Battle of Al Faw (2003)
The Battle of Al Faw was one of the first battles of the Iraq War. This would prevent a disaster similar to the 1991 Gulf War. The United States Marine Corps placed 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit under the command of 3 Commando Brigade so that the Brigade had the force to capture both targets. After 30 minutes the Royal Marines would take over whilst the SEALs would depart. An hour later, A and D company would be flown in by Chinook and Sea King helicopters and the rest of 40 commando would move out and capture the rest of the peninsula and the town of al-Faw. 3 ships from the Royal Navy and 1 from the Royal Australian Navy were assigned to fire support. A B-52 bomber would drop 16 JDAMs on Iraqi positions 17 minutes before the SEAL insertion, a flight of A-10s, the SEALs assault on the MSS and the pipelines was successful, after a brief firefight they killed 1 Iraqi soldier and captured 13 more. At the same time and sea landings secured the gas, SEAL Teams 8 and 10 captured the Mina Al Bakr Oil Terminal and Polish GROM commandos captured the Khor Al-Amaya Oil Terminal.
32 Iraqi prisoners were captured, explosive Ordnance Disposal were landed on the platforms to search for and remove explosive booby traps and demolition charges. Resistance was light, D company came under fire from an Iraqi Bunker. The Iraqi POWs captured by the SEALs were given over to the commandos, D company neutralized another Iraqi bunker with naval gun fire, without taking any casualties,40 Commando took over 200 Iraqi prisoners. A second assault by 42 Commando followed at 2225 hours, the Marines were preceded by USMC AH-1 Cobra helicopters gunships and flown in by USMC helicopters to land just north of the town of Al Faw, destroying Iraqi artillery. The insertion began badly with appalling visibility, worsened by fires, the cloud base dropped even further and the commander of the US Marine Air Wing decided to call off any further landings. A new insertion was planned, using RAF Chinook and Puma helicopters for dawn, the landings finally took place, six hours late and onto insecure landing zones, all the objectives were taken and secured.
42 Commando became the most forward unit in the al-Faw peninsula and they came under friendly fire from a USMC Cobra but no casualties occurred. A few hours after the Commandos landed, a group of Iraqi soldiers approached the position, the commandos machineguns and an AC-130 fired on them killing all but one. Fedayeen Saddam paramilitaries continued scattered fighting around Umm Qasr, two Royal Navy Sea King helicopters collided, killing 7 people. 15 MEU achieved their objectives of securing Umm Qasr ahead of schedule
The Iraqi Armys occupation of Kuwait that began 2 August 1990 was met with international condemnation, and brought immediate economic sanctions against Iraq by members of the UN Security Council. US President George H. W. Bush deployed US forces into Saudi Arabia, an array of nations joined the coalition, the largest military alliance since World War II. The great majority of the military forces were from the US, with Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom. Kuwait and Saudi Arabia paid around US$32 billion of the US$60 billion cost, the war was marked by the introduction of live news broadcasts from the front lines of the battle, principally by the US network CNN. The war has earned the nickname Video Game War after the daily broadcast of images from cameras on board US bombers during Operation Desert Storm. The initial conflict to expel Iraqi troops from Kuwait began with an aerial and naval bombardment on 17 January 1991 and this was followed by a ground assault on 24 February. This was a victory for the coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait.
The coalition ceased its advance, and declared a ceasefire 100 hours after the campaign started. Aerial and ground combat was confined to Iraq, Iraq launched Scud missiles against coalition military targets in Saudi Arabia and against Israel. The following names have been used to describe the conflict itself, Gulf War, a problem with these terms is that the usage is ambiguous, having now been applied to at least three conflicts, see Gulf War. The use of the term Persian Gulf is disputed, see Persian Gulf naming dispute, with no consensus of naming, various publications have attempted to refine the name. Other language terms include French, la Guerre du Golfe and German, German, Zweiter Golfkrieg, most of the coalition states used various names for their operations and the wars operational phases. Operation Desert Storm was the US name of the conflict from 17 January 1991. Operation Desert Sabre was the US name for the offensive against the Iraqi Army in the Kuwaiti Theater of Operations from 24–28 February 1991, in itself.
Operation Desert Farewell was the given to the return of US units and equipment to the US in 1991 after Kuwaits liberation. Operation Granby was the British name for British military activities during the operations, Opération Daguet was the French name for French military activities in the conflict. Operation Friction was the name of the Canadian operations Operazione Locusta was the Italian name for the operations, in addition, various phases of each operation may have a unique operational name. The US divided the conflict into three campaigns, Defense of Saudi Arabian country for the period 2 August 1990, through 16 January 1991
A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land. Port locations are selected to optimize access to land and navigable water, for commercial demand, Ports with deeper water are rarer, but can handle larger ships. Since ports throughout history handled every kind of traffic and storage facilities vary widely, may extend for miles, some ports have an important military role. One of the worlds oldest known artificial harbors is at Wadi al-Jarf on the Red Sea, along with the finding of harbor structures, ancient anchors have been found. Guangzhou was an important port during the ancient times as far back as the Qin Dynasty, canopus was the principal port in Egypt for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria. Athens port of Piraeus was the base for the Athenian fleet, lothal is one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilisation, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt and dating from 3700 BCE.
Ostia Antica was the port of ancient Rome with Portus established by Claudius, Ports often have cargo-handling equipment, such as cranes and forklifts for use in loading ships, which may be provided by private interests or public bodies. Often, canneries or other processing facilities will be located nearby, some ports feature canals, which allow ships further movement inland. Access to intermodal transportation, such as railroads and highways, is critical to a port, so that passengers, Ports with international traffic have customs facilities. Harbor pilots and tugboats may maneuver large ships in tight quarters when near docks, the terms port and seaport are used for different types of port facilities that handle ocean-going vessels, and river port is used for river traffic, such as barges and other shallow-draft vessels. An inland port is a port on a lake, river, or canal with access to a sea or ocean. An example of this is the St. Lawrence Seaway which allows ships to travel from the Atlantic Ocean several thousand kilometers inland to Great Lakes ports like Duluth-Superior, a fishing port is a port or harbor for landing and distributing fish.
It may be a facility, but it is usually commercial. A fishing port is the port that depends on an ocean product. In recent decades, regulations to save fishing stock may limit the use of a fishing port, a dry port is an inland intermodal terminal directly connected by road or rail to a seaport and operating as a centre for the transshipment of sea cargo to inland destinations. A warm-water port is one where the water does not freeze in wintertime, because they are available year-round, warm-water ports can be of great geopolitical or economic interest. A seaport is further categorized as a port or a cargo port. Additionally, cruise ports are known as a home port or a port of call
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or standing water. This occurs where a river enters an ocean, estuary, reservoir, River deltas are ecologically important as they provide coastline defense, are home to many species, and can impact drinking water supply. The tidal currents cannot be too strong, as sediment would wash out into the body faster than the river deposits it. Of course, the river must carry enough sediment to layer into deltas over time, the rivers velocity decreases rapidly, causing it to deposit the majority, if not all, of its load. This alluvium builds up to form the river delta, when the flow enters the standing water, it is no longer confined to its channel and expands in width. This flow expansion results in a decrease in the flow velocity, as a result, sediment drops out of the flow and deposits. Over time, this single channel builds a deltaic lobe, pushing its mouth into the standing water, as the deltaic lobe advances, the gradient of the river channel becomes lower because the river channel is longer but has the same change in elevation.
As the slope of the channel decreases, it becomes unstable for two reasons. First, gravity makes the flow in the most direct course down slope. If the river breaches its natural levees, it out onto a new course with a shorter route to the ocean. Second, as its slope gets lower, the amount of stress on the bed decreases, which results in deposition of sediment within the channel. This makes it easier for the river to breach its levees, often when the channel does this, some of its flow remains in the abandoned channel. When these channel-switching events occur, a mature delta develops a distributary network, another way these distributary networks form is from deposition of mouth bars. When this mid-channel bar is deposited at the mouth of a river and this results in additional deposition on the upstream end of the mouth-bar, which splits the river into two distributary channels. A good example of the result of this process is the Wax Lake Delta, in both of these cases, depositional processes force redistribution of deposition from areas of high deposition to areas of low deposition.
This results in the smoothing of the shape of the delta as the channels move across its surface. Because the sediment is laid down in fashion, the shape of these deltas approximates a fan. The more often the flow changes course, the shape develops as closer to an ideal fan, the Mississippi and Ural River deltas, with their birds-feet, are examples of rivers that do not avulse often enough to form a symmetrical fan shape
The Yorkshire Regiment is an infantry regiment of the British Army, created by the amalgamation of three historic regiments in 2006. It is currently the line infantry or rifles unit to represent a single geographical county in the new infantry structure. It lost one battalion as part of the Army 2020 defence review, the recruitment area covers all of the present-day ceremonial counties of North Yorkshire and East Riding of Yorkshire. Recruitment however is open to those from outside the formal recruitment area, with the regiment in particular recruiting from North East England, the regiments antecedent units recruited in areas that are now part of Northumberland and Wear, Cumbria and Greater Manchester. The regiment was formed on 6 June 2006. The reserve Territorial Army battalion re-badged in TA Centres on the same day and that same afternoon representatives of the affiliated Army Cadet Forces and Combined Cadet Forces detachments rebadged in Imphal Barracks, York. HRH the Duke of York KG was appointed Colonel-in-Chief and His Grace the 8th Duke of Wellington KG LVO OBE MC DL the Deputy Colonel-in-Chief, by HM the Queen.
The four battalions of the regiment were presented with new Queens and Regimental Colours at a parade in Imphal Barracks, York, to replace the antecedent regiments former colours, the Honorary set of Colours carried by the 3rd Battalion was paraded by the battalion. The new colours of all four battalions were paraded through the streets of York from Cliffords Tower to York Minster, the 1st Battalion was renumbered as the 2nd Battalion and the 3rd Battalion was renumbered as the 1st Battalion. He announced that they would dispense with the antecedent regiments historical titles, the history of the 4th Battalion clearly shows the changing attitudes over the last 40 years, toward the links between regular army battalions and Territorial Army battalions. The 1966 Defence White Paper dramatically reduced the number of TA units, the Yorkshire Volunteers continued in existence until 1993 when it was disbanded. The driver for disbandment was the 1990 defence review, Options for Change which recommended that the link between TA units and regular units be reintroduced, the 1997 Strategic Defence Review again cut the size of the TA.
The deployment of 1 YORKS Battle Group to Basra, Iraq in November 2006 was the first major deployment for the Yorkshire Regiment. During Op Telic 9 Private Luke Simpson of A Company, from Howden, East Riding of Yorkshire, was killed, becoming the 1st Battalion and the Regiments first operational fatality. Two members of the 1st Battalion, Major Ian Crowley of C Company, of Beverley, East Riding of Yorkshire and Captain Ibrar Ali of A Company, were awarded the Military Cross. The 2nd Battalion of the regiment were deployed to the Helmand Province of Afghanistan in September,2007 in an Operational Mentoring, sgt Johnson had previously received a MID for assisting his Company commander, Major Jake Little, to extract soldiers who were surrounded by Taliban fighters. Major Little was awarded a Military Cross for his leadership to extract his men. Acting Sergeant John Cockburn was awarded a Military Cross for his actions in the tour of duty
JW GROM is Polands elite counter-terrorism unit. GROM, which stands for Grupa Reagowania Operacyjno-Manewrowego, which means thunder, is one of the five special operation forces units of the Polish Armed Forces. It was officially activated on July 13,1990 and it is deployed in a variety of special operations and unconventional warfare roles, including anti-terrorist operations and projection of force behind enemy lines. The unit was named after the Silent Unseen - Polands elite World War II special-operations unit, the units other name is Jednostka Wojskowa 2305. GROM was originally modelled on NATOs most reputable special operations such as the US Armys Delta Force, the US Navys SEAL Team Six. In the 1970s and 1980s, there were several formations of special units within Poland. This proposal, was rejected by the Peoples Army of Poland. In 1989, many Jews were allowed to emigrate from the Soviet Union to Israel, Poland was one of the handful of countries that provided aid in the form of organization for the operation, dubbed Operation Bridge.
After two Polish diplomats were shot in Beirut, Lt. Col. Sławomir Petelicki was sent to Lebanon to secure the transfer of civilians, petelickis ideas were well received, and on June 13,1990, GROM was formally established as JW2305. As a Polish intelligence officer from Służba Bezpieczeństwa specializing in sabotage and subversion and he gathered around himself a group of like-minded and professional soldiers and set about choosing soldiers that would be fit for special operations. Due to the risks involved in special service, it was decided that all men should be from professional service. The first batch of recruits all came from a variety of already-existing special units within the Polish Armed Forces, many of these initial instructors were trained by the Special Forces of the United States and the United Kingdom. It was first reported to the press in 1992 and became known to the public in 1994, before October 1,1999, JW2305 was subordinate to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, after which time command was transferred to the Minister of National Defence, until 2007.
Since 2007 JW GROM is under the command of Dowódca Wojsk Specjalnych, GROM soldiers train with the best special forces units in the world. The training of GROM soldiers includes a variety of disciplines, all of them undergo the same specialized training in anti-terrorism and special operations, as well as frogman and parachuting. In four-man teams, each soldier must be prepared to assume the respective responsibilities of his colleagues, JW GROM receives basic special operations training from the Swedish Navys Special Command for Tactical Operations based in Karlskrona, Swedens primary Naval Base. Approximately 75% of GROM personnel are trained as medics or paramedics, in addition, each group is supported by several professional physicians. GROM soldiers are trained in the capture or kill methods, Most of units operations remain classified, the known ones are listed below
Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
Whereas the regular military defends Irans borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard is intended to protect the countrys Islamic system. The Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or deviant movements, the Revolutionary Guards have roughly 125,000 military personnel including ground and naval forces. Its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf and it controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel. Its media arm is Sepah News, since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken an ever more assertive role in virtually every aspect of Iranian society. The Chief Commander of the Guardians is Mohammad Ali Jafari, who was preceded by Yahya Rahim Safavi. Sepāh has a connotation of soldiers, while in modern Persian it is used to describe a corps sized unit.
Pāsdārān is the form of Pāsdār, which means Guardian. Members of Sepah are known as Pāsdār, which is their title, the Iranian Government and those who identify with the organization generally use Sepāh e Pāsdārān, although it is not uncommon to hear Pāsdārān-e Enqelāb, or simply Pāsdārān as well. It should be noted though that among the Iranian population, and especially among diaspora Iranians, most foreign governments and the English-speaking mass media tend to use the term Iranian Revolutionary Guards or simply the Revolutionary Guards. In the US media, the force is frequently referred to interchangeably as the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps or the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, the US government standard is Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, while the United Nations uses Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps. The forces main role is in national security and it is responsible for internal and border security, law enforcement, and Irans missile forces. IRGC operations are geared towards asymmetric warfare and less traditional duties and these include the control of smuggling, control of the Strait of Hormuz, and resistance operations.
The IRGC is intended to complement the traditional role of the regular Iranian military. The IRGC is a combined force with its own ground forces, air force, intelligence. It controls the Basij militia, the Basij is a volunteer-based force, with 90,000 regular soldiers and 300,000 reservists. The IRGC is officially recognized as a component of the Iranian military under Article 150 of the Iranian Constitution and it is separate from, and parallel to, the other arm of Irans military, which is called Artesh. Especially in the waters of the Persian Gulf, the IRGC is expected to control of any Iranian response to attacks on its nuclear facilities. From the beginning of the new Islamic government, the Pasdaran functioned as a corps of the faithful, days after Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeinis return to Tehran on 1 February 1979, the Bazargan interim administration established the Pasdaran under a decree issued by Khomeini on 5 May
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that was first spoken in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Arabic is the language of 1.7 billion Muslims. It is one of six languages of the United Nations. The modern written language is derived from the language of the Quran and it is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, which is the language of 26 states. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the standards of Quranic Arabic. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics. As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Many words of Arabic origin are found in ancient languages like Latin.
Balkan languages, including Greek, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has borrowed words from languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times. Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense, the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms, the development of an internal passive. These features are evidence of descent from a hypothetical ancestor. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken and it is believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were spoken in southern Arabia at this time.
To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages, in Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested
The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates. The river flows south from the mountains of southeastern Turkey through Iraq, the Tigris is 1,850 km long, rising in the Taurus Mountains of eastern Turkey about 25 km southeast of the city of Elazig and about 30 km from the headwaters of the Euphrates. The river flows for 400 km through Turkish territory before becoming the border between Syria and Turkey and this stretch of 44 km is the only part of the river that is located in Syria. Close to its confluence with the Euphrates, the Tigris splits into several channels, the artificial Shatt al-Hayy branches off, to join the Euphrates near Nasiriyah. Second, the Shatt al-Muminah and Majar-al-Kabir branch off to feed the Central Marshes, further downstream, two other distributary channels branch off, which feed the Hawizeh Marshes. The main channel continues southwards and is joined by the Al-Kassarah, the Tigris joins the Euphrates near al-Qurnah to form the Shatt-al-Arab.
According to Pliny and other ancient historians, the Euphrates originally had its outlet into the sea separate from that of the Tigris, the capital of Iraq, stands on the banks of the Tigris. The port city of Basra straddles the Shatt al-Arab, in ancient times, many of the great cities of Mesopotamia stood on or near the Tigris, drawing water from it to irrigate the civilization of the Sumerians. Notable Tigris-side cities included Nineveh and Seleucia, while the city of Lagash was irrigated by the Tigris via a canal dug around 2400 B. C, the Tigris has long been an important transport route in a largely desert country. Shallow-draft vessels can go as far as Baghdad, but rafts are needed for transport upstream to Mosul, General Francis Rawdon Chesney hauled two steamers overland through Syria in 1836 to explore the possibility of an overland and river route to India. One steamer, the Tigris, was wrecked in a storm which sank, Chesney proved the river navigable to powered craft. Later, the Euphrates and Tigris Steam Navigation Company was established in 1861 by the Lynch Brothers trading company and they had 2 steamers in service.
By 1908 ten steamers were on the river, tourists boarded steam yachts to venture inland as this was the first age of archaeological tourism, and the sites of Ur and Ctesiphon became popular to European travelers. In the First World War, during the British conquest of Ottoman Mesopotamia, see Siege of Kut and the Fall of Baghdad. The Tigris Flotilla included vessels Clio, Lawrence, armed tug Comet, armed launches Lewis Pelly, Shaitan and stern wheelers Muzaffari/Mozaffir. These were joined by Royal Navy Fly-class gunboats Butterfly, Dragonfly, Sawfly and Mantis, the Ancient Greek form Tigris was borrowed from Old Persian Tigrā, itself from Elamite Tigra, itself from Sumerian Idigna. The Sumerian form was borrowed into Akkadian as Idiqlat, and from there into the other Semitic languages, another name for the Tigris used in Middle Persian was Arvand Rud, literally swift river. Today, Arvand Rud refers to the confluence of the Euphrates, in Kurdish, it is known as Ava Mezin, the Great Water
A marsh is a wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species. Marshes can often be found at the edges of lakes and streams and they are often dominated by grasses, rushes or reeds. If woody plants are present they tend to be low-growing shrubs, Marshes provide a habitat for many species of plants and insects that have adapted to living in flooded conditions. The plants must be able to survive in wet mud with low oxygen levels, many of these plants therefore have aerenchyma, channels within the stem that allow air to move from the leaves into the rooting zone. Marsh plants tend to have rhizomes for underground storage and reproduction, familiar examples include cattails, sedges and sawgrass. Aquatic animals, from fish to salamanders, are able to live with a low amount of oxygen in the water. Some can obtain oxygen from the air instead, while others can live indefinitely in conditions of low oxygen, Marshes provide habitats for many kinds of invertebrates, amphibians and aquatic mammals.
Marshes have extremely high levels of production, some of the highest in the world. Marshes improve water quality by acting as a sink to filter pollutants, Marshes are able to absorb water during periods of heavy rainfall and slowly release it into waterways and therefore reduce the magnitude of flooding. The pH in marshes tends to be neutral to alkaline, as opposed to bogs, Marshes differ depending mainly on their location and salinity. Both of these factors influence the range and scope of animal and plant life that can survive. The three main types of marsh are salt marshes, freshwater marshes, and freshwater marshes. These three can be found worldwide and each contains a different set of organisms, saltwater marshes are found around the world in mid to high latitudes, wherever there are sections of protected coastline. They are located close enough to the shoreline that the motion of the tides affects them and they flourish where the rate of sediment buildup is greater than the rate at which the land level is sinking.
Salt marshes are dominated by specially adapted rooted vegetation, primarily salt-tolerant grasses, salt marshes are most commonly found in lagoons, and on the sheltered side of shingle or sandspit. The currents there carry the fine particles around to the side of the spit. These locations allow the marshes to absorb the nutrients from the water running through them before they reach the oceans. Coastal development and urban sprawl has caused significant loss of these essential habitats, although considered a freshwater marsh, this form of marsh is affected by the ocean tides
The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. The main ethnic groups are Arabs and Kurds, others include Assyrians, Shabakis, Armenians, Circassians, around 95% of the countrys 36 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan and Mandeanism present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish, two major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, run south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf. These rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land, the region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, historically known as Mesopotamia, is often referred to as the cradle of civilisation. It was here that mankind first began to read, create laws, the area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. Iraq was the centre of the Akkadian, Assyrian and it was part of the Median, Hellenistic, Sassanid, Rashidun, Abbasid, Mongol, Safavid and Ottoman empires. Iraqs modern borders were mostly demarcated in 1920 by the League of Nations when the Ottoman Empire was divided by the Treaty of Sèvres, Iraq was placed under the authority of the United Kingdom as the British Mandate of Mesopotamia.
A monarchy was established in 1921 and the Kingdom of Iraq gained independence from Britain in 1932, in 1958, the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created. Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Baath Party from 1968 until 2003, after an invasion by the United States and its allies in 2003, Saddam Husseins Baath Party was removed from power and multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005. The American presence in Iraq ended in 2011, but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country, the Arabic name العراق al-ʿIrāq has been in use since before the 6th century. There are several suggested origins for the name, one dates to the Sumerian city of Uruk and is thus ultimately of Sumerian origin, as Uruk was the Akkadian name for the Sumerian city of Urug, containing the Sumerian word for city, UR. An Arabic folk etymology for the name is rooted, well-watered. During the medieval period, there was a region called ʿIrāq ʿArabī for Lower Mesopotamia and ʿIrāq ʿajamī, for the region now situated in Central and Western Iran.
The term historically included the south of the Hamrin Mountains. The term Sawad was used in early Islamic times for the region of the plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. In English, it is either /ɪˈrɑːk/ or /ɪˈræk/, the American Heritage Dictionary, the pronunciation /aɪˈræk/ is frequently heard in U. S. media. Since approximately 10,000 BC, Iraq was one of centres of a Caucasoid Neolithic culture where agriculture, the following Neolithic period is represented by rectangular houses. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of stone, finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations