In the Islamic Quran, an Āyah is a "verse", one of the statement of varying length that make up the chapters of the Quran and are marked by a number. The word means "evidence", "sign" or "miracle", in Islam may refer to things other than Quranic verses, such as religious obligations or cosmic phenomena. In the Quran it is referred to in several verses such as: تِلْكَ ءَايَٰتُ ٱللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِٱلْحَقِّۖ فَبِأَىِّ حَدِيثٍۭ بَعْدَ ٱللَّهِ وَءَايَٰتِهِۦ يُؤْمِنُونَ Although meaning "verse" when using the Quran, it is doubtful whether "ayah" means anything other than "sign," "proof," or "remarkable event" in the Quran's text; the "signs" refer to various phenomena, ranging from the universe, its creation, the alternation between day and night, the life and growth of plants, etc. Other references are to the rewards of belief and the fate of unbelievers. For example: "And of his signs is the creation of the heavens and earth and what He has dispersed throughout them of creatures." "And a sign for them is the dead earth.
We have brought it to life and brought forth from it grain, from it they eat." "... and they denied him. Herein is indeed a sign yet most of them are not believers." "... you are but a mortal like us. So bring some sign if you are of the truthful." Chapters in the Quran consist of several verses, varying in number from 3 to 286. Within a long chapter, the verses may be further grouped into thematic passages. For the purpose of interpretation, the verses are separated into two groups: those that are clear and unambiguous and those that are allegorical; this distinction is based on the Quran itself: "It is God Who has sent down to you the Book. In it are verses that are'clear', they are the foundation of the Book. Others are'allegorical' but those in whose hearts is perversity follow the part thereof, allegorical, seeking discord, searching for its hidden meanings, but no one knows its hidden meanings except God, and those who are grounded in knowledge say: We believe in the Book, the whole of it is from our Lord.
And none will grasp the Message except men of understanding."The word ayah is used to refer to the verses of the Bible by Arab Christians and Christians in countries where Arabic words are used for religious terms. A common myth persists that the number of verses in the Quran is 6,666. In fact, the total number of verses in all chapters is 6,236, although this varies depending on how the Bismillah appearing at the start of each chapter is counted; the Unicode symbol for a Quran verse, U+06DD, is: . The first ayahs in the Quran from a chronological order are Read in the name of your Lord who created, he created man from a clot. Read, your Lord is the Most Honorable who taught with the pen from surah Al-Alaq; the first ayahs from a traditional order are In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate from surah Al-Fatiha. The first ayahs after the opening surah are Alif Lam Mim; this is the Scripture whereof there is no doubt, a guidance unto those who ward off, from surah Al-Baqara. Quranism Ayatollah
In the context of the recitation of the Quran, Tajweed is a set of rules for the correct pronunciation of the letters with all its qualities and applying the various of recitation. In Arabic, the term tajwīd is derived from the triliteral root j-w-d. Tajweed is a fard; the Arabic alphabet has hamzah. ا ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ك ل م ن و ہ ي The Arabic word for "the" is ال al-. The lām in al- is pronounced if the letter after it is "qamarīyah", but if the letter after it is "shamsīyah", the lām after it becomes part of the following letter. "Solar" and "lunar" became descriptions for these instances as the words for "the moon" and "the sun" are examples of this rule. Lunar letters: ا ب ج ح خ ع غ ف ق ك م هـ و ي Solar letters: ت ث د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ل ن There are 17 emission points of the letters, located in various regions of the throat, lips and the mouth as a whole for the prolonged letters; the manner of articulation refers to the different attributes of the letters. Some of the characteristics have opposites.
An example of a characteristic would be the fricative consonant sound called ṣafīr, an attribute of air escaping from a tube. The emphatic consonants خ ص ض ط ظ غ ق, known as mufakhkham letters, are pronounced with a “heavy accent”; this is done by either pharyngealization /ˤ/, i.e. pronounced while squeezing one's voicebox, or by velarization /ˠ/. The remaining letters – the muraqqaq – have a “light accent” as they are pronounced without pharyngealization. ر is heavy when accompanied by a fatḥah or ḍammah and light when accompanied by a kasrah. If its vowel sound is cancelled, such as by a sukūn or the end of a sentence it is light when the first preceding voweled letter has a kasrah, it is heavy if the first preceding voweled letter is accompanied by a ḍammah. For example, the ر at the end of the first word of the Sūrat "al-ʻAṣr" is heavy because the ع has a fatḥah: وَالْعَصْرٍ بِسْمِ الله Prolongation refers to the number of morae that are pronounced when a voweled letter is followed by a mudd letter.
The number of morae becomes two. If these are at the end of the sentence, such as in all the verses in "al-Fatiha" the number of morae can be more than two, but must be consistent from verse to verse. Additionally, if there is a maddah sign over the mudd letter, it is held for four or five morae when followed by a hamzah and six morae when followed by a shaddah. For example, the end of the last verse in "al-Fatiha" has a six-mora maddah due to the shaddah on the ل. صِرَٰطَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ ٱلمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ ٱلضَّآلِّين Nūn sākinah refers to instances where the letter nūn is accompanied by a tanwīn or sukun sign. There are four ways it should be pronounced, depending on which letter follows: iẓhār : the nūn sound is pronounced without additional modifications when followed by "letters of the throat". Consider the nūn with a sukun pronounced in the beginning of the last verse in "al-Fatiha": صِرَٰطَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ iqlāb : the nūn sound is converted to a /m/ sound if it is followed by a ب.
Additionally, it is pronounced in a ghunnah. Consider the nūn sound on the tanwīn on the letter jīm, pronounced as a mīm instead in the chapter Al-Hajj:وَأَنْبَتَتْ مِنْ كُلِّ زَوْجٍ بَهِيجٍ idghām : the nūn sound is not pronounced when followed by a ل or ر. There is a ghunnah if it is followed by و م ي or another ن. Idghām only applies between two words and not in the middle of a word. Consider for example the nūn, not pronounced in the fifth line in the Call to Prayer: أَشْهَدُ أَن لَّا إِلٰهَ إِلَا ٱللهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَّسُولُ ٱللهِ ikhfāʼ: the nūn sound is not pronounced if it is followed by any letters other than those listed, includes a ghunnah. Consider the nūn, suppressed in the second verse of the chapter Al-Falaq: مِنْ شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ The term mīm sākinah refers to instances where the letter mīm is accompanied by a sukun. There are three ways it should be pronounced, depending on which letter follows: idgham mutamathilayn when followed by another mīm: the mīm is merged with the following mīm and includes a ghunnah.
The five qalqalah letters are the consonants ق ط د ج ب. Qalqalah is the addition of a slight "bounce" or reduced vowel sound /ə/ to the consonant whose vowel sound is otherwise cancelled, such as by a sukūn, shaddah, or the end of sentence; the "lesser bounce" occurs when the letter is in the middle of a word or at the end of the word but the reader joins it to the next word. A "medium bounce" is given when the letter is at the end of the word but is
Samarkand Kufic Quran
The Samarkand Kufic Quran is an 8th or 9th century manuscript Quran written in the territory of modern Iraq in the Kufic script. Today it is kept in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, it is said to have belonged to Uthman ibn Affan. Based on orthographic and palaeographic studies, the manuscript dates from the 8th or 9th century. Radio-carbon dating showed a 95.4% probability of a date between 775 and 995. However, one of the folios from another manuscript was dated to between 595 and 855 A. D. with a likelihood of 95%. The copy of the Quran is traditionally considered to be one of a group commissioned by the third caliph Uthman. In 651, 19 years after the death of the Islamic Prophet, Uthman commissioned a committee to produce a standard copy of the text of the Quran. Five of these authoritative Qurans were sent to the major Muslim cities of the era, Uthman kept one for his own use in Medina, although the Samarkand Quran is most not one of those copies; the only other surviving copy was thought to be the one held in Topkapı Palace in Turkey, but studies have shown that the Topkapı manuscript is not from the 7th century, but from much later.
Uthman was succeeded by Ali. The subsequent history of this Quran is known only from legends. According to one of them, when Tamerlane destroyed the area, he took the Quran to his capital, Samarkand, as a treasure. According to another, the Quran was brought from the caliph of Rum to Samarkand by Khoja Ahrar, a Turkestani sufi master, as a gift after he had cured the caliph; the Quran remained in the Khoja Ahrar Mosque of Samarkand for four centuries until 1869, when the Russian general Abramov bought it from the mullahs of the mosque and gave it to Konstantin von Kaufman, Governor-General of Turkestan, who in turn sent it to the Imperial Library in Saint Petersburg. It attracted the attention of Orientalists and a facsimile edition was published in Saint-Petersburg in 1905; the 50 copies soon became rarities. The first thorough description and dating of the manuscript was undertaken by the Russian Orientalist Shebunin in 1891. After the October Revolution, Vladimir Lenin, in an act of goodwill to the Muslims of Russia, gave the Quran to the people of Ufa, Bashkortostan.
After repeated appeals by the people of the Turkestan ASSR, the Quran was returned to Central Asia, to Tashkent, in 1924, where it has since remained. The parchment manuscript now is held in the library of the Telyashayakh Mosque, in the old "Hast-Imam" area of Tashkent, close to the grave of Kaffal Shashi, a 10th-century Islamic scholar. A folio containing a page from the sura Al-Anbiya is held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, US; the manuscript is incomplete: it begins in the middle of verse 7 of the second sura and ends at Surah 43:10. The manuscript has between eight and twelve lines to the page and, showing its antiquity, the text is devoid of vocalisation. Topkapi manuscript Sana'a palimpsest Codex Parisino-petropolitanus W. Ouspensky, S. Pissaref, ed.. Coran coufique de Samarcand = Самаркандский куфический Коран. St. Pétersbourg: Institut Archéologique de St. Pétersbourg. Шебунин, А. Ф. Куфический Коран СПб. Публичной Библиотеки // Записки Восточного отделения Императорского Русского археологического общества.
— Вып. 1—4. — СПб. 1892. — Т. VI. — С. 76—77. Самаркандский куфический Коран. RARUS'S GALLERY. Retrieved 26 September 2012. "Memory of the World Register - Nomination Form Uzbekistan - Holy Koran Mushaf of Othman". UNESCO. Retrieved 26 September 2012
Rukūʿ refers to two things in Islam. 1. RUKU is a step of prayer in Islam where someone bows down and goes to Sajdah. 2. A paragraph of the holy book Qur'an. There are 558 rukūʿs in the Qur'an. In some books, 540 have been mentioned, misunderstood by some people with total rukus of quran recited in Salat-ut-Taraweeh; this subdivision is not part of original revelation but adopted later-on to facilitate completion of Quran on the 27th night of Ramadhan if one ruku is recited in each rakat of taraweeh prayers. In prayer, it refers to the bowing down from the standing position while praying according to Islamic ritual. There is a consensus on the obligatory nature of the rukūʿ; the position of rukūʿ is established by bending over, putting one's hands on one's knees and remaining in that position until the individual attains "calmness". In Al-Ghazali's book Inner Dimensions of Islamic Worship, he wrote about the rukūʿ by saying: Bowing and prostration are accompanied by a renewed affirmation of the supreme greatness of Allah.
In bowing you renew your submissiveness and humility, striving to refine your inner feeling through a fresh awareness of your own importance and insignificance before the might and grandeur of your Lord. To confirm this, you seek the aid of your tongue, glorifying your Lord and testifying to His supreme majesty, both inwardly and outwardly. You rise from bowing, hopeful that He will be merciful towards you. To emphasise this hope within you, you say samiʾa -llāhu liman ḥamidahu, meaning'God hears those who give thanks to Him'. Acknowledging the need to express gratitude, you add, rabbana lak al-ḥamd -'Grateful praise to You, our Lord!' To show the abundance of this gratitude, you may say malʾ as-samāwāt wa-malʾ al-ʾarḍ -'as much as the heavens and earth contain'. The term rukūʿ — translated to "passage", "pericope" or "stanza" — is used to denote a group of thematically related verses in the Qur'an. Longer suras in the Qur'an are divided into several rukūʿs, so that the reciters could identify when to make rukūʿ in Salat without breaking an ongoing topic in the Quranic text.
English translations of the Quran
The Quran has been translated into English many times. The first few translations were made in the 17th and 19th centuries, but the majority were produced in the 20th; the Alcoran, Translated out of Arabic into French. By the Andrew du Ryer, Lord of Malezair, Resident for the French King, at ALEXANDRIA, and Newly Englished, for the satisfaction of all that desire to look into the Turkish Vanities London, Printed Anno Dom. 1649 The earliest known translation of the Qur'an into the English Language was The Alcoran of Mahomet in 1649 by Alexander Ross, chaplain to King Charles I. This, was a translation of the French translation L'Alcoran de Mahomet by the Sieur du Ryer, Lord of Malezair. L'Alcoran de Mahomet.. Koran called the Alcoran of Mohammed, tr. into English from the original Arabic. To, prefixed a preliminary discourse by George Sale London. Ackers... 1734. The first scholarly translation of the Qur'an based on the Latin translation of Louis Maracci. George Sale's two-volume translation was to remain the most available English translation over the next 200 years, is still in print today, with release of a recent 2009 edition.
It was Third U. S. President Thomas Jefferson's hardcover copy, kept by the United States Library of Congress, of George Sale's translation, used by House Representative Keith Ellison in his oath of office ceremony, upon first being elected in 2006 to the 110th United States Congress on 3 January 2007, generating a first-ever controversy over the choice of scripture for such a ceremony; the next major English translation of note was by John Rodwell, Rector of St. Ethelburga, released in 1861, entitled The Koran, it was soon followed in 1880 with a two-volume edition by E. H. Palmer, a Cambridge scholar, entrusted with the preparation of the new translation for Max Muller's Sacred Books of the East series; the Qur'an by Mirza Abul Fazl, Arabic Text and English Translation Arranged Chronologically with an Abstract. Mirza Abul Fazl, was a native of India, he was the first Muslim to present a translation of the Qur'an in English along with the original Arabic text. The English Translation of the Holy Qur’an with Commentary by Maulana Muhammad Ali was “the first English translation by a Muslim to be available and to be made accessible to the West...”
A revised edition was published in 1951, Ali having spent the last 5 years of his life working towards it. It was redesigned with a retypeset and expanded index in 2002; the Meaning of the Glorious Koran by Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall. An English convert to Islam penned this translation at the behest of the Emir of Hyderabad while on a sojourn in India. Pickthall's printed translation was regarded as "an important milestone in the long course of Koranic interpretation" by esteemed Qur'an translator A. J. Arberry, who noted a few problems with Pickthall's verse numbering, which deviated in places from what had by become the standard Arabic edition by Gustav Fluegel; the Holy Qur'an: Translation and Commentary by Abdullah Yusuf Ali. This translation is used in many English-speaking countries and was the most popular translation before the Interpretation of the Meanings of the Noble Qur'an was published in 1999; the Qur'an: Translated, with a Critical Re-arrangement of the Surahs by Richard Bell.
Published by Edinburgh University Press. A. J. Arberry, in the preface to his own translation of the Qur'an, notes: "Dr Bell was a most erudite scholar of Arabic, had devoted many years to his'critical re-arrangement of the Surahs'.... He quite took the Koran to pieces and put it together again, his meticulous reconstruction extending as far as individual verses and parts of verses; as he set up his translation in a kind of tabular form to indicate his views of how the discourse ran, it is unreadable. The Koran Interpreted by Arthur Arberry; the first English translation by an academic scholar of Arabic and Sufism. For many years the scholarly standard for English translations, this rendering of the Qur'an makes a special attempt to reproduce something of the rhythms and cadence of the Arabic original; the Koran by N. J. Dawood is published by Penguin. Dawood, a native Arabic speaker from Iraq's now defunct Jewish community, is said to have preferred comprehensibility to literalism in translation, making his version comparatively easy to read.
The first edition of the Dawood translation rearranged the chapters into more or less chronological order, but editions restored the traditional sequence. Tafseru-l-Qur'aan by the Indian scholar Abdul Majid Daryabadi is a translation with commentary. Daryabadi criticizes the scriptures of other religions, such as the Christian Bible, claiming they have not been transmitted faithfully; the English Commentary of the Holy Quran A 5 volume English translation and interpretation published under the auspices of the Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. The Running Commentary of the Holy Qur-an with Under-Bracket Comments. Dr. Khadim Rahmani Nuri of Shillong, India; the Quran A free-flowing English translation by Muhammad Zafrulla Khan The Message of the Qur'an: Presented in Perspective by Dr. Hashim Amir Ali; the suras are presented in chronological order. The Message of the Qur'an by Muhammad Asad. Written by a Jewish convert to Islam; the Holy Qur'an: The Arabic Text and English Translation
Ahmadiyya translations of the Quran
The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community has translated the Quran into over 70 languages of the world. Portions of the scripture have been translated into multiple other languages; the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement has produced translations into at least 7 languages. The period of the late 1980s and the early 1990s saw an acceleration in the number of translations being produced by the Ahmadiyya movement; some of the earliest translations were produced by Ahmadi Muslim scholars and today there are still many languages for which only translations authored by Ahmadi Muslims exist. All translations are published alongside the Arabic text; the translations of the Quran authored by Ahmadi Muslim scholars always feature translated verses alongside the original Arabic text. Before the translations are published, they are checked and proof-read by a wide array of individuals for errors. A similar procedure is undertaken. In particular, guidance is sought from the caliph of the Community with regards to textual and other linguistic difficulties.
Since the majority of the Quran translations have been made available from the 1980s, most translations have sought advice from Caliph IV and Caliph V. For Urdu language translations, see the Exegesis part below; the portions translations are maily "selected verses", but there are some translations that just have translated some parts. The selected verses are created for celebrating the centenary of Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in 1989. List of translations of the Quran English translations of the Quran
Translations of the Qur'an are interpretations of the scripture of Islam in languages other than Arabic. The Qur'an was written in the Arabic language and has been translated into most major African and European languages; the translation of the Qur'an into modern languages has always been a difficult issue in Islamic theology. Because Muslims revere the Qur'an as miraculous and inimitable, they argue that the Qur'anic text should not be isolated from its true form to another language or written form, at least not without keeping the Arabic text with it. Furthermore, an Arabic word, like a Hebrew or Aramaic word, may have a range of meanings depending on the context – a feature present in all Semitic languages, when compared to English and Romance languages – making an accurate translation more difficult. According to Islamic theology, the Qur'an is a revelation specifically in Arabic, so it should only be recited in Quranic Arabic. Translations into other languages are the work of humans and so, according to Muslims, no longer possess the uniquely sacred character of the Arabic original.
Since these translations subtly change the meaning, they are called "interpretations" or "translation of the meanings". For instance, Pickthall called his translation The Meaning of the Glorious Koran rather than The Koran; the task of translation of the Qur'an is not an easy one. A part of this is the innate difficulty of any translation. There is always an element of human judgement involved in translating a text; this factor is made more complex by the fact that the usage of words has changed a great deal between classical and modern Arabic. As a result Qur'anic verses which seem clear to native Arab speakers accustomed to modern vocabulary and usage may not represent the original meaning of the verse; the original meaning of a Qur'anic passage will be dependent on the historical circumstances of the prophet Muhammad's life and early community in which it originated. Investigating that context requires a detailed knowledge of hadith and sirah, which are themselves vast and complex texts; this introduces an additional element of uncertainty which cannot be eliminated by any linguistic rules of translation.
The first translation of the Qur'an was performed by Salman the Persian, who translated Surah al-Fatihah into the Persian language during the early 7th century. According to Islamic tradition contained in the hadith, Emperor Negus of Abyssinia and Byzantine Emperor Heraclius received letters from Muhammad containing verses from the Qur'an. However, during Muhammad's lifetime, no passage from the Qur'an was translated into these languages nor any other; the second known translation was into Greek and was used by Nicetas Byzantius, a scholar from Constantinople, in his'Refutation of Quran' written between 855 and 870. However, we know nothing about who, it is however probable that it was a complete translation. The first attested complete translations of the Quran were done between the 10th and 12th centuries in Persian language; the Samanid king, Mansur I, ordered a group of scholars from Khorasan to translate the Tafsir al-Tabari in Arabic, into Persian. In the 11th century, one of the students of Abu Mansur Abdullah al-Ansari wrote a complete tafsir of the Quran in Persian.
In the 12th century, Abu Hafs Omar al-Nasafi translated the Quran into Persian. The manuscripts of all three books have been published several times. In 1936, translations in 102 languages were known. Robertus Ketenensis produced the first Latin translation of the Qur'an in 1143, his version was entitled Lex Mahumet pseudoprophete. The translation was made at the behest of Peter the Venerable, abbot of Cluny, exists in the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal in Paris. According to modern scholars, the translation tended to "exaggerate harmless text to give it a nasty or licentious sting" and preferred improbable and unpleasant meanings over and decent ones. Ketenensis' work was republished in 1543 in three editions by Theodore Bibliander at Basel along with Cluni corpus and other Christian propaganda. All editions contained a preface by Martin Luther. Many European "translations" of the Qur'an translated Ketenensis' Latin version into their own language, as opposed to translating the Qur'an directly from Arabic.
As a result, early European translations of the Qur ` an were distorted. In the early thirteenth century, Mark of Toledo made another, more literal, translation into Latin, which survives in a number of manuscripts. In the fifteenth century, Juan of Segovia produced another translation in collaboration with the Mudejar writer, Isa of Segovia. Only the prologue survives. In the sixteenth century, Juan Gabriel Terrolensis aided Cardenal Eguida da Viterbo in another translation into Latin. In the early seventeenth century, another translated was attributed to Cyril Lucaris. Ludovico Marracci, a teacher of the Arabic language at the Sapienza University of Rome and confessor to Pope Innocent XI, issued a second Latin tr