In political science, Marxism–Leninism was the official state ideology of the Soviet Union, of the parties of the Communist International, after their Bolshevisation, is the ideology of Stalinist political parties. As Stalin's synthesis of Leninism, the political praxis of Lenin, of Marxism, the politico-economic theories of Karl Marx, the purpose of Marxism–Leninism is the transformation of a capitalist state into a socialist state, by way of two-stage revolution and led by a vanguard party of professional revolutionaries, drawn from the proletariat. To realise the two-stage transformation of the state, the vanguard party establishes the dictatorship of the proletariat, which determines policy with democratic centralism. Politically, the Marxist–Leninist communist party is the vanguard for the organisation of a capitalist society into a socialist society, the lower stage of socio-economic development, progress towards the upper-stage communist society, stateless and classless. In the late 1920s, after the death of Lenin, Stalin established universal ideologic orthodoxy among the Communist Party, the USSR, the Communist International, with his coinage Marxism–Leninism, a term which redefined theories of Lenin and Marx to establish universal Marxist–Leninist praxis for the exclusive, geopolitical benefit of the USSR.
In the late 1930s, Stalin's official textbook The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, made the term Marxism–Leninism common, political-science usage among communists and non-communists. Critical of Stalin's political economy and single-party government in the USSR, the Italian Left-communist Amadeo Bordiga said that Marxism–Leninism was a form of political opportunism, which preserved rather than destroyed capitalism, because of the claim that the exchange of commodities would occur under socialism; the American Marxist Raya Dunayevskaya dismissed Marxism–Leninism as a type of state capitalism because: state ownership of the means of production is a form of state capitalism. In 1929, within five years of the death of Lenin, Stalin was the Government of the Soviet Union, a ruler who flouted and applied the socialist principles of Lenin and Marx as political expediencies used to realise his plans for the USSR and for world socialism. Stalin justified his régime's deviations from Lenin's practices with the book Concerning Questions of Leninism, in which Stalin represented Marxism–Leninism as a separate communist ideology, which featured an omniscient leader, hierarchies of one global communist party and communist vanguard parties in each country of the world.
Stalin's interpretations of Lenin and Marx became Stalinism, the official state ideology of the Soviet Union. As the Left Opposition to Stalin within the Communist Party and the Soviet government, Leon Trotsky and the Trotskyists argued that Stalin's Marxist–Leninist ideology contradicted Marxism and Leninism in theory and in practice, thus was illegitimate socialist philosophy for the practical implementation of Socialism in Russia. Moreover, within the Party, the Trotskyists identified their communist ideology as Bolshevik–Leninism, to politically differentiate their ideology from the ideology Stalin used to justify and implement his theory of Socialism in One Country. In Marxist political discourse the term Marxism–Leninism and connoting the theory and praxis of Stalinism, has two usages: praise of Joseph Stalin, by Stalinists who believe Stalin developed Lenin's legacy. Consequent to the Sino-Soviet split, in each socialist country, the Communist Party of China and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union each claimed to be the sole heir-and-successor to Stalin, regarding the correct interpretation of Marxism–Leninism, thus ideological leader of world communism.
In that vein, the History of the People's Republic of China represents Maoism as Mao Zedong's fundamental up-dating and adaptation of Leninism to Chinese conditions, in which revolutionary praxis is primary and ideologic orthodoxy is secondary. The Sino-Albanian split was caused by Socialist Albania's rejection of the PRC's Realpolitik of Sino–American rapprochement the Mao–Nixon meeting, which the anti-revisionist Albanian Labor Party perceived as an ideological betrayal of Mao's own Three Worlds Theory, which excluded such political relations of rapprochement. To the Albanians, the Chinese dealings with the U. S. were a lessening of Mao's practical commitments to proletarian internationalism. Enver Hoxha, the head of the Albanian Labor Party, theorised an anti-revisionist Marxism-Leninism referred to as Hoxhaism, which attempted to retain an'authentic' socialism in comparison to the post-Stalinist Soviet Union
Kabul is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan, located in the eastern section of the country. It is a municipality, forming part of the greater Kabul Province. According to estimates in 2015, the population of Kabul is 4.635 million, which includes all the major ethnic groups of Afghanistan. Rapid urbanization had made Kabul the world's 75th largest city. Kabul is located high up in a narrow valley between the Hindu Kush mountains, with an elevation of 1,790 metres making it one of the highest capitals in the world; the city is said to be over 3,500 years old, mentioned since at least the time of the Achaemenid Empire. It is at a strategic location along the trade routes of South and Central Asia, a key location of the ancient Silk Road, it has been part of the Achaemenids followed by the Seleucids, Greco Bactrians, Indo Greeks, Kabul Shahis, Samanids, Ghurids, Qarlughids, Timurids and Hotaks, until becoming part of the Durrani Empire in 1747. Kabul became the capital of Afghan Empire in 1776, during the reign of Timur Shah Durrani, the son of Ahmad Shah Durrani.
In the early 19th century, the British occupied the city but after establishing foreign relations they were compelled to withdraw all forces from Afghanistan. The city was occupied by the Soviets in 1979 but they too abandoned it after the 1988 Geneva Accords were signed. A civil war in the 1990s between various rebel groups destroyed much of the city, resulting in many casualties. Kabul is known for its gardens and palaces, it was formerly a mecca for young western hippies. Since the removal of the Taliban from power in late 2001, the city began rebuilding itself with assistance from the international community. Despite the many terrorist attacks by anti-state elements, the city is developing and was the fifth fastest-growing city in the world as of 2012; the city is divided into 22 districts. Kabul is spelled as Cabool, Kabol, or Cabul; the origin of Kabul, who built it and when, is unknown. The Hindu Rigveda, composed between 1500–1200 BCE and one of the four canonical sacred texts of Hinduism, the Avesta, the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, refer to the Kabul River and to a settlement called Kubha.
The Rigveda refers to Kubha as an "ideal city" and a vision of paradise set in the mountains and is full of poems in praise of the city. The Kabul valley was part of the Median Empire. In 549 BC, the Median Empire was annexed by Cyrus The Great and Kabul became part the Achaemenid Empire. During that period, Kabul became a center of learning for Zoroastrianism, followed by Buddhism. An inscription on Darius the Great's tombstone lists Kabul as one of the 29 countries of the Achaemenid Empire; when Alexander annexed the Achaemenid Empire, the Kabul region came under his control. After his death, his empire was seized by his general Seleucus, becoming part of the Seleucid Empire; the Greco-Bactrians took control of Kabul from the Seleucids lost the city to their subordinates in the Indo-Greek Kingdom around the mid-2nd century BC. Buddhism was patronized by the rulers and majority of people of the city were adherents of the religion. Indo-Scythians expelled the Indo-Greeks by the mid 1st century BC, but lost the city to the Kushan Empire about 100 years later.
Some historians ascribe Kabul the Sanskrit name of Kamboja. It is mentioned as Kophene in some classical writings. Hsuan Tsang refers to the city as Kaofu in the 7th century AD, the appellation of one of the five tribes of the Yuezhi who had migrated from across the Hindu Kush into the Kabul valley around the beginning of the Christian era, it was conquered by Kushan Emperor Kujula Kadphises in about 45 AD and remained Kushan territory until at least the 3rd century AD. The Kushans were Indo-European-speaking Tocharians from the Tarim Basin. Around 230 AD, the Kushans were defeated by the Sassanid Empire and replaced by Sassanid vassals known as the Indo-Sassanids. During the Sassanian period, the city was referred to as "Kapul" in Pahlavi scripts. Kapol in the Persian language means Royal Bridge, due to the main bridge on the Kabul River that connected the east and west of the city. In 420 AD the Indo-Sassanids were driven out of Afghanistan by the Xionite tribe known as the Kidarites, who were replaced in the 460s by the Hephthalites.
It became part of the surviving Turk Shahi Kingdom of Kapisa known as Kabul-Shahan. According to Táríkhu-l Hind by Al-Biruni, Kabul was governed by princes of Turkic lineage whose rule lasted for about 60 generations; the Kabul rulers built a defensive wall around the city to protect it from enemy raids. This wall has survived until today, it was held by the Tibetan Empire between 801 and 815. The Islamic conquest reached modern-day Afghanistan in 642 AD, at a time. A number of failed expeditions were made to Islamize the region. In one of them, Abdur Rahman bin Samana arrived to Kabul from Zaranj in the late 600s and converted 12,000 inhabitants to Islam before abandoning the city. Muslims were a minority until Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar of Zaranj conquered Kabul in 870 and established the first Islamic dynasty in the region, it was reported. Kábul has a castle celebrated for its strength, accessible only by one road. In it there are Musulmáns, it has a town, in which are infidels from Hind. Over the following centuries, the city was successively controlled by the Samanids, Ghurids, Kh
Xi Jinping Thought
Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era known as Xi Jinping Thought, is a political theory derived from the Chinese Communist Party General Secretary Xi Jinping. The thought consists of a 14-point basic policy as follows: Ensuring Communist Party of China leadership over all forms of work in China; the Communist Party of China should take a people-centric approach for the public interest. The continuation of "comprehensive deepening of reforms". Adopting new science-based ideas for "innovative, green and shared development". Following "socialism with Chinese characteristics" with "people as the masters of the country". Governing China with Rule of Law. "Practice socialist core values", including Marxism and socialism with Chinese characteristics. "Improving people's livelihood and well-being is the primary goal of development". Coexist well with nature with "energy conservation and environmental protection" policies and "contribute to global ecological safety".
Strengthen national security. The Communist Party of China should have "absolute leadership over" China's People's Liberation Army. Promoting the one country, two systems system for Hong Kong and Macau with a future of "complete national reunification" and to follow the One-China policy and 1992 Consensus for Taiwan. Establish a common destiny between Chinese people and other people around the world with a "peaceful international environment". Improve party discipline in the Communist Party of China; the first official mention of the term was at the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China and it has been developed since 2012 after Xi became General Secretary of the Communist Party of China. The 19th Congress affirmed the ideology as a guiding political and military ideology of the Communist Party of China; the affirmation received unanimous support as every delegate voted to approve by raising hands when Xi asked their opinions on the Congress. The incorporation made Xi the third Chinese leader after Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping whose names appeared in the list of fundamental doctrines of the CPC, which raised Xi above his two most recent predecessors, former General Secretaries Hu Jintao and Jiang Zemin.
In his report, Xi promised to make China strong, propelling the country into a "new era". Xi first made mention of the Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era in the opening day speech delivered to the 19th Party Congress in October 2017. In their own reviews of Xi's keynote address at the Congress, his Politburo Standing Committee colleagues prepended the name "Xi Jinping" in front of "Thought". Xi himself has described the thought as part of the broad framework created around socialism with Chinese characteristics, a Dengist term that places China in the "primary stage of socialism". In official party documentation and pronouncements by Xi's colleagues, the thought is said to be a continuation of Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, "the important thought of the Three Represents" and the scientific development perspective as part of a series of guiding ideologies that embody "Marxism adapted to Chinese conditions" and contemporary considerations.
At its closing session on 24 October, the 19th Party Congress approved the incorporation of Xi Jinping Thought into the Constitution of the Communist Party of China. Dozens of Chinese universities have established research institutes for Xi Jinping Thought after the Congress dedicated to advocating the incorporation of Xi Jinping Thought in all aspects of daily life; the concepts behind Xi Jinping Thought are elaborated in Xi's The Governance of China book series, published by the Foreign Languages Press for an international audience. Volume one was published in September 2014, followed by volume two in November 2017. On 27 November, more than 100 of China's top filmmakers and pop stars were gathered for a day in Hangzhou to study the report of the 19th Party Congress featuring Xi Jinping Thought. In July 2018, the carriages of a train in Changchun Metro were decked out in red and dozens of Xi's quotes to celebrate the 97th anniversary of Communist Party of China; the train was described as a "highly condensed spiritual manual" of Xi Jinping Thought by the local government.
Deng Xiaoping Theory General Secretary Xi Jinping important speech series Mao Zedong Thought Scientific Outlook on Development Three Represents Xi Jinping's Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New era. A course on edX by Tsinghua University
Ghazni is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in central Afghanistan, towards the east. The province contains 19 districts, encompassing over a thousand villages and 1.3 million people. The city of Ghazni serves as the capital, it lies on the important Kabul–Kandahar Highway, has functioned as an important trade center. The Ghazni Airport is located next to the city of Ghazni and provides limited domestic flights to Afghanistan's capital, Kabul; the province was known as Ghazna in the 10th century and after the Ghaznavid era. Ghazni was a thriving Buddhist center before and during the 7th century AD. Excavations have revealed religious artifacts of Buddhist traditions. "The two other great Buddhist centers and Tepe-e-sardar in its phase are a different matter and display another phase of influences coming from India from the seventh to eighth century. The representations show themes from Mahayana iconography and in the case of the latter site assume Tantric aspects which had established themselves in the large Indian monasteries like Nalanda."
In 644 AD, the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang visited the city of Jaguda, while returning from Varnu In 683 AD, armies from the Umayyad Caliphate brought Islam to the area and attempted to conquer the capital of Ghazni but the local tribes fiercely resisted. Its resistance was so famed that Yaqub Saffari from Zaranj made an example of Ghazni when he ranged the vast region conquering in the name of Islam; the city was destroyed by the Saffarids in 869. A substantial portion of the local population including Hindus and Buddhists were converted to Islam by Mahmud of Ghazni "There is no evidence that Ghazna had formed part of the Samanid kingdom, it had been overrun with the whole of Zabulistan and Kabul by the Saffaris by 260 but it is doubtful how far their power was permanent and when the Samanids became paramount there is no evidence that Kabul or Ghazna were under them. The ruler of Ghazna was allied to the Hindushahis of Kabul; these titles were not as yet used by the Muhammadan rulers. The Padshah Lavik was a Hindu chief though some passages in the Tabakth i Nisiri give him the name of Abu Bakr or Abu Ali."
After the rebuilding of the city by Yaqub's brother, it became the dazzling capital of the Ghaznavids from 994 to 1160, encompassing much of North India and Central Asia. Many iconoclastic campaigns were launched from Ghazni into India; the Ghaznavids took Islam to India and returned with fabulous riches taken from both prince and temple god. Contemporary visitors and residents at Ghazni write with wonder of the ornateness of the buildings, the great libraries, the sumptuousness of the court ceremonies and of the wealth of precious objects owned by Ghazni's citizens. Ferishta records attacks by Muhammad of Ghor: "at the same time most of the infidels who inhabited the mountains between Ghazni and the Indus were converted, some by force and others by persuasion." Ghazni's eponymous capital was razed in 1151 by the Ghorid Alauddin. It again flourished but only to be permanently devastated, this time in 1221 by Genghis Khan and his Mongol armies after 6 years of Khwarezmid rule. Ghazni's strategic position, both economically and militarily, assured its revival under the Qarlughids, albeit without its dazzling former grandeur.
Ghazni is famous for its minarets built on a stellar plan. They date from the middle of the twelfth century and are the surviving element of the mosque of Bahramshah, their sides are decorated with geometric patterns. Upper sections of the minarets have been destroyed; the most important mausoleum located in Ghazni is that of Sultan Mahmud's. Others include the tombs of poets and scientists, for example Sanai; the only ruins in Old Ghazni retaining a semblance of architectural form are two towers, about 43 m high and some 365 m apart. According to inscriptions, the towers were constructed by Mahmud of his son. Ibn Battuta noted "The greater part of the town is in ruins, with nothing but a fraction of it still standing, although it was a great city."Babur records in his memoirs that Ghazni was part of Zabulistan. The area was controlled by the Mughals until Nader Shah and his Persian forces invaded it in 1738. Ahmad Shah Durrani made it part of the Durrani Empire. During the First Anglo-Afghan War, the capital of Ghazni province was destroyed by the British-led Indian forces in the Battle of Ghazni.
In the 1960s a 15-meter female Buddha was discovered lying on its back and surrounded by empty pillars that once held rows of smaller male Buddhas. Parts of the female Buddha have been stolen. In the 1980s a mud brick shelter was created to protect the sculpture, but the wood supports were stolen for firewood and the shelter collapsed. Since the US-led invasion of Afghanistan in October 2001, there has been a Provincial reconstruction base and a NATO forces base; these western forces are hunting al-Qaida militants, who are still active in the area. Like many southern Afghan provinces, Ghazni has a precarious security situation; the Taliban insurgents are found in the rural areas outside of the capital, are involved in attacks on provincial schools and government infrastructure. The province has avoided the outright warfare seen in other provinces of Afghanistan such as Helmand and Kandahar, but, due more to political expediency and the tactical plans of the NATO-led ISAF force than the existence of a stable security situation in the province.
Ex-Governor Taj Mohammad was killed by insurgents in 2006 af
The Communist Party of Peru – Shining Path, more known as the Shining Path, is a communist revolutionary organization in Peru, espousing Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. When it first launched the internal conflict in Peru in 1980, its goal was to overthrow the state by guerrilla warfare and replace it with a "New Democracy"; the Shining Path believed that by establishing a dictatorship of the proletariat, inducing a cultural revolution, sparking a world revolution, they could arrive at full communism. Their representatives stated that existing socialist countries were revisionist, the Shining Path was the vanguard of the world communist movement; the Shining Path's ideology and tactics have been influential among other Maoist insurgent groups, notably the Communist Party of Nepal and other Revolutionary Internationalist Movement-affiliated organizations. Condemned for its brutality, including violence deployed against peasants, trade union organizers, elected officials and the general civilian population, the Shining Path is regarded by Peru as a terrorist organization.
Japan, the United States, the European Union, Canada classify the group as a terrorist organization and prohibit funding and other financial support. Since the capture of its leader Abimael Guzmán in 1992, the Shining Path has declined in activity; the common name of this group, Shining Path, distinguishes it from several other Peruvian communist parties with similar names. The name is derived from a maxim of José Carlos Mariátegui, the founder of the original Peruvian Communist Party in the 1920s: "El Marxismo-Leninismo abrirá el sendero luminoso hacia la revolución"; this maxim was featured on the masthead of the newspaper of a Shining Path front group. Due to the number of Peruvian groups that refer to themselves as the Communist Party of Peru, groups are distinguished by the names of their publications; the followers of this group are called senderistas. All documents and other materials produced by the organization are signed by the Communist Party of Peru. Academics refer to them as PCP-SL.
The Shining Path was founded in 1969 by Abimael Guzmán, a former university philosophy professor, a group of 11 others. His teachings created the foundation of its militant Maoist doctrine, it was an offshoot of the Communist Party of Peru — Bandera Roja, which in turn split from the original Peruvian Communist Party, a derivation of the Peruvian Socialist Party founded by José Carlos Mariátegui in 1928. The Shining Path first established a foothold at San Cristóbal of Huamanga University, in Ayacucho, where Guzmán taught philosophy; the university had reopened after being closed for about half a century, many students of the newly educated class adopted the Shining Path's radical ideology. Between 1973 and 1975, Shining Path members gained control of the student councils in the Universities of Huancayo and La Cantuta, they developed a significant presence at the National University of Engineering in Lima and the National University of San Marcos. Sometime it lost many student elections in the universities, including Guzmán's San Cristóbal of Huamanga.
It decided to abandon recruiting at reconsolidate. Beginning on March 17, 1980, the Shining Path held a series of clandestine meetings in Ayacucho, known as the Central Committee's second plenary, it formed a "Revolutionary Directorate", political and military in nature and ordered its militias to transfer to strategic areas in the provinces to start the "armed struggle", despite the revisionism instituted in China by Deng Xiaoping and its economic success since 1978. The group held its "First Military School" where members were instructed in military tactics and the use of weapons, they engaged in "Criticism and Self-criticism", a Maoist practice intended to purge bad habits and avoid the repetition of mistakes. During the existence of the First Military School, members of the Central Committee came under heavy criticism. Guzmán did not, he emerged from the First Military School as the clear leader of the Shining Path. In 1992, Guzman and other leaders of the Shining Path received life imprisonment sentences for their role in the Lucanamarca massacre, among other charges.
When Peru's military government allowed elections for the first time in a dozen years in 1980, the Shining Path was one of the few leftist political groups that declined to take part. It chose to begin guerrilla war in the highlands of the Ayacucho Region. On May 17, 1980, on the eve of the presidential elections, it burned ballot boxes in the town of Chuschi, it was the first "act of war" by the Shining Path. The perpetrators were caught and additional ballots were shipped to Chuschi; the elections proceeded without further problems, the incident received little attention in the Peruvian press. Throughout the 1980s, the Shining Path grew, both in terms of the territory it controlled, in the number of militants in its organization in the Andean highlands, it gained support from local peasants by filling the political void left by the central government and providing what they called "popular justice", public trials that disregard any legal and human rights that deliver swift and brutal sentences including public executions.
This caused the peasantry of some Peruvian villages to express some sympathy for the Shining Path in the impoverished and neglected regions of Ayacucho, Apurímac, Huancavelica. At times, the civilian population of small
Chin Peng, former OBE, born Ong Boon Hua was a Malayan communist politician, a long-time leader of the Malayan Communist Party. A determined anti-colonialist, he led the party's guerrilla insurgency in the Malayan Emergency, fighting against British and Commonwealth forces in an attempt to establish an independent communist state. After the MCP's defeat and subsequent Malayan independence, Chin waged a second campaign against Malaya and, after 1963, the new state of Malaysia in an attempt to replace its government with a communist one from exile, until signing the Peace Agreement of Hat Yai 1989 with the Malaysian government in 1989. Chin Peng died in Bangkok, Thailand. Prior to his death, he was living in exile in Thailand. Chin Peng was born on 21 October 1924 into a middle-class family in the small seaside town of Sitiawan, in Perak state, Malaya, his father went to live in Sitiawan in 1920. He set up a bicycle and spare motor parts business with the help of a relative from Singapore. Chin Peng attended a Chinese language school in Sitiawan.
In 1937 he joined the Chinese Anti Enemy Backing Up Society, formed that year to send aid to China in response to Japan's aggression. According to Chin and Hack, he was not a communist then, he was in charge of anti-Japanese activities at his school, was a supporter of Sun Yat-sen. By early 1939 he had embraced Communism, he planned to go to Yan'an, the renowned communist base in China, but was persuaded to remain in Malaya and take on heavier responsibilities in the newly formed Malayan Communist Party. In late 1939, when Chin Peng was at 4th year of his Secondary school education, his school announced that the Senior Middle section was to be closed due to lack of funds, he decided to continue his education in the Methodist-run Anglo-Chinese Continuation School, which operated in English, because it provided a good cover for his underground activities. He did not want to have to move to Singapore to continue with his education in Chinese, he left the school "for fear of British harassment" after just 6 months He was now focused on his political activities and became, from that point on, a full-time revolutionary.
In January 1940 he was put in charge of three anti-Japanese organisations that were targeting students, members of cultural activities and general labourers. At the end of January 1940 he was admitted to the Malayan Communist Party as a member. Harassment by the authorities led him to leave his home town for Kuala Kangsar in July 1940.. He spent a month in Taiping. In September 1940 the party posted him to Ipoh as a Standing committee member for Perak. In December he attained full Party membership. In early 1941 AEBUS was dissolved. Chin Peng became Ipoh District committee member of the Party. "He led student underground cells of three Chinese secondary schools and the Party's organisations of the shop assistants, domestic servants of European families, workers at brick kilns and barbers." In June 1941 he became a member of the Perak State Committee. Chin Peng rose to prominence during World War II when many Chinese Malayans took to the jungle to fight a guerrilla war against the Japanese; these fighters, inspired by the example of the Communist Party of China, became known as the Malayan People's Anti-Japanese Army.
Chin Peng became the British military in South-East Asia. The Japanese invasion of Malaya began in December 1941. In 1942 Chin was the youngest of three members of the Secretariat of the Perak State Committee: Su Yew Meng was secretary and Chang Meng Ching was the other member. In early 1943 the two senior members were captured by the Japanese. Contact with the Party's Central Committee had been lost. Lai Tek, the Party leader, sent another Central Committee member, Lee Siow Peng, to replace Chin as State Secretary. However, Lee Siow Peng was captured not long after, while travelling to a meeting, to be held in Singapore, thus the job of establishing contact with the British commando Force 136 fell to Chin Peng. The first party of that force, consisting of Capt. John Davis and five Chinese agents, had landed in Malaya on 24 May 1943, by submarine. Chin Peng made contact with this armed group on 30 September 1943, he was active in his support for the British stay-behind troops, but had no illusions about their failure to protect Malaya against the Japanese.
In the course of this activity, he came into contact with Freddie Spencer Chapman, who called him a'true friend' in his Malayan jungle memoir,'The Jungle Is Neutral'. Because of his services during the war, Chin was awarded an OBE, a mention in despatches and two campaign medals by Britain, he was elected the Secretary General of the Communist Party of Malaya after the betrayal of previous leader Lai Tek who turned out to be an agent for both the British and the Japanese and had denounced the leadership of the Party to the Japanese secret police. Chin Peng was the most senior surviving member. In 1948, the Federation of Malaya Plan replaced the Malayan Union plan, frustrating the CPM as they felt the plan was undemocratic and biased towards the Malay elites, they accused the British for forcing the Federation idea on the people by portr
Ibrahim Kaypakkaya was a major leader of the Communist movement in Turkey and the founder of the Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist-Leninist. Following the military memorandum of 1971, the Turkish government cracked down on the Communist movement in Turkey, they were successful in destroying the leadership of the TKP/ML. Kaypakkaya, several of his colleagues were arrested. Kaypakkaya was executed by shooting in prison in 1973 after being tortured for over 4 months, he is revered by many of his admirers today as a symbol of resistance. They describe him as an aggregator of the ideas and traits of other major leaders and thinkers in Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. Ibrahim Kaypakkaya was born in 1949, he was first exposed to revolutionary ideas as a student in the Physics Department of Istanbul University’s Faculty of Science. He became a member of the Revolutionary Peasants Party of Turkey, he joined in the foundation of the Çapa Idea Club in March 1968 and became the President of the club. In November 1968, Kaypakkaya was expelled from the University for preparing a leaflet against the visiting 6th Fleet of the U.
S. Navy. Kaypakkaya, who adopted the view of National Democratic Revolution, worked for the newspaper İşçi Köylü, he wrote articles in the magazines Aydınlık and TÜRKSOLU. Kaypakkaya split from Doğu Perinçek and his group, as he considered Perinçek to be a revisionist and an opportunist. Kaypakkaya, who participated in the struggle of peasantry, formed TİKKO, the armed wing of his Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist-Leninist, carried out activities in the cities of Tunceli and Gaziantep. Kaypakkaya and his comrades interrogated and shot the informer village headman who caused the killing of THKO members Sinan Cemgil and his two other comrades by the state forces during a gunfight. Kaypakkaya became a symbol of revolutionary solidarity and camaraderie to his supporters at the time of martial law. On 24 January 1973, Kaypakkaya and his allies were attacked by Turkish military forces in the mountains of Tunceli, he was wounded badly, his comrade Ali Haydar Yıldız died. The military left Kaypakkaya for dead.
During that winter, severe weather conditions and snow forced him to take shelter in a cave for five days. Thereafter, he left for a village; the man allowed Kaypakkaya to take shelter in a room but locked the door and reported him to the military. The military officers tortured Kaypakkaya under custody in Diyarbakır Prison, infamous for its brutal treatment of inmates, for four months. In one instance, he was tortured for two weeks after which he was forced to walk barefoot over 50 km snow and icy rivers from city to city. On 18 May 1973, he was tortured to the brink of death and shot and killed by military officers at the age of twenty-four, his corpse was cut up. The National Intelligence Organization reported that Kaypakkaya was the most dangerous revolutionary in Turkey and one of the most wanted due to his organizational ability that allowed him to single-handedly bring Communist ideas to Turkey. After his death, Kaypakkaya became a martyr for the Turkish Communist revolutionary movement by "choosing to die rather than give information."
Despite his young age, he was one of the most prominent Marxist theorists of Turkey. Kaypakkaya's most well known work is his critique of Kemalism, the state principles of Turkey, his thesis on the national question, notably the Kurdish question. Today, he is revered as a symbol of resistance in other countries, his doctrinal views were based on splitting away from the neighboring Soviet Union's ideology and taking up Maoism and supporting the Cultural Revolution. As such, Kaypakkaya's life was shaped by the Sino-Soviet split. Kaypakkaya took the position that there is a national question involved with the Kurdish people. Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist-Leninist re-organized between 1973 and 1978; the first party congress took place in 1978. In 1981 the second congress was organized; the party split following the splinter taking up the name Bolshevik Party. However it was neither the last split in the party; the Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist-Leninist - Hareketi had split in during the re-organisation period.
Other splits followed the second congress: Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist-Leninist - Revolutionary Proletarian, Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist-Leninist, Maoist Communist Party. Today the organisation is listed among the 12 active terrorist organisation in Turkey as of 2007 according to Counter-Terrorism and Operations Department of Directorate General for Security. Grup Munzur - İsyan Ateşi Emekçi - İbrahime Ağıt Ozan Emekçi - Diyarbakır Zindanları İlkay Akkaya - Ibrahim yoldaş Kırmızı Gül Buz İçinde Sönmeyen Ateş - İbrahim Kaypakkaya Ibrahim Kaypakkaya - Selected Works "Long live Ibrahim Kaypakkaya's thought!", by the CPMLMF "His Name is Our Pride, His Party is Our Honor, His Doctrine is Our Guide”, by the TKP/ML