Japan loosened its political relationships with China and established extraordinary cultural and intellectual relationships. About twenty years after the deaths of Shōtoku Taishi, Soga no Umako, Empress Suiko, court intrigues over succession led to a palace coup in 645 against the Soga clan's monopolized control of the government; the revolt was led by Prince Naka no Ōe and Nakatomi no Kamatari, who seized control of the court from the Soga family and introduced the Taika Reform. The Japanese era corresponding to the years 645–649 was thus named Taika, referring to the Reform, meaning "great change"; the revolt leading to the Taika Reform is called the Isshi Incident, referring to the Chinese zodiac year in which the coup took place
Monuments of Japan
Monuments is a collective term used by the Japanese government's Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties to denote Cultural Properties of Japan as historic locations such as shell mounds, ancient tombs, sites of palaces, sites of forts or castles, monumental dwelling houses and other sites of high historical or scientific value. The government designates "significant" items of this kind as Cultural Properties and classifies them in one of three categories: Historic Sites Places of Scenic Beauty, Natural Monuments. Items of high significance may receive a higher classification as: Special Historic Sites Special Places of Scenic Beauty Special Natural Monuments, respectively; as of September 2013, there were 3,089 nationally designated Monuments: 1,710 Historic Sites, 374 Places of Scenic Beauty, 1,005 Natural Monuments. Since a single property can be included within more than one of these classes, the total number of properties is less than the sum of designations: for example Hamarikyu Gardens are both a Special Historic Site and a Special Place of Scenic Beauty.
As of 1 May 2013, there were a further 2,961 Historic Sites, 266 Places of Scenic Beauty, 2,985 Natural Monuments designated at a prefectural level and 12,840 Historic Sites, 845 Places of Scenic Beauty, 11,020 Natural Monuments designated at a municipal level. Alterations to the existing state of a site or activities affecting its preservation require permission from the Commissioner for Cultural Affairs. Financial support for purchasing and conserving designated land and for the utilization of the site is available through local governments; the Agency for Cultural Affairs designates monuments based on a number of criteria. A monument can be designated based on multiple criteria. Shell mounds, settlement ruins, other historic ruins of this type Ruins of fortified towns, government administration offices, old battlefields and other historic ruins related to politics or government Remains of shrines and temples, former compound grounds and other historic ruins related to religion Schools, research institutions, cultural facilities and other historic ruins related to education, learning or culture Medical care and welfare facilities, life related institution, other society and life related historic ruins Transport and communication facilities, forest conservation and flood control facilities, manufacture facilities and other historic sites related to finance or manufacture activities Graves and stone monuments with inscriptions Former residences, gardens and other areas of particular historical significance Ruins related to foreign countries or foreigners Parks and gardens Bridges and embankments Flowering trees, flowering grass, autumn colors, green trees and other places of dense growth Places inhabited by birds and wild animals, fish/insects and others Rocks, caves Ravines, waterfalls, mountain streams, abysses Lakes, wetlands, floating islands, springs Sand dunes, seasides, islands Volcanoes, onsen Mountains, plateaus, rivers Viewpoints Animals Well-known animals peculiar to Japan and their habitat Animals which are not peculiar to Japan, but need to be preserved as well-known characteristic Japanese animals, their habitat Animals or animal groups peculiar to Japan within their natural environment Domestic animals peculiar to Japan Well-known imported animals presently in a wild state, with the exception of domestic animals.
Remarkable occurrence of epiphytic plants on rocks, trees or shrubs Remarkable plant growth on marginal land Remarkable growth in the wild of crop plants Wild habitat of rare or near extinct plants Geological and mineralogical features Rocks and fossil producing sites Conformable and unconformable strata Fold and thrust strata Geological features caused by the work of living creatures Phenomena related to earthquake dislocation and landmass motion Caves, grottoes Examples of rock organization Onsen and their sediments Erosion and weathering related phenomena Fumaroles and other items related to volcanic activity Ice and frost related phenomena Particularly precious rock and fossil specimen Representative territories rich in natural monuments to be protected A separate system of "registration" has been established for modern edifices threatened by urban sprawl or other factors. Monuments from the Meiji period onward which require preservation can be registered as Registered Monuments. Members of this class of Cultural Property receive more limited assistance and protection based on governmental notification and guidance.
As of April 2012, 61 monuments were registered under this system. List of Spec
Taga Castle is the site of a Nara period jōsaku-style Japanese castle in what is now part of the town of Tagajō in Miyagi prefecture in the Tōhoku region of far northern Honshu, Japan. Bashō tells of his visit to the site in Oku no Hosomichi; the ruins of Taga-jō and its former temple have been designated a Special Historic Site. In the late Nara period, after the establishment of a centralized government under the Ritsuryō system, the Yamato court sent a number of military expeditions to what is now the Tōhoku region of northern Japan to bring the local Emishi tribes under its control. An inscription gives a foundation date of 724 AD for Tagajō and states that it was constructed by Azumabito Ono as the provisional provincial capital of Mutsu Province. Along with Akita Castle and Okachi Fort in Dewa Province, it was one of the main bases for Yamato expansion into northern Honshu, its commander was titled Chinjufu-shōgun and was the northern equivalent to the commander of Dazaifu in Kyushu. The castle was renovated by Fujiwara Asakari in 762.
Tagajō was rebuilt after being sacked and burned by the Emishi in 780, before being badly damaged by the Jōgan tsunami of 869. From 802 AD, the frontier between Yamato and Emishi territories shifted further north due to the successful campaigns of Sakanoue no Tamuramaro, with the construction of Isawa Castle, Taga Castle lost importance, it was retained as a center for administrative functions, but most military activities were transferred to various northern strongholds. The rise of Hiraizumi in the twelfth century saw its final demise; the site was discovered and excavated in 1955, with more extensive investigations in 1976. The ruins are located on a plateau near the coast of; the fortification was a square enclosure 3.4 kilometers in circumference, consisting of a 5-meter high earthen rampart surmounted by a wooden palisade, protected by a 3-4 meter wide dry moat. In the center was a square compound with earthen walls, containing government administrative buildings and storehouses. About a kilometer south of the Taga Castle ruins are the ruins of a large Buddhist temple complex, outside the southern wall of the castle are the ruins of a planned settlement.
The site today has preserved the foundation stones of Taga Castle in a park-like setting. The Tsubo no Ishibumi or Tagajōhi is a Nara period inscription that gives distances to the capital at Nara, the province of the Emishi, other regions. Matsuo Bashō creatively recounts his viewing of the stele in Oku no Hosomichi, concluding'there are any certain vestiges of what has been, yet in this place there are wholly trustworthy memorials of events a millennium ago' and is moved to tears. In his account the monument functions as utamakura. In 1998 it was designated an Important Cultural Property. Excavations to the southeast of the fort have uncovered the ruins of a temple, now known as Tagajō Haiji. Five buildings have been identified inside a large rectangular compound enclosed by an earthen wall; the Tōhoku History Museum, on the grounds of the Taga Castle, has finds from the excavations as well as from other sites in Tōhoku. Emishi List of Historic Sites of Japan Dazaifu List of Special Places of Scenic Beauty, Special Historic Sites and Special Natural Monuments Tagajō Tourist Association Excavation report The Comprehensive Database of Archaeological Site Reports in Japan.
Miyagi Prefectural Agency for Cultural Affairs JCastle info
The Mogami River is a river in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. It is 224 km long and has a watershed of 7,040 km², it is regarded as one of the three most rapid rivers of Japan. The river rises from southern Yamagata Prefecture and flows to the north, turns west at Shinjō and flows into the Sea of Japan at Sakata. Water transportation once flourished on the river and carried local products such as safflowers and rice to the Kansai region; the Mogami River appears as an utamakura in Japanese poetry, with the influential 17th-century poet Matsuo Bashō composing several hokku regarding the river during his travels alongside it. Some were revised as haiku in the memoir of his journeys, including this well-known poem: 五月雨をあつめて早し最上川 samidare o atsumete hayashi Mogami-gawagathering the rains of the wet season — swift the Mogami River The character Yūko Aioi in the Nichijou manga has inner monologues in haiku form, all ending with the name of the river as a complete non sequitur. Mogami-gawa is the name of the anthem of Yamagata Prefecture written by Emperor Hirohito.
The Japanese Navy had two different cruisers named Mogami. 38°55′23″N 139°48′32″E
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word