Tarbikha, was a Palestinian Arab village. It was located 27 kilometres northeast of Acre in the British Mandate District of Acre that was captured and depopulated by the Israel Defense Forces during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, three sarcophagi were found on the south side of the village. A semi-circular pool and tombs were found, Tarbikha was located on the site of the Crusaders Tayerebika, from which it derived its name. In 1183 it was noted that Godfrey de Tor sold the land of the village to Joscelin III, in 1220 Jocelyn III´s daughter Beatrix de Courtenay and her husband Otto von Botenlauben, Count of Henneberg, sold their land, including Tayerbica, to the Teutonic Knights. Tarbikha was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517 with the rest of Palestine and it paid taxes on a number of crops, including wheat and barley, as well as on goats, beehives and a press that was used for processing either olives or grapes. In the late century, the village of Tarbikha was described as being built of stone.
The population was estimated at being around 100, and they lived by cultivating olives, during this period Tarbikha was a part of the Beirut province. Only after World War I, when the borders between Lebanon and Palestine were delineated by the British and French, did Tarbikha come under Palestinian administration. In the 1931 census of Palestine, conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Tarbikha had a population of 674,1 Christian, the village had two mosques, and an elementary school, founded after 1938, which had an enrollment of 120 students in the mid-1940s. It had an office and a police station for monitoring the Lebanese border. In 1944/1945 the village population was counted together with that of Suruh and Al-Nabi Rubin, together they had 1000 Muslim inhabitants and a total of 18,563 dunams of land. Of this, a total of 3,200 dunums allocated to cereals, while 619 dunums were irrigated or used for orchards, the town was assaulted during Operation Hiram by the Oded Brigade on 30 October 1948.
The population was ordered to leave for Lebanon in early November, the village lands of Tarbikha were settled by Jewish immigrants from Hungary and Romania as part of the policy of Judaisation of Northern Israel. The Palestinian historian Walid Khalidi, described the remaining structures in 1992. Some of the roofs have been remodeled and given a gabled form, stones from the original houses embellish the roof of the central shelter of the moshav. In 1994, the refugees from the seven villages, who had been classified as Palestinian refugees since 1948, were granted Lebanese citizenship
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. The country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israels economy and technology center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, in 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, next year, the Jewish Agency declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel. Israel has since fought several wars with neighboring Arab states, in the course of which it has occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and it extended its laws to the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israels occupation of the Palestinian territories is the worlds longest military occupation in modern times, efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in peace.
However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have successfully been signed, the population of Israel, as defined by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, was estimated in 2017 to be 8,671,100 people. It is the worlds only Jewish-majority state, with 74. 8% being designated as Jewish, the countrys second largest group of citizens are Arabs, at 20. 8%. The great majority of Israeli Arabs are Sunni Muslims, including significant numbers of semi-settled Negev Bedouins, other minorities include Arameans, Assyrians, Black Hebrew Israelites, Circassians and Samaritans. Israel hosts a significant population of foreign workers and asylum seekers from Africa and Asia, including illegal migrants from Sudan, Eritrea. In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish, Israel is a representative democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation and universal suffrage. The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature, Israel is a developed country and an OECD member, with the 35th-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2016.
The country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentage of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. The country has the highest standard of living in the Middle East and the third highest in Asia, in the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term Israeli to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have historically used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel. The name Israel in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, jacobs twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. The earliest known artifact to mention the word Israel as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Islam
It has played an important role in modern times, acting as the regional center of the villages in the Beit Shean Valley. The ancient city ruins are now protected within a national park, a large cemetery on the northern Mound was in use from the Bronze Age to Byzantine times. Canaanite graves dating from 2000 to 1600 BCE were discovered there in 1926, after the Egyptian conquest of Beit Shean by pharaoh Thutmose III in the 15th century BCE, the small town on the summit of the Mound became the center of the Egyptian administration of the region. The Egyptian newcomers changed the organization of the town and left a great deal of material culture behind, artifacts of potential cultic significance were found around the temple. Based on a found in the temple, inscribed with Egyptian hieroglyphs. University Museums most important finds near the temple is the Lion and Dog stela, the Hebrew University excavations determined that this temple was built on the site of an earlier one. During the three hundred years of Egyptian rule, the population of Beit She’an appears to have been primarily Egyptian administrative officials, the town was completely rebuilt, following a new layout, during the 19th dynasty.
The University Museum excavations uncovered two important stelae from the period of Seti I and a monument of Rameses II, Pottery was produced locally, but some was made to mimic Egyptian forms. Other Canaanite goods existed alongside Egyptian imports, or locally made Egyptian-style objects, the 20th dynasty saw the construction of large administrative buildings in Beit Shean, including Building 1500, a small palace for the Egyptian governor. During the 20th dynasty, invasions of the Sea Peoples upset Egypts control over the Eastern Mediterranean, though the exact circumstances are unclear, the entire site of Beit Shean was destroyed by fire around 1150 BCE. The Egyptians did not attempt to rebuild their administrative center and finally lost control of the region, an Iron Age I Canaanite city was constructed on the site of the Egyptian center shortly after its destruction. Around 1100 BC, Canaanite Beit Shean was conquered by the Philistines, during a subsequent battle against the Jewish King Saul at nearby Mount Gilboa in 1004 BC, the Philistines prevailed.
1 Samuel 31,10 states that the victorious Philistines hung the body of King Saul on the walls of Beit Shean, portions of these walls were excavated on the Mound recently. The Assyrian conquest of northern Israel under Tiglath-Pileser III brought about the destruction of Beit Shean by fire, minimal reoccupation occurred until the Hellenistic period. The Hellenistic period saw the reoccupation of the site of Beit Shean under the new name Scythopolis, little is known about the Hellenistic city, but during the 3rd century BCE a large temple was constructed on the Tell. It is unknown which deity was worshipped there, but the continued to be used during Roman times. Graves dating from the Hellenistic period are simple, singular rock-cut tombs, in 198 BCE the Seleucids finally conquered the region. The town played a role after the Hasmonean-Maccabeean Revolt, Josephus records that the Jewish High Priest Jonathan was killed there by Demetrius II Nicator, the city was destroyed by fire at the end of the 2nd century BCE
Al-Manshiyya, was a Palestinian village with a Muslim orphanage and a mosque known as the mosque of Abu Atiyya, which is still standing. The village was close to the shrine of Baháulláh, who was the founder of the Baháí Faith, five graves were excavated in al-Manshiyya in 1955–56, the earliest dated from the thirteenth century BC. However, the village must have disintegrated subsequently, as it is not mentioned in the 1596 census, the local shrine of Abu Atabi has a construction text dating it to 1140 H. Some paces further is a mosque, remarkable on account of its burying-ground, in which was interred a prodigious number of infidels, a map from 1799 showed the place as an uninhabited ruin, while Guérin, who visited in 1875, observed that the village is newly founded. It had a population of about 150, by 1945, Al-Manshiyya had 810 Muslim inhabitants, with a total of 14,886 dunums of land according to an official land and population survey. The economy of the village was based on agriculture, in 1944/45253 dunams was used for citrus and bananas,10,818 dunams were allotted to cereals,619 dunams were irrigated or used for orchards, while 27 dunams were built-up land.
The villagers, who were farmers, lived peacefully and had significant interaction with their Jewish neighbors, but the fighting in Acre, and later, the Deir Yassin massacre, frightened them. The village was first drawn into the 1948 Arab–Israeli War on 6 February 1948, on that day a number of armed Jews, using automatic weapons and Sten guns, attacked the village. They were driven back by village defenders, Manshiyya was captured by on 14 May 1948 during Operation Ben-Ami. One villager recalled that the attack came from the hill overlooking the village. The villagers, with bullets whizzing over their heads, ran towards the east because all sides were surrounded by the Jews. When they returned to remove the bodies, they found the village strewn with mines. One former villager recounted that her father returned to Al-Manshiyya about 10 days after the attack, on the 16 June 1948, David Ben-Gurion mentioned Manshiyya as one of the villages Israel had destroyed. Two settlements and Bustan HaGalil, were established in 1948 on village land, the site is now part of the city of Acre.
The shrine is a handsome, domed structure, the front wall, the mosque, a stone structure with a dome and vaulted ceilings, has been turned into a private home for a Jewish family. The former Islamic school for orphans is inhabited, the cemetery is still visible but is not tended, it contains a tombstone that is inscribed in Turkish and dates to the eighteenth century. The al-Basha water canal, built with blocks, still exists, but is not functioning. Andrew Petersen, an archaeologist specializing in Islamic architecture, visited Al-Manshiyya in 1994 and he found the mosque and shrine of Abu Atabi was still standing, though it has been turned into a residential complex since 1948
Palestine is a geographic region in Western Asia between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. It is sometimes considered to include adjoining territories, the name was used by Ancient Greek writers, and was used for the Roman province Syria Palaestina, the Byzantine Palaestina Prima, and the Islamic provincial district of Jund Filastin. The region comprises most of the claimed for the biblical regions known as the Land of Israel. Historically, it has known as the southern portion of wider regional designations such as Canaan, ash-Sham. The boundaries of the region have changed throughout history, the region comprises the State of Israel and the Palestinian territories in which the State of Palestine was declared. Modern archaeology has identified 12 ancient inscriptions from Egyptian and Assyrian records recording likely cognates of Hebrew Pelesheth, the term Peleset is found in five inscriptions referring to a neighboring people or land starting from c.1150 BCE during the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt.
Neither the Egyptian nor the Assyrian sources provided clear regional boundaries for the term, approximately a century later, Aristotle used a similar definition for the region in Meteorology, in which he included the Dead Sea. The term is accepted to be a translation of the Biblical name Peleshet. The term is used in the Septuagint, who used a transliteration Land of Phylistieim different from the contemporary Greek place name Palaistínē. Following the Muslim conquest, place names that were in use by the Byzantine administration generally continued to be used in Arabic, Modern archaeologists and historians of the region refer to their field of study as Levantine archaeology. The region was among the earliest in the world to see human habitation, agricultural communities, during the Bronze Age, independent Canaanite city-states were established, and were influenced by the surrounding civilizations of ancient Egypt, Phoenicia, Minoan Crete, and Syria. Between 1550–1400 BCE, the Canaanite cities became vassals to the Egyptian New Kingdom who held power until the 1178 BCE Battle of Djahy during the wider Bronze Age collapse.
The region became part of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from c.740 BCE, in 539 BCE, the Babylonian empire was replaced by the Achaemenid Empire. In the 330s BCE, Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great conquered the region and it ultimately fell to the Seleucid Empire between 219–200 BCE. In 116 BCE, a Seleucid civil war resulted in the independence of certain regions including the Hasmonean principality in the Judaean Mountains, from 110 BCE, the Hasmoneans extended their authority over much of Palestine, creating a Judaean–Samaritan–Idumaean–Ituraean–Galilean alliance. The Judaean control over the region resulted in it becoming known as Judaea. Between 73–63 BCE, the Roman Republic extended its influence into the region in the Third Mithridatic War, conquering Judea in 63 BCE, and splitting the former Hasmonean Kingdom into five districts. The three-year Ministry of Jesus, culminating in his crucifixion, is estimated to have occurred from 28–30 CE, in 70 CE, Titus sacked Jerusalem, resulting in the dispersal of the citys Jews and Christians to Yavne and Pella
Al-Sumayriyya, was a Palestinian village located six kilometers north of Acre that was depopulated after it was captured by the Israel Defense Forces during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Tall al-Sumayriyya contains carved stones, a floor, columns. Khirbat Abu Ataba has an Islamic shrine and ceramic fragments, in the Crusader era, it was mentioned in 1277 under the name of Somelaria. At the time, the village belonged to the Templars, in the hudna of 1283 between Al Mansur Qalawun and the Crusaders, Al-Sumayriyya was still under Crusader rule while in 1291 it had come under Mamluk control. A building with a court-yard, measuring 60,5 by 57 meters, dating from the Crusader era, has noted in the village. In 1738 Richard Pococke passed by the place, which he called Semmars and he thought the name came from St. Marys, and noted the remains of a wall of hewn stone, which he thought had belonged to a convent. A map by Pierre Jacotin from Napoleons invasion of 1799 showed the place, in 1875 Victor Guérin found the village had 400 Muslim inhabitants.
In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities Semariyeh had a population of 307,300 Muslims and 7 Christians and this had increased in the 1931 census to 392,390 Muslims,1 Christian and 1 Jew, in a total of 92 houses. Al-Sumayriyya had a school for boys, which was founded in 1943. In 1945, it had an enrollment of 60 students, in 1944/1945 the village had a population of 760 Muslims, with a total of 8,542 dunams of land. Of this,6,854 dunams were allocated to grain crops,354 dunams were irrigated or planted with orchards, at the beginning of 1945, al-Sumayriyyas 760 inhabitants were all Arab Muslims. The inhabitants fled as a result of the 14 May 1948 assault on the village by the Carmeli Brigade during Operation Ben-Ami, the village - along with those of neighbouring al-Bassa and al-Zib which were captured in the offensive - was subsequently destroyed, except for its mosque. Lohamei HaGetaot and Shomrat are both on village land, morris writes that Bustan HaGalil was built near its site, Khalidi writes that Bustan HaGalil is on the land of Al-Manshiyya.
Shavey Tziyon and Regba are close to the borders of Al-Sumayriyya. Moslih Kanaaneh Tour to Alsumeriyya, Umar Ighbariyyeh,25.4.2009 Zochrot
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker