1.
Islamic Golden Age
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This period is traditionally said to have ended with the collapse of the Abbasid caliphate due to Mongol invasions and the Sack of Baghdad in 1258 AD. A few contemporary scholars place the end of the Islamic Golden Age as late as the end of 15th to 16th centuries, the metaphor of a golden age began to be applied in 19th-century literature about Islamic history, in the context of the western aesthetic fashion known as Orientalism. There is no definition of term, and depending on whether it is used with a focus on cultural or on military achievement. During the early 20th century, the term was used only occasionally, the Muslim government heavily patronized scholars. The money spent on the Translation Movement for some translations is estimated to be equivalent to twice the annual research budget of the United Kingdom’s Medical Research Council. The best scholars and notable translators, such as Hunayn ibn Ishaq, had salaries that are estimated to be the equivalent of professional athletes today, the House of Wisdom was a library established in Abbasid-era Baghdad, Iraq by Caliph al-Mansur. During this period, the Muslims showed a strong interest in assimilating the knowledge of the civilizations that had been conquered. They also excelled in fields, in particular philosophy, science. For a long period of time the personal physicians of the Abbasid Caliphs were often Assyrian Christians, among the most prominent Christian families to serve as physicians to the caliphs were the Bukhtishu dynasty. Throughout the 4th to 7th centuries, Christian scholarly work in the Greek, the House of Wisdom was founded in Baghdad in 825, modelled after the Academy of Gondishapur. It was led by Christian physician Hunayn ibn Ishaq, with the support of Byzantine medicine, many of the most important philosophical and scientific works of the ancient world were translated, including the work of Galen, Hippocrates, Plato, Aristotle, Ptolemy and Archimedes. Many scholars of the House of Wisdom were of Christian background, the use of paper spread from China into Muslim regions in the eighth century, arriving in Al-Andalus on the Iberian peninsula, present-day Spain in the 10th century. It was easier to manufacture than parchment, less likely to crack than papyrus, Islamic paper makers devised assembly-line methods of hand-copying manuscripts to turn out editions far larger than any available in Europe for centuries. It was from countries that the rest of the world learned to make paper from linen. Ibn Rushd and Ibn Sina played a role in saving the works of Aristotle, whose ideas came to dominate the non-religious thought of the Christian. Ibn Sina and other such as al-Kindi and al-Farabi combined Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism with other ideas introduced through Islam. Arabic philosophic literature was translated into Latin and Ladino, contributing to the development of modern European philosophy, during this period, non-Muslims were allowed to flourish relative to treatment of religious minorities in the Christian Byzantine Empire. The Jewish philosopher Moses Maimonides, who lived in Andalusia, is an example, in epistemology, Ibn Tufail wrote the novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan and in response Ibn al-Nafis wrote the novel Theologus Autodidactus
2.
Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world
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Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age, and mostly written in the Arabic language. These developments mostly took place in the Middle East, Central Asia, Al-Andalus, and North Africa and these included Greek, Sassanid, and Indian works in particular, which were translated and built upon. Islamic astronomy also had an influence on Chinese astronomy and Malian astronomy, a significant number of stars in the sky, such as Aldebaran, Altair and Deneb, and astronomical terms such as alidade, azimuth, and nadir, are still referred to by their Arabic names. A large corpus of literature from Islamic astronomy remains today, numbering approximately 10,000 manuscripts scattered throughout the world, even so, a reasonably accurate picture of Islamic activity in the field of astronomy can be reconstructed. These observations were based on the rising and setting of stars. Anwa continued to be developed after Islamization by the Arabs, where Islamic astronomers added mathematical methods to their empirical observations, according to David King, after the rise of Islam, the religious obligation to determine the qibla and prayer times inspired more progress in astronomy for centuries. The first astronomical texts that were translated into Arabic were of Indian and Persian origin, another text translated was the Zij al-Shah, a collection of astronomical tables compiled in Sasanid Persia over two centuries. Fragments of texts during this period indicate that Arabs adopted the function in place of the chords of arc used in Greek trigonometry. The House of Wisdom was an established in Baghdad under Abbasid caliph Al-Mamun in the early 9th century. From this time, independent investigation into the Ptolemaic system became possible, Astronomical research was greatly supported by the Abbasid caliph al-Mamun through The House of Wisdom. Baghdad and Damascus became the centers of such activity, the caliphs not only supported this work financially, but endowed the work with formal prestige. The first major Muslim work of astronomy was Zij al-Sindh by al-Khwarizmi in 830, the work contains tables for the movements of the sun, the moon and the five planets known at the time. The work is significant as it introduced Ptolemaic concepts into Islamic sciences and this work also marks the turning point in Islamic astronomy. Hitherto, Muslim astronomers had adopted a primarily research approach to the field, translating works of others, al-Khwarizmis work marked the beginning of nontraditional methods of study and calculations. In 850, al-Farghani wrote Kitab fi Jawani, the book primarily gave a summary of Ptolemic cosmography. However, it also corrected Ptolemy based on findings of earlier Arab astronomers, al-Farghani gave revised values for the obliquity of the ecliptic, the precessional movement of the apogees of the sun and the moon, and the circumference of the earth. The book was circulated through the Muslim world, and even translated into Latin. The period when a distinctive Islamic system of astronomy flourished, the period began as the Muslim astronomers began questioning the framework of the Ptolemaic system of astronomy
3.
Mathematics
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Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope, Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof, when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry, rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclids Elements. Galileo Galilei said, The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and it is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth, carl Friedrich Gauss referred to mathematics as the Queen of the Sciences. Benjamin Peirce called mathematics the science that draws necessary conclusions, David Hilbert said of mathematics, We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules, rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise. Albert Einstein stated that as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain, Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics, Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns, in Babylonian mathematics elementary arithmetic first appears in the archaeological record. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have many and diverse. Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a study of mathematics in its own right with Greek mathematics. Mathematics has since been extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today, the overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and their proofs. The word máthēma is derived from μανθάνω, while the modern Greek equivalent is μαθαίνω, in Greece, the word for mathematics came to have the narrower and more technical meaning mathematical study even in Classical times
4.
Omar Khayyam
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He wrote numerous treatises on mechanics, geography, mineralogy and astronomy. Born in Nishapur, in northeastern Iran, at an age he moved to Samarkand. Afterwards he moved to Bukhara and became established as one of the major mathematicians and he contributed to a calendar reform. His significance as a philosopher and teacher, and his few remaining philosophical works, have not received the attention as his scientific and poetic writings. Al-Zamakhshari referred to him as the philosopher of the world, Avicenna taught him philosophy for decades in Nishapur. Outside Iran and Persian-speaking countries, Khayyám has influenced literature and societies through the translation of his works, the greatest such effect was in English-speaking countries. The English scholar Thomas Hyde was the first non-Persian known to have studied his works, the most influential, however, was Edward FitzGerald, who made Khayyám famous in the West through his translation and adaptations of Khayyáms quatrains in the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. Khayyám died in 1131, and is buried in the Khayyám Garden in Nishapur, غیاث الدین Ghiyāth ad-Din – means the Shoulder of the Faith and implies the knowledge of the Quran. ابوالفتح عمر بن ابراهیم Abu Fath Umar bin Ibrahim – Abu means father, Fath means conqueror, Umar his first name, bin means son of, خیام Khayyām – means tent maker, a byname from the fathers craft. Ghiyāth ad-Din Abul-Fath Umar ibn Ibrāhīm al-Khayyām Nīshāpūrī was born in Nishapur, then a Seljuq capital in Khorasan, rivalling Cairo or Baghdad. He was born into a family of tent-makers, and on this later in life, He spent part of his childhood in the town of Balkh. He later studied under Imam Mowaffaq Nishapuri, one of the greatest teachers of the Khorasan region, throughout his life, Omar Khayyám taught algebra and geometry during the day, and in the evening attended the Seljuq court as an adviser of Malik-Shah I. At night he studied astronomy and worked on the Jalali calendar and he was then allowed to work as a court astrologer, and to return to Nishapur. Khayyám was famous during his life as a mathematician and he wrote the influential Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra, which laid down the principles of algebra later adopted in Europe. In particular, he derived general methods for solving cubic equations, in the Treatise, he wrote on the triangular array of binomial coefficients known as Pascals triangle. In 1077, Khayyám wrote Sharh ma ashkala min musadarat kitab Uqlidis published in English as On the Difficulties of Euclids Definitions, an important part of the book is concerned with Euclids famous parallel postulate, which attracted the interest of Thabit ibn Qurra. Khayyám wrote on geometry, specifically on the theory of proportions, Khayyám wrote Explanations of the difficulties in the postulates in Euclids Elements. The book consists of sections on the parallel postulate, on the Euclidean definition of ratios and the Anthyphairetic ratio
5.
Ulugh Beg
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Mīrzā Muhammad Tāraghay bin Shāhrukh, better known as Ulugh Beg, was a Timurid ruler as well as an astronomer, mathematician and sultan. His real name was Mīrzā Mohammad Tāraghay bin Shāhrukh, Ulugh Beg was also notable for his work in astronomy-related mathematics, such as trigonometry and spherical geometry. He built the great Ulugh Beg Observatory in Samarkand between 1424 and 1429 and it was considered by scholars to have been one of the finest observatories in the Islamic world at the time and the largest in Central Asia. He built the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand and Bukhara, transforming the cities into cultural centers of learning in Central Asia and he was also a mathematician of the 15th century — albeit his mental aptitude was perseverance rather than any unusual endowment of intellect. His observatory is situated in Samarkand which is in Uzbekistan and he ruled Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, southern Kazakhstan and most of Afghanistan from 1411 to 1449. He was a grandson of the conqueror, Timur. His mother was a noblewoman named Goharshad, daughter of the representative Turkic of tribal aristocracy Giyasitdin Tarhan, Ulugh Beg was born in Sultaniyeh in Persia during Timurs invasion. As a child he wandered through a part of the Middle East. After Timurs death, however, and the accession of Ulugh Begs father to much of the Timurid Empire, he settled in Samarkand, after Shāhrukh moved the capital to Herat, sixteen-year-old Ulugh Beg became his governor in Samarkand in 1409. In 1411, he became the ruler of the whole Mavarannahr khanate. The teenaged ruler set out to turn the city into a center for the empire. Between 1417 and 1420, he built a madrasa on Registan Square in Samarkand, Ulugh Begs most famous pupil in astronomy was Ali Qushchi. He was also famous in the fields of medicine and poetry and he used to debate with other poets about contemporary social issues. He liked to debate in a style, called Bahribayt among local poets. He also offered advice for married couples, Indicating recipes contains nuts, dried apricot. This recipe has been given in Ibn Sinas books also, lacking telescopes to work with, he increased his accuracy by increasing the length of his sextant, the so-called Fakhri sextant had a radius of about 36 meters and the optical separability of 180. More recent editions are those by Francis Baily in 1843 in vol, in 1437, Ulugh Beg determined the length of the sidereal year as 365.2570370. d = 365d 6h 10m 8s. In his measurements within many years he used a 50 m high gnomon and this value was improved by 28 seconds in 1525 by Nicolaus Copernicus, who appealed to the estimation of Thabit ibn Qurra, which had an error of +2 seconds
6.
Greeks
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The Greeks or Hellenes are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Turkey, Sicily, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world, many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor, other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church, the Greeks speak the Greek language, which forms its own unique branch within the Indo-European family of languages, the Hellenic. They are part of a group of ethnicities, described by Anthony D. Smith as an archetypal diaspora people. Both migrations occur at incisive periods, the Mycenaean at the transition to the Late Bronze Age, the Mycenaeans quickly penetrated the Aegean Sea and, by the 15th century BC, had reached Rhodes, Crete, Cyprus and the shores of Asia Minor. Around 1200 BC, the Dorians, another Greek-speaking people, followed from Epirus, the Dorian invasion was followed by a poorly attested period of migrations, appropriately called the Greek Dark Ages, but by 800 BC the landscape of Archaic and Classical Greece was discernible. The Greeks of classical antiquity idealized their Mycenaean ancestors and the Mycenaean period as an era of heroes, closeness of the gods. The Homeric Epics were especially and generally accepted as part of the Greek past, as part of the Mycenaean heritage that survived, the names of the gods and goddesses of Mycenaean Greece became major figures of the Olympian Pantheon of later antiquity. The ethnogenesis of the Greek nation is linked to the development of Pan-Hellenism in the 8th century BC, the works of Homer and Hesiod were written in the 8th century BC, becoming the basis of the national religion, ethos, history and mythology. The Oracle of Apollo at Delphi was established in this period, the classical period of Greek civilization covers a time spanning from the early 5th century BC to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BC. It is so named because it set the standards by which Greek civilization would be judged in later eras, the Peloponnesian War, the large scale civil war between the two most powerful Greek city-states Athens and Sparta and their allies, left both greatly weakened. Many Greeks settled in Hellenistic cities like Alexandria, Antioch and Seleucia, two thousand years later, there are still communities in Pakistan and Afghanistan, like the Kalash, who claim to be descended from Greek settlers. The Hellenistic civilization was the period of Greek civilization, the beginnings of which are usually placed at Alexanders death. This Hellenistic age, so called because it saw the partial Hellenization of many non-Greek cultures and this age saw the Greeks move towards larger cities and a reduction in the importance of the city-state. These larger cities were parts of the still larger Kingdoms of the Diadochi, Greeks, however, remained aware of their past, chiefly through the study of the works of Homer and the classical authors. An important factor in maintaining Greek identity was contact with barbarian peoples and this led to a strong desire among Greeks to organize the transmission of the Hellenic paideia to the next generation