SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Al-Aqsa Intifada

The Second Intifada known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada, was a period of intensified Israeli–Palestinian violence, which Palestinians describe as an uprising against Israel, while Israelis consider it a prolonged terror campaign perpetuated by the Palestinian National Authority and various Palestinian militant groups. The general triggers for the violence are proposed as the Israeli withdrawal from South Lebanon conflict in spring 2000 and failure of the 2000 Camp David Summit to reach final agreement on the Israeli-Palestinian peace process in July 2000; the violence started in September 2000, after Ariel Sharon made a visit to the Temple Mount, seen by Palestinians as provocative. Palestinian demonstrators threw stones at police and were dispersed by the Israeli army, using tear gas and rubber bullets. High numbers of casualties were caused among civilians as well as combatants; the Palestinians engaged in numerous suicide bombings, rock throwing and gunfire, while the Israelis responded with gunfire and air attacks, numerous targeted killings.

The death toll, including both military and civilian, is estimated to be about 3,000 Palestinians and 1,000 Israelis, as well as 64 foreigners. Many consider the Sharm el-Sheikh Summit on 8 February 2005 to be the end of the Second Intifada. Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas and Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon agreed that all Palestinians factions would stop all acts of violence against all Israelis everywhere, while Israel would cease all its military activity against all Palestinians everywhere, they reaffirmed their commitment to the Roadmap for peace process. Sharon agreed to release 900 Palestinian prisoners of the 7,500 being held at the time, to withdraw from West Bank towns. However, the violence continued into the following years, though suicide bombings decreased significantly. Second Intifada refers to a second Palestinian uprising, following the first Palestinian uprising, which occurred between December 1987 and 1993. "Intifada" translates into English as "uprising." Its root is an Arabic word meaning "the shaking off."

It has been used in the meaning of "insurrection" in various Arab countries. The term refers to a revolt against the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian Territories. Al-Aqsa Intifada refers to the place where the intifada started, it is the name of a mosque, constructed in the 8th century CE at Al-Haram Al-Sharif known as the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, a location considered the holiest site in Judaism and third holiest in Islam. The Intifada is sometimes called the Oslo War by some Israelis who consider it to be the result of concessions made by Israel following the Oslo Accords, Arafat's War, after the late Palestinian leader whom some blamed for starting it. Others have named what they consider disproportionate response to what was a popular uprising by unarmed demonstrators as the reason for the escalation of the Intifada into an all out war. Under the Oslo Accords, signed in 1993 and 1995, Israel committed to the phased withdrawal of its forces from parts of the Gaza Strip and West Bank, affirmed the Palestinian right to self-government within those areas through the creation of a Palestinian Authority.

For their part, the Palestine Liberation Organization formally recognised Israel and committed to adopting responsibility for internal security in population centres in the areas evacuated. Palestinian self-rule was to last for a five-year interim period during which a permanent agreement would be negotiated. However, the realities on the ground left both sides disappointed with the Oslo process. Israelis and Palestinians have blamed each other for the failure of the Oslo peace process. In the five years following the signing of the Oslo accords, 405 Palestinians and 256 Israelis were killed, which for the latter represented a casualty count higher than that of the previous fifteen years combined. From 1996 Israel made extensive contingency plans and preparations, collectively code-named "Musical Charm," in the eventuality that peace talks might fail. In 1998, after concluding that the 5-year plan stipulated in the Oslo Talks would not be completed, the IDF implemented an Operation Field of Thorns plan to conquer towns in Area C, some areas of Gaza, military exercises at regimental level were carried out in April 2000 to that end.

Palestinian preparations were defensive, small scale, more to reassure the local population than to cope with an eventual attack from Israel. The intensity of these operations led one Brigadier General, Zvi Fogel to wonder whether Israel's military preparations would not turn out to be a self-fulfilling prophecy. In 1995, Shimon Peres took the place of Yitzhak Rabin, assassinated by Yigal Amir, a Jewish extremist opposed to the Oslo peace agreement. In the 1996 elections, Israelis elected a right-wing coalition led by the Likud candidate, Benjamin Netanyahu, followed in 1999 by the Labor Party leader Ehud Barak. From 11 to 25 July 2000, the Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David was held between United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat; the talks failed with each side blaming the other. There were four principal obstacles to agreement: territory and the Temple Mount and the right of return, Israeli security concerns.

Disappointment at the situation over the summer led to a significant fracturing of the PLO as many Fatah factions abandoned it to join Hamas and Islamic Jihad. On

GPRS Tunnelling Protocol

GPRS Tunneling Protocol is a group of IP-based communications protocols used to carry general packet radio service within GSM, UMTS and LTE networks. In 3GPP architectures, GTP and Proxy Mobile IPv6 based interfaces are specified on various interface points. GTP can be decomposed into separate protocols, GTP-C, GTP-U and GTP'. GTP-C is used within the GPRS core network for signaling between gateway GPRS support nodes and serving GPRS support nodes; this allows the SGSN to activate a session on a user's behalf, to deactivate the same session, to adjust quality of service parameters, or to update a session for a subscriber who has just arrived from another SGSN. GTP-U is used for carrying user data within the GPRS core network and between the radio access network and the core network; the user data transported can be packets in any of IPv6, or PPP formats. GTP' has an independent function, it can be used for carrying charging data from the charging data function of the GSM or UMTS network to the charging gateway function.

In most cases, this should mean from many individual network elements such as the GGSNs to a centralized computer that delivers the charging data more conveniently to the network operator's billing center. Different GTP variants are implemented by SGSNs, GGSNs and CGFs within 3GPP networks. GPRS mobile stations are connected to a SGSN without being aware of GTP. GTP can be used with UDP or TCP. UDP is either recommended or mandatory, except for tunneling X.25 in version 0. GTP version 1 is used only on UDP. All variants of GTP have certain features in common; the structure of the messages is the same, with a GTP header following the UDP/TCP header. GTPv1 headers contain the following fields: Version. For GTPv1, this has a value of 1. Protocol Type a 1-bit value that differentiates GTP from GTP'. Reserved a 1-bit reserved field. Extension header flag a 1-bit value. Sequence number flag a 1-bit value. N-PDU number flag a 1-bit value. Message Type an 8-bit field. Different types of messages are defined in 3GPP TS 29.060 section 7.1 Message Length a 16-bit field that indicates the length of the payload in bytes.

Includes the optional fields. Tunnel endpoint identifier A 32-bit field used to multiplex different connections in the same GTP tunnel. Sequence number an 16-bit field; this field exists if any of the S, or PN bits are on. The field must be interpreted. N-PDU number an 8-bit field; this field exists if any of the S, or PN bits are on. The field must be interpreted. Next extension header type an 8-bit field; this field exists if any of the S, or PN bits are on. The field must be interpreted. Next Extension Headers are: Extension length an 8-bit field; this field states the length of this extension header, including the length, the contents, the next extension header field, in 4-octet units, so the length of the extension must always be a multiple of 4. Contents extension header contents. Next extension header an 8-bit field, it states 0 if no next extension exists. This permits chaining several next extension headers, it is known as evolved-GTP or eGTP. GTPv2-C headers contain the following fields: There is no GTPv2-U protocol,GTP-U in LTE uses GTPv1-U.

Version It is a 3-bit field. For GTPv2, this has a value of 2. Piggybacking flag If this bit is set to 1 another GTP-C message with its own header shall be present at the end of the current message. There are restrictions as to what type of message can be piggybacked depending on what the toplevel GTP-C message is. TEID flag If this bit is set to 1 the TEID field will be present between the message length and the sequence number. All messages except Echo and Echo reply require TEID to be present. Message length This field shall indicate the length of the message in octets excluding the mandatory of the GTP-C header; the TEID and the Sequence Number shall be included in the length count. Apart from the common message structure, there is a common mechanism for verifying connectivity from one GSN to another GSN; this uses two messages. Echo request echo responseAs as every 60 seconds, a GSN can send an echo request to every other GSN with which it has an active connection. If the other end does not respond it can be treated as down and the active connections to it will be deleted.

Apart from the two messages mentioned, there are no other messages common across all GTP variants meaning that, for the most part, they form three separate protocols. The GTP-C protocol is the control section of the GTP standard; when a subscriber requests a PDP context, the SGSN will send a create PDP context request GTP-C message to the GGSN giving details of the subscriber's request. The GGSN will respond with a create PDP context response GTP-C message which will either give details of the PDP context activated or will indicate a failure and give a reason for that failure; this is a UDP message on port 2123. The eGTP-C protocol is responsible for creating and deleting tunnels on multiple Sx interfaces, it is used for tunnel management and mobility management. It controls forwarding r

Dorian Yates

Dorian Andrew Mientjez Yates is an English former professional bodybuilder. He won the Mr. Olympia title six consecutive times from 1992 to 1997, he has the fifth-highest number of Mr. Olympia awards of all time, thus ranking behind Ronnie Coleman, Lee Haney, Arnold Schwarzenegger and Phil Heath, he is considered to be one of the top bodybuilders in modern history and is most known for his wide and thick back. Yates was born in Hurley, UK and grew up in rural Staffordshire, UK. Yates' father died of heart attack when Yates was 13. After his father's death the family moved to Birmingham, UK, he started working out in 1983. Yates' professional record consists of two second-place finishes, his career ended in large part due to chronic acute injuries, including torn biceps and triceps, the latter just three weeks prior to his final contest, the 1997 Mr. Olympia, which he won in spite of the injury, generating a controversy among fellow athletes and amateurs who thought his runner-up Nassar El Sonbaty deserved to win.

Yates espoused a style of training known as HIT, which states that maximum muscle stimulation can be reached through short, high-intensity workout sessions rather than long duration workouts. The training style was popularized by Arthur Jones and Mike Mentzer. Yates earned the nickname of "The Shadow" for his tendency to unexpectedly appear at major bodybuilding contests and steal the win, having remained out of the public eye for long periods beforehand, he was reported to have turned down several large supplement endorsement contracts and avoided interviews and other television publicity in order to maintain privacy and full commitment to his training. Yates is considered to be the first of the "mass monsters" in bodybuilding, he combined this enormous muscle mass along with tremendous conditioning quoted as "granite hardness". He was criticized for being among the first prominent bodybuilders to exhibit an inflated stomach, most a side effect of insulin or HGH use, a tendency which has become rampant since.

In retrospect, regarding his injuries, he considers that his main error was maintaining an extreme level of training intensity all year long when approaching contests, while being on a restricted "cutting" diet which weakens the body globally. Regarding the use of performance enhancing drugs, referencing the documentary "Super Size Me", he stated that eating three meals a day at McDonalds is more harmful for the metabolism than his twelve years of regular steroid use. In 1987, Yates purchased Temple Gym, located on Temple Street in Birmingham. In 2006, he franchised four additional Temple Gym locations, three of which are in the UK. Yates formed the California-based company Heavy Duty Inc. in 1994 with Mike Mentzer and Ray Mentzer. The company marketed bodybuilding-related books. In 1998, Yates partnered with Kerry Kayes to form the bodybuilding supplement company CNP Professional, which marketed a Dorian Yates Approved product line in the U. S, he left the company in 2006 to form his own company, Dorian Yates Ultimate Formulas, which offers a line of protein and weight-gain supplements.

He started a second company in 2010, EU Peptides, which sells peptide hormones and other pro-hormone supplements. He left EU Peptides in 2012. In 2011, Yates founded a third company, DY Nutrition, which specializes in pre-workout formulas and has released several training DVDs. Yates and a partner took over the gym in 1987 and became the sole owner of the gym, it has franchises in California, Las Vegas, the UK. It's spread across 3000 square feet and Blue is a new workout to 220 lbs. DY Nutrition is a line of supplements that consists of whey protein supplements, pre-workout, post-workout supplements owned and endorsed by Yates. Yates is married to Brazilian fitness model Glauce "Gal" Ferreira, she had won the IFBB South American Bodyfitness event and was the IFBB World Bodyfitness Champion 2007. They met each other for the first time at the 2008 Arnold Classic, they live in Marbella. Yates' son, has taken up bodybuilding and works with his father. Yates has advocated alternative treatments including the use of cannabis oil.

He has made statements in interviews concerning the negative health effects of sodium fluoride additives in tap water and the discovery of cancer viruses and sterilants in some vaccines. In a 2013 interview, he endorsed the use of some psychedelic entheogens for religious and spiritual purposes, including ayahuasca. Yates has taken several controversial political positions, such as calling for a new investigation of the 9/11 attacks, as well as statements denying the existence of the holocaust. In 1993, Yates published an autobiography titled Guts. In 1996, Yates released a workout video of the same title, which features his weekly weight training routines. In 1998, Yates coauthored A Warrior's Story, in which he chronicles his path to success in bodybuilding. In 2012, Yates released a mass gain video trainer in collaboration with bodybuilding.com called Blood and Guts, based on the HIT theory. In 2017, Yates attended the worldwide premiere of the London Real feature film, Dorian Yates: Inside The Shadow, held at BAFTA in London.

Height: 5 ft 10.5 in Off Season Weight: 310 pounds Competition Weight: 275 pounds Upper Arm Size: 54 cm Thigh Size: 79 cm Waist Size: 86 cm Calf Size: 56 cm Chest size: 148 cm 1985 World Games, 7th Heavyweights 1986 British Championships, 1st Heavyweight 1988 British Championships, 1st Heavyweight and overall 1990 N