My Lord Bag of Rice
"My Lord Bag of Rice" is a fairy tale about a hero who kills a giant centipede, Ōmukade, to help a Japanese dragon princess, is rewarded in her underwater Ryūgū-jō 龍宮城 "dragon palace castle". The 1711 Honchō kwaidan koji 本朝怪談故事 contains the best-known version of this Japanese myth about the warrior Fujiwara no Hidesato. There is a Shinto shrine near the Seta Bridge at Lake Biwa where people worship Tawara Tōda 俵藤太 "Rice-bag Tōda". In olden times, when Fujiwara no Hidesato crossed the bridge, a big serpent lay across it; the hero, was not at all afraid, calmly stepped over the monster which at once disappeared into the water and returned in the shape of a beautiful woman. Two thousand years, she said, she had lived under this bridge, but never had she seen such a brave man as he. For this reason she requested him to destroy her enemy, Ōmukade, a giant venomous centipede which had killed her sons and grandsons. Hidesato promised her to do so and, armed with a bow and arrows, awaited the centipede on the bridge.
There came from the top of Mt. Mikami two enormous lights, as big as the light of two hundred torches; these were Ōmukade's eyes, Hidesato sent three arrows in that direction, whereupon the lights were extinguished and the monster died. The dragon woman, filled with joy and gratitude, took the hero with her to the splendid Dragon-palace, where she regaled him with delicious dishes and rewarded him with a piece of silk, a sword, an armour, a temple bell and a bag of rice, she said, that there would always be silk left as long as he lived, however much he might cut from it. Hidesato subsequently donated this bell to Mii-dera temple at Mount Hiei but it was stolen by a priest from rival Enryaku-ji temple, he threw it into a valley after it spoke to him, when the cracked bell was returned to Mii-dera, a small snake used its tail to repair the damage. The 14th-century Taiheiki records an earlier version of this legend about Hidesato, set during the Genpei War, but instead of the dragon turning into a beautiful woman, it transforms into a "strange small man" – the Dragon King himself.
According to Azuma Kagami, he was claimed as an ancestor by Ashikaga Tadatsuna, under the name of Tawara Toda Hidesato, from 10 generations ago. This Lord Bag of Rice fable is included in Japanese Fairy Tales by Yei Theodora Ozaki and A Book of Dragons by Ruth Manning-Sanders. English Wikisource has original text related to this article: My Lord Bag of Rice
Kintarō is a folk hero from Japanese folklore. A child of superhuman strength, he was raised by a yama-uba on Mount Ashigara, he became friendly with the animals of the mountain, after catching Shuten-dōji, the terror of the region around Mount Ōe, he became a loyal follower of Minamoto no Yorimitsu under the new name Sakata no Kintoki. He is a popular figure in Bunraku and kabuki drama, it is a custom to put up a Kintarō doll on Boy's Day in the hope that boys will become brave and strong. Kintarō is based on a real person, Sakata Kintoki, who lived during the Heian period and came from what is now the city of Minamiashigara, Kanagawa, he served as a retainer for the samurai Minamoto no Yorimitsu and became well known for his abilities as a warrior. As with many larger-than-life individuals, his legend has grown with time. Several competing stories tell of Kintarō's childhood. In one, he was raised by his mother, Princess Yaegiri, daughter of a wealthy man named Shiman-chōja, in the village of Jizodo, near Mount Ashigara.
In a competing legend, his mother gave birth to him in, Yamagata. She was forced to flee, due to fighting between her husband, a samurai named Sakata, his uncle, she settled in the forests of Mount Ashigara to raise her son. Alternatively, Kintarō's real mother left the child in the wilds or died and left him an orphan, he was raised by a yama-uba or "mountain witch". In the most fanciful version of the tale, the yama-uba was Kintarō's mother, impregnated by a clap of thunder sent from a red dragon of Mount Ashigara; the legends agree that as a toddler, Kintarō was active and indefatigable and ruddy, wearing only a bib with the kanji for "gold" on it. His only other accoutrement was a hatchet, he was bossy to other children, so his friends were the animals of Mt. Kintoki and Mt. Ashigara, he was phenomenally strong, able to smash rocks into pieces, uproot trees, bend trunks like twigs. His animal friends served him as messengers and mounts, some legends say that he learned to speak their language.
Several tales tell of Kintarō's adventures, fighting monsters and oni, beating bears in sumo wrestling, helping the local woodcutters fell trees. As an adult, Kintarō changed his name to Sakata no Kintoki, he met. Yorimitsu was impressed by Kintarō's enormous strength, so he took him as one of his personal retainers to live with him in Kyoto. Kintoki studied martial arts there and became the chief of Yorimitsu's Shitennō, renowned for his strength and martial prowess, he went back for his mother and brought her to Kyoto as well. Kintarō is an popular figure in Japan, his image adorns everything from statues to storybooks, manga to action figures. For example, the manga and anime Golden Boy stars a character with the same name. Kintarō as an image is characterized with an ono, a haragake apron, sometimes a tame bear. In many of Kintarō's pictures, it seems; this seems to glorify his strength. Kintarō candy has been around since the Edo period. Japanese tradition is to decorate the room of a newborn baby boy with Kintarō dolls on Children's Day so that the child will grow up to be strong like the Golden Boy.
A shrine dedicated to the folk hero lies at the foot of Mount Ashigara in the Hakone area near Tokyo. Nearby is a giant boulder, chopped in half by the boy hero himself; the name and certain traits of the main character of Gin Tama, Gintoki Sakata, are loosely based on Kintarō. The relation has been confirmed in Gin Tama's episode 98 and manga volume 10. Gintoki has its name contain the character for "silver" instead of "gold", he has silver hair. One of his nemeses, the golden-haired Sakata Kintoki made an appearance. In the anime series Otogi Zoshi, Kintaro is one of the main characters; the Imagin Kintaros from the tokusatsu series Kamen Rider Den-O is based on Kintarō, emulating the bear and axe elements. In the video game Otogi 2: Immortal Warriors developed by From Software, Kintoki wields a large axe as his main weapon, known as the'Crimson Axe'. Kintarō appears as an alien character who rides a flying bear and wields a small axe in the animated television series Urusei Yatsura. In the anime and manga series The Prince of Tennis, a character by the name of Tōyama Kintarō is the youngest regular member of the Shitenhoji Middle School tennis team.
He is named after Kintarō, shares his namesake's amazing superhuman strength. In the series One Piece, the character called, his signature attacks is called Ashigara Dokkoi. In the Power Instinct video game series, Kintaro appears as a playable character as Kintaro Kokuin, he uses his animal friends, such as a bear and a koi fish, as well as his axe, to attack the opponent, is capable of transforming into a dog-like superhero named "Poochy". In the video game Persona 4, Kintaro becomes a playable persona, under the name Kintoki-Douji. In a visual pun, instead of carrying an axe, it carries a Tomahawk missile. In the anime Kai Doh Maru, Kintoki is a girl who passes as a boy and is rescued by Raiko no Minamoto from her evil uncle Shuten Doji. H
Abura-sumashi is a creature from the folklore of Amakusa in Kumamoto prefecture. This spirit, which surprises people on the Kusazumigoe mountain pass, is thought to be the ghost of a human who stole oil. In the days before electricity, oil was a valuable commodity, necessary for lighting and heating a house; as such, the theft of oil from temples and shrines, could lead to punishment via reincarnation as a yōkai. In modern media the abura-sumashi is depicted as, "a squat creature with a straw-coat covered body and a potato-like or stony head," an appearance inspired by the artwork of Shigeru Mizuki. "Aburasumashi". The Obakemono Project. Archived from the original on 6 February 2006. Retrieved February 21, 2006. "Aburasumashi". Kaii-Yōkai Denshō Database. Retrieved October 10, 2006. "Sumoto-town". Asahi.com. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved October 16, 2006
Awa Tanuki Gassen
The Awa Tanuki Gassen is a Japanese legend that takes place in the Awa Province. The legend is about a great war between two tanuki powers. There are several well-known tales about tanuki in Shikkoku, this one is said to be the most famous among those from Tokushima; this story first appeared near the end of the Edo Period, in literature, it was first published in Meiji 43 under the title "Shikoku Kidan Jissetsu Furudanuki Gassen". It was a kōdan from the Meiji period until the time of the war and gained popularity in the beginning of the Showa period as it became depicted in movies. In the Heisei period, it has become a common theme in community development and is known in Tokushima Prefecture; the story took place around the tenpō period near Higaino in Komatsushima. A dyer named Moemon, who ran a dyeing shop called Yamatoya, saved a tanuki, being bullied by people. Before long, Yamatoya's business was flourishing; the tanuki came to serve as the guardian angel of Mankichi, who worked at the shop, told of his origins.
This tanuki was called Kinchō and he was chief of the local tanuki, aged around 206 years old. While around Mankichi, Kinchō performed great services such as curing customers' diseases and performing divination, gaining himself a great reputation. A few years Kinchō/Mankichi decided to try to raise his rank in society beyond that of a mere tanuki, so he became an apprentice to the bake-danuki, who lived in Tsuda Bay, Myōdō District. After much training, Kinchō displayed great accomplishments and achieved the rank of Senior First Rank. Rokuemon, loath to let go of Kinchō, tried to make him stay as a son-in-law through marriage to his daughter. However, Kinchō felt obliged to return to Moemon, furthermore disliked Rokuemon's cruel personality, so he refused. Unsatisfied with this, Rokuemon thought that Kinchō would become his enemy and, together with a vassal, tried to assassinate Kinchō. Kinchō, with the assistance of a tanuki from Higaino named Fuji no Kidera no Taka, counterattacked. However, Taka died in battle, only Kinchō was able to escape to Higaino.
Kinchō attempted to recruit followers in order to take revenge for Taka, started a battle with Rokuemon and his followers. In this battle, Kinchō's army won and Rokuemon was bitten to death, but Kinchō suffered mortal wounds and died afterwards before long, it is said that Moemon, in regret for how Kinchō lost his life just before achieving the rank of Senior First Rank, went himself to Kyoto's priest at the Yoshida Shrine, awarded him the title of Senior First Rank. Around the time of this battle, it was rumored that Kinchō's army was gathering at the Chinju Forest in preparation for battle against Rokuemon; when people entered the forest for sight-seeing, they heard much clamour and saw the footprints of a great number of tanuki, leading to speculation that the rumours of a battle were not lies or fairy tales. The exact story varies depending on the source, seen to be the result of being influenced by a certain kōdan. Rokuemon's daughter's name was Koyasuhime, she was in love with Kinchō, criticized Rokuemon for trying to attack Kinchō, committed suicide in an attempt to make him feel guilt.
However, Koyasuhime's death only increased Rokuemon's hatred. Kinchō, upon hearing the death of Koyasu who loved him, became more determined to bring down Rokuemon; the battle took place around Katsuura River, Kinchō's and Rokuemon's army were both more than 600 tanuki, the battle lasted for 3 days and nights. Shibaemon-tanuki from Awaji Island took part in the battle. Despite receiving a mortal wound, Kinchō returned to Higaino and told thanks to Moemon before losing his final strength. Moemon, moved by seeing this and how he lived, deified Kinchō as a daimyōjin. On the verge of death, Kinchō became a spirit and served as Mankichi's guardian spirit, swore to serve as a god for the Moemon family after death, as an act of gratitude. Moemon, moved by this, deified Kinchō as a daimyōjin. After Kinchō and Rokuemon's deaths, their sons started fighting in grief over Kinchō and Rokuemon, but Tasaburō-tanuki intervened and mediated, ending the war. In the years of Tenpō, there existed a tale about how a tanuki saved by Yamatoya repaid the favor as a sign of gratitude, leading to the theory that this story came from that tale.
In a certain year after that, there was an incident where a great number of tanuki corpses were found at the river banks of Katsuura River, leading to the theory that the tale of the great clash between Kinchō and Rokuemon was born from people creating a "kōdan" based on these events. On the other hand, the kinds of battles and conflicts detailed in this war, being aspects of human society, can be thought of as a depiction of events in human society with the people replaced by tanuki. In a spiritual mountain of the Tokushima's Shugendō practitioners, there was a battle between the different sects. In the legend called the Furudanuki Kinchō Giyuu Chinsetsuseki, there was a scene of rock-throwing, since rock-throwing was a military technique of the Middle Ages, there's the theory that the tale of the battle between tanuki was based on a battle between Shugendō practitioners on Mount Tairyūji and Mount Tsurugi. In this theory, the Shugendō practitioners on Tairyūji would be based on Kinchō and the Shugendō practitioners on Mount Tsurugi would be based on Rokuemon, suggesting that it's related to a clash that erupted when differ
Hakuzōsu written Hakuzousu, is the name of a popular kitsune character who pretended to be a priest in Japanese folklore. The Buddhist monk Hakuzōsu lived in Osaka at the temple Shōrin-ji, he kept a few kitsunes in his temple. He used these kitsunes to foretell the future; the legend of Hakuzōsu became a Kyōgen play, Tsurigitsune / Konkai In this story, a hunter is visited by his uncle, the priest Hakuzōsu, who lectures his nephew on the evils of killing foxes. The hunter is nearly convinced, but after the priest departs, he hears the cry of the fox and realizes it wasn't his uncle at all but a fox in guise; the fox resumes his natural form and reverts to his wild ways, takes the bait in a trap and is captured. Stevenson, John. Yoshitoshi's One Hundred Aspects of the Moon. San Francisco Graphic Society. ISBN 978-0-9632218-0-3. "Plays Kyôgen In English". Retrieved 2017-03-30
Shita-kiri Suzume, translated into "Tongue-Cut Sparrow", is a traditional Japanese fable telling of a kind old man, his avaricious wife and an injured sparrow. The story explores the effects of greed and jealousy on the characters. Andrew Lang included it as The Sparrow with the Slit Tongue in The Pink Fairy Book; the basic form of the tale is common throughout the world. Once upon a time there lived a poor old woodcutter with his wife, who earned their living by cutting wood and fishing; the old man was honest and kind but his wife was arrogant and greedy. One morning, the old man went into the mountains to cut timber and saw an injured sparrow crying out for help. Feeling sorry for the bird, the man took it back to his home and fed it some rice to try to help it recover, his wife, being greedy and rude, was annoyed that he would waste precious food on such a small and insignificant little thing as a sparrow. The old man, continued caring for the bird; the man had to return to the mountains one day and left the bird in the care of the old woman, who had no intention of feeding it.
After her husband left, she went out fishing. While she was gone, the sparrow got into some starch, left out and ate all of it; the old woman was so angry upon her return that she cut out the bird's tongue and sent it flying back into the mountains from where it came. The old man went searching for the bird and, with the help of other sparrows, found his way into a bamboo grove in which the sparrow's inn was located. A multitude of sparrows led him to his friend, the little sparrow he saved; the others danced for him. Upon his departure, they presented him with a choice of a large basket or a small basket as a present. Being an older man, he chose the small basket; when he arrived home, he discovered a large amount of treasure inside. The wife, learning of the existence of a larger basket, ran to the sparrow's inn in the hope of getting more treasure for herself, she was warned not to open it before getting home. Such was her greed that the wife could not resist opening the basket before she returned to the house.
To her surprise, the box was full of other monsters. They startled her so much that she tumbled all the way down the mountain to her death; the purity of friendship overcomes the evil of jealousy. Greed only leads to one's own demise; the tale is classified as Aarne–Thompson type 480, "The Kind and the Unkind Girls." Others of this type include Diamonds and Toads, Mother Hulda, The Three Heads of the Well, Father Frost, The Three Little Men in the Wood, The Enchanted Wreath, The Old Witch and The Two Caskets. Literary variants include Aurore and Aimée; the story has been translated into English many times, by A. B. Mitford, William Elliot Griffis, David Thomson, Yei Theodora Ozaki, Teresa Peirce Williston, many others; the Fountain of Youth English Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Tongue-Cut Sparrow
Otogi-zōshi refers to a group of about 350 Japanese prose narratives written in the Muromachi period. These illustrated short stories, which remain unattributed, together form one of the representative literary genres of the Japanese medieval era. Otogi-zōshi is a general term for narrative literature written between the Muromachi period and the beginning of the Edo period; the term originates with a mid-Edo collection of titled Otogi Bunko or Otogi-zōshi. It came to denote other works of the same genre and period. Modern scholarship sometimes distinguishes between "true" otogi-zōshi, covering only the 23 works included in the aforementioned collection, other works that it instead terms Muromachi-jidai monogatari or chūsei shōsetsu; the 23 tales covered by the narrow definition are: Bunshō-zōshi Hachi Kazuki Komachi Sōshi Onzōshi Shima-watari Karaito-zōshi Kowata-gitsune Nanakusa Sōshi Saru Genji Sōshi Monokusa Tarō Sazare-ishi Hamaguri no Sōshi Ko-Atsumori Nijūshi-kō Bontengoku Nose-zaru Sōshi Neko no Sōshi Hamade Izumi Shikibu Issun-bōshi Saiki Urashima Tarō Yokobue-zōshi Shutendōji Under the broad definition, there around 500 surviving examples.
Most are of uncertain date. Their authors are largely unknown, but whereas Heian and Kamakura monogatari were all composed by members of the aristocracy, these works were composed by not just aristocrats but Buddhist monks, educated members of the warrior class; some of the otogi-zōshi may have been written by members of the emerging urban merchant class. The works' intended readership was broader than the monogatari of earlier eras, they therefore have a wide variety of contents and draw material from various literary works of the past. Based on their contents, scholars have divided them into six genres: kuge-mono shūkyō-mono buke-mono shomin-mono gaikoku-mono irui-mono Kuge-mono are tales of the aristocracy, they mark a continuation of the earlier monogatari literature, are noted for the influence of The Tale of Genji. Many of them are abridged versions of earlier works. Among the romantic works in this sub-genre are Shinobine Monogatari and Wakakusa Monogatari, most end sadly with the characters cutting themselves off from society.
Otogi-zōshi have been broken down into multiple categories: tales of the aristocracy, which are derived from earlier works such as The Tale of Genji. The most well-known of the tales, are retellings of familiar legends and folktales, such as Issun-bōshi, the story of a one-inch-tall boy who overcomes countless obstacles to achieve success in the capital; the term otogi means "companion", with the full name of the genre translating to "companion tale". This designation, did not come into use until 1725, when a publisher from Osaka released a set of 23 illustrated booklets titled Shūgen otogibunko; as other publishers produced their own versions of Shūgen otogibunko, they began referring to the set of tales as otogi-zōshi. The term came to describe any work from the Muromachi or early Edo period that exhibited the same general style as the tales in Shūgen otogibunko. Otogi-zōshi came to the attention of modern literary historians in the late nineteenth century. For the most part, scholars have been critical of this genre, dismissing it for its perceived faults when compared to the aristocratic literature of the Heian and Kamakura periods.
As a result, standardized Japanese school textbooks omit any reference to otogi-zōshi from their discussions of medieval Japanese literature. Recent studies, have contradicted this critical stance, highlighting the vitality and inherent appeal of this underappreciated genre; the term "chusei shosetsu", coined by eminent scholar Ichiko Teiji, attempts to situate the tales within a narrative continuum. Aisome-gawa Aki no Yo no Naga Monogatari Komachi Sōshi Koshikibu Koshikibu Urashima Tarō Utatane no Sōshi Araki, James. "Otogizōshi and Nara-Ehon: A Field of Study in Flux", Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 36: 1-20. Kavanagh, Frederick G. "An Errant Priest. Sasayaki Tale". Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 51: 219-244. Mulhern, Chieko Irie. "Otogizōshi. Short Stories of the Muromachi Period", Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 29: 181-198. 『室町時代物語大成』. Kadokawa Shoten. 奥野健男. 『お伽草紙』. 新潮文庫. ISBN 4-10-100607-5 Skord, Virginia. "Tales of Tears and Laughter: Short Fiction of Medieval Japan", University of Hawaii Press, 1991. Skord, Virginia.
"Monogusa Tarō: From Rags to Riches and Beyond", Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 44, 171-198. Waters, Virginia Skord. "Sex and the Illustrated Scroll: The Dojoji Engi Emaki", Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 52,59-84. "Sekai no Dejitaru Nara Ehon Detabesu" at Keiō University Translations of Classical Japanese Works, Meiji Gakuin University Online edition of the Otogizōshi at Kyoto University