Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad; the majority of Muslims follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts. "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter". The largest denomination of Islam are Sunni Muslims who constitute 85-90% of the total Muslim population, followed by the Shia who make up most of the remainder of Muslims; the beliefs of Muslims include: that God is eternal and one. The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith, daily prayers, fasting during the month of Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God and that Muhammad is God's messenger.
It is a set statement recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh "There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of God."In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada. The first statement of the shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God; the word muslim is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact". A female adherent is a muslima; the plural form in Arabic is muslimūn or muslimīn, its feminine equivalent is muslimāt. The ordinary word in English is "Muslim", it is sometimes transliterated as "Moslem", an older spelling. The word Mosalman is a common equivalent for Muslim used in South Asia.
Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mahometans. Although such terms were not intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God. Other obsolete terms include Muslimist. Musulmán/Mosalmán is modified from Arabic, it is the origin of the Spanish word musulmán, the German Muselmann, the French word musulman, the Polish words muzułmanin and muzułmański, the Portuguese word muçulmano, the Italian word mussulmano or musulmano, the Romanian word musulman and the Greek word μουσουλμάνος. In English it has become archaic in usage. Apart from Persian, Polish, Portuguese and Greek, the term could be found, with obvious local differences, in Armenian, Pashto, Hindi, Marathi, Turkish, Uzbek, Azeri, Hungarian, Bosnian, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and Sanskrit; the Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said: A Muslim is a person who has dedicated his worship to God... Islam means making one's religion and faith God's alone.
The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judaism and Christianity, their respective followers, as Muslim: Adam, Abraham, Jacob and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God. In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Tawrat to Moses, the Zabur to David and the Injil to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets; the most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims, followed by Pakistan and Egypt. About 20 % of the world's Muslims lives in the Middle North Africa. Sizable minorities are found in India, Russia, the Americas and parts of Europe; the country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.
Converts and immigrant communities are found in every part of the world. Over 75–90% of Muslims are Sunni; the second and third largest sects and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%, 1% respectively. With about 1.8 billion followers a quarter of earth's population, Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world. Due to the young age and high fertilit
A Surah is the term for a chapter of the Quran. There are 114 surahs in the Quran, each divided into verses; the chapters or surahs are of unequal length. Of the 114 chapters in the Quran, 86 are classified as Meccan; this classification is only approximate in regard to location of revelation. The Meccan chapters deal with faith and scenes of the Hereafter while the Medinan chapters are more concerned with organizing the social life of the nascent Muslim community and leading Muslims to the goal of Dar al-Islam by showing strength. Except for sura At-Tawba, all chapters or suras commence with'In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate'; this formula denotes the boundaries between chapters. The chapters are arranged in order of descending size. Suras are recited during the standing portions of Muslim prayers. Sura Al-Fatiha, the first chapter of the Quran, is recited in every unit of prayer and some units of prayer involve recitation of all or part of any other sura; the word surah was used at the time of Muhammad as a term with the meaning of a chapter or a portion of the Quran.
This is evidenced by the appearance of the word surah in multiple locations in the Quran such as verse 24:1: "A surah that We have sent down and appointed, We have sent down in it signs, clear signs, that haply you will remember.". It is mentioned in plural form in the Quran: "Or do they say, He invented it? Say, "Then bring ten surahs like it and call upon whomever you can besides God, if you are truthful."Nöldeke following Buxtorf suggested that the word surah derives from the Hebrew word שורה'row'. Jeffery believes that it has a common origin with a Syriac word that means'writing'. Chapters in the Quran are not arranged in the chronological order of revelation, the precise order has eluded scholars. According to tradition, Muhammad told his companions the traditional placement of every Wahy as he revealed it, Wm Theodore de Bary, an East Asian studies expert, describes that "The final process of collection and codification of the Quran text was guided by one over-arching principle: God's words must not in any way be distorted or sullied by human intervention.
For this reason, no attempt was made to edit the numerous revelations, organize them into thematic units, or present them in chronological order...". A number of medieval Islamic writers attempted to compile a chronologically ordered list of the chapters, with differing results; as no transmitted reports dating back to the time of Muhammad or his companions exists, their works represent the opinions of scholars, none originates before the first quarter of the 8th century. One version is given in a 15th-century work by Abd al-Kafi, is included in the chronological order given by the standard Egyptian edition of the Quran. Another list is mentioned by Abu Salih, while a different version of Abu Salih's is preserved in the book'Kitab Mabani', yet another, from the 10th century, is given by Ibn Nadim. A number of verses are associated with particular events. Muhammad's first revelation was chapter 96. Verses 16:41 and 47:13 refer to migration of Muslims which took place in the year 622. Verses 8:1 -- 7 and 3:120 -- 175 refer to battles of Uhud respectively.
Muhammad's last pilgrimage is mentioned in 5:3 which occurred in a few months before he died. This method is of limited usefulness because the Quran narrates the life of Muhammad or the early history of the Muslim community only incidentally and not in detail. In fact few chapters contain clear references to events which took place in Muhammad's life. Theodor Nöldeke's chronology is based on the assumption that the style of the Quran changes in one direction without reversals. Nöldeke studied the style and content of the chapters and assumed that first chapters and verses and are shorter than earlier ones, second, that earlier Meccan verses have a distinct rhyming style while verses are more prosaic. According to Nöldeke, earlier chapters have common features: many of them open with oaths in which God swears by cosmic phenomena, they have common themes, some Meccan chapters have a clear'tripartite' structure. Tripartite chapters open with a short warning, followed by one or more narratives about unbelievers, address contemporaries of Muhammad and invite them to Islam.
On the other hand, Madinan verses are longer and have a distinct style of rhyming and concern to provide legislation and guidance for the Muslim community. Richard Bell took Nöldeke's chronology as starting point for his research, Bell did not believe that Nöldeke's criteria of style was important, he saw a progressive change in Muhammad's mission from a man who preached monotheism into an independent leader of a paramount religion. For Bell this transformation in Muhammad's mission was more decisive compared with Nöldeke's criteria of style. Bell argued that passages which mentioned Islam and Muslim or implied that Muhammad's followers were a distinct community were revealed later, he classified the Quran into three main pe
Muhammad was the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached by Adam, Moses and other prophets, he is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief. Born 570 CE in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at the age of six, he was raised under the care of his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, upon his death, by his uncle Abu Talib. In years he would periodically seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer; when he was 40, Muhammad reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave, receiving his first revelation from God. Three years in 610, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "submission" to God is the right way of life, that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam.
The followers of Muhammad were few in number, experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists. He sent some of his followers to Abyssinia in 615 to shield them from prosecution, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina in 622; this event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent fighting with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca; the conquest went uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed. In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam; the revelations, which Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the verbatim "Word of God" and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammad's teachings and practices, found in the Hadith and sira literature, are upheld and used as sources of Islamic law.
The name Muhammad appears four times in the Quran. The Quran addresses Muhammad in the second person by various appellations. Muhammad is sometimes addressed by designations deriving from his state at the time of the address: thus he is referred to as the enwrapped in Quran 73:1 and the shrouded in Quran 74:1. In Sura Al-Ahzab 33:40 God singles out Muhammad as the "Seal of the prophets", or the last of the prophets; the Quran refers to Muhammad as Aḥmad "more praiseworthy". The name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim, begins with the kunya Abū, which corresponds to the English, father of; the Quran is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe; the Quran, provides minimal assistance for Muhammad's chronological biography. Important sources regarding Muhammad's life may be found in the historic works by writers of the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the Muslim era; these include traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad, which provide additional information about Muhammad's life.
The earliest surviving written sira is Ibn Ishaq's Life of God's Messenger written c. 767 CE. Although the work was lost, this sira was used at great length by Ibn Hisham and to a lesser extent by Al-Tabari. However, Ibn Hisham admits in the preface to his biography of Muhammad that he omitted matters from Ibn Ishaq's biography that "would distress certain people". Another early history source is the history of Muhammad's campaigns by al-Waqidi, the work of his secretary Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi. Many scholars accept these early biographies as authentic. Recent studies have led scholars to distinguish between traditions touching legal matters and purely historical events. In the legal group, traditions could have been subject to invention while historic events, aside from exceptional cases, may have been only subject to "tendential shaping". Other important sources include the hadith collections, accounts of the verbal and physical teachings and traditions of Muhammad. Hadiths were compiled several generations after his death by followers including Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi, Abd ar-Rahman al-Nasai, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, Malik ibn Anas, al-Daraqutni.
Some Western academics cautiously view the hadith collections as accurate historical sources. Scholars such as Madelung do not reject the narrations which have been compiled in periods, but judge them in the context of history and on the basis of their compatibility with the events and figures. Muslim scholars on the other hand place a greater emph
In Islam, duʿāʾ meaning appeal or "invocation", is a prayer of supplication or request. Muslims regard this as a profound act of worship. Muhammad is reported to have said, "Dua is the essence of worship." There is a special emphasis on du'a in Muslim spirituality and early Muslims took great care to record the supplications of Muhammad and transmit them to subsequent generations. These traditions precipitated new genres of literature in which prophetic supplications were gathered together in single volumes that were memorized and taught. Collections such as al-Nawawi's Kitab al-Adhkar and Shams al-Din al-Jazari's al-Hisn al-Hasin exemplify this literary trend and gained significant currency among Muslim devotees keen to learn how Muhammad supplicated to God. However, Du'a literature is not restricted to prophetic supplications. Popular du'as would include Muhammad al-Jazuli's Dala'il al-Khayrat, which at its peak spread throughout the Muslim world, Abul Hasan ash-Shadhili's Hizb al-Bahr which had widespread appeal.
Du'a literature reaches its most lyrical form in the Munajat, or'whispered intimate prayers' such as those of Ibn Ata Allah. Among the Shia schools, the Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya records du'as attributed to Ali and his grandson, Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin. Anas reported that Allah's Messenger visited a person from amongst the Muslims in order to inquire who had grown feeble like the chicken. Allah's Messenger said: Did you supplicate for anything or beg of Him about that? He said: Yes. I used to utter: Impose punishment upon me earlier in this world, what Thou art going to impose upon me in the Hereafter. Thereupon Allah's Messenger said: Hallowed be Allah, you have neither the power nor forbearance to take upon yourself. Why did you not say this: O Allah, grant us good in the world and good in the Hereafter, save us from the torment of Fire, he made this supplication and he was all right. Narrated Anas:Allah's Apostle said," None of you should long for death because of a calamity that had befallen him, if he cannot, but long for death he should say,'O Allah!
Let me live as long as life is better for me, take my life if death is better for me.' " Dua is an expression of submission of faith to God and of one's neediness. Type I: Du'a al-mas'alah, or the'du'a of asking.' This type of du'a is when one asks for the fulfillment of a need, or that some harm be removed from him/her. An example would be when a person asks, "O God! Grant me good in this world, good in the next life!" Type II: Du'a al-'ibadah', or the'du'a of worship.' This type of du'a includes every single act of worship. Examples would include when a Muslim gives zakāt or fasts; the salat is the obligatory prayer recited five times a day, as described in the Quran: "And establish regular prayers at the two ends of the day and at the approaches of the night: For those things, that are good remove those that are evil: Be that the word of remembrance to those who remember:" Salat is read in the Arabic language. Until the 1950s, Ismailis from India and Pakistan performed the prayer the language of the local Jama'at Khana.
A person who recites from إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ in sura Al Imran till the end of the surah on any night or part of the night, will receive the reward of performing his Salaat for the whole night. A person recites sura Ya Sin early in the morning his need for the day will be fulfilled. Abdullah bin Masood narrates that Muhammad has stated that the person who recites the last two ayat of sura Al-Baqara till the end these two ayats will be sufficient for him, i.e. God will protect him from ploys; when retiring to sleep, make wudu, dust off the bed three times, lie on the right side, place the right hand under the head or cheeks and recite the following dua three times. A person who recites three times أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ السَّمِيعِ الْعَلِيمِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ in the morning the last three ayat of sura Al-Hashr God delegates 70,000 angels to send mercy onto him till the evening and if he dies that day, he will die as a martyr and if he recites these in the evening God delegates 70,000 angels to send mercy onto him till the morning and if he dies that night, he dies as martyr.
A Muslim servant recites رَضِيتُ بِاللَّهِ رَبَّاً وَبِالْإِسْلَامِ ِينَاً وَبِمُحَمَّدٍ نَبِيَّاً three times every morning it becomes the responsibility of God to satisfy him on the Day of Qiyamah. A person who has recited اللَّهُمَّ مَا أَصْبَحَ بِي مِنْ نِعْمَةٍ أَوْ بِأَحَدٍ مِنْ خَلْقِكَ فَمِنْكَ وَحْدَكَ لَا شَرِيكَ لَكَ فَلَكَ الْحَمْدُ وَلَكَ الشُّكْرُ in the morning, he has pleased God for His favours of the morning, if he has done so in the night, he has thanked God for His favours of the night. If a person recites three ayat of sura Ar-Rum and if he misses his normal recitation of the day, he will still be rewarded for it; this applies to the night as well. If after reading it you die in the night it is as if you have died on'Natural Deen' and if you awake in the morning alive you will have good fortune". If a person retires to bed on the side and recites sura Al-Fatiha and sura Al-Ikhlas he is immune from everything besides death. Reciting Ayat-ul Kursi will cause the reciter to be protected throughout the night by the angels and Satan will not come near him.
When a person enters his bed, an angel and a Shaitan surround him. The Shaitan
Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity and religion are interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel; the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah; some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as'Hebrews'. Though few sources mention the exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian captivity and exile, to Babylonian captivity and exile, to Seleucid Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation and exile, the historical relations between Jews and their homeland thereafter, became a major feature of Jewish history and memory.
Prior to World War II, the worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million, representing around 0.7% of the world population at that time. 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, as of 2016 was estimated at 14.4 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, less than 0.2% of the total world population. The modern State of Israel is the only country, it defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state in the Basic Laws, Human Dignity and Liberty in particular, based on the Declaration of Independence. Israel's Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to Jews who have expressed their desire to settle in Israel. Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both and in modern times, including philosophy, literature, business, fine arts and architecture, music and cinema, science and technology, as well as religion. Jews have played a significant role in the development of Western Civilization.
The English word "Jew" continues Iewe. These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had dropped the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" / "of Judea"; the Greek term was a loan from Aramaic Y'hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrew יְהוּדִי Yehudi the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. Genesis 29:35 and 49:8 connect the name "Judah" with the verb yada, meaning "praise", but scholars agree that the name of both the patriarch and the kingdom instead have a geographic origin—possibly referring to the gorges and ravines of the region; the Hebrew word for "Jew" is יְהוּדִי Yehudi, with the plural יְהוּדִים Yehudim. Endonyms in other Jewish languages include the Yiddish ייִד Yid; the etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g. يَهُودِيّ yahūdī, al-yahūd, in Arabic, "Jude" in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "Juif" /"Juive" in French, "jøde" in Danish and Norwegian, "judío/a" in Spanish, "jood" in Dutch, "żyd" in Polish etc. but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are in use to describe a Jew, e.g. in Italian, in Persian and Russian.
The German word "Jude" is pronounced, the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" is the origin of the word "Yiddish". According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition, It is recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility; some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the council, unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun. Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, a culture, making the definition of, a Jew vary depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.
In modern secular usage Jews include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background or lineage, people without any Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion. Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, halakhic conversions; these definitions of, a Jew date back to the codification of the Oral
Ismail ibn Kathir was a influential historian and scholar during the Mamluk era in Syria. An expert on tafsir and faqīh, he wrote several books, including a fourteen-volume universal history. Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani said about him, “Ibn Kathir worked on the subject of the hadith in the texts and chains of narrators, he had a good memory. His full name was Abū l-Fidāʾ Ismāʿīl ibn ʿUmar ibn Kaṯīr and had the honorary title of ʿImād ad-Dīn, he was born in Mijdal, a village on the outskirts of the city of Busra, to the east of Damascus, around about AH 701. He was taught by Ibn Al-Dhahabi. Upon completion of his studies he obtained his first official appointment in 1341, when he joined an inquisitorial commission formed to determine certain questions of heresy, he married the daughter of Al-Mizzi, one of the foremost Syrian scholars of the period, which gave him access to the scholarly elite. In 1345 he was made preacher at a newly built mosque in the home town of his father-in-law. In 1366, he rose to a professorial position at the Great Mosque of Damascus.
In life, he became blind. He attributes his blindness to working late at night on the Musnad of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal in an attempt to rearrange it topically rather than by narrator, he died in February 1373 in Damascus. He was buried next to his teacher Ibn Taymiyya. Ibn Kathir shares some similarities with his teacher Ibn Taymiyyah, such as advocating a militant jihad and adhering to the renewal of one singular Islamic ummah. Furthermore, like Ibn Taymiyyah, he counts as an anti-rationalistic and hadith oriented; however Ibn Kathir distanced himself from the literal reading of God's attributes asserted by his teacher Ibn Taimiyya, accused of anthropomorphism, a view, objectionable according to Ashʿarism. Ibn Kathir did not interpret the mutashabihat, or'unapparent in meaning' verses and hadiths in a literal anthropomorphic way, he states that: People have said a great deal on this topic and this is not the place to expound on what they have said. On this matter, we follow the early Muslims: Malik, Awza'i, Layth ibn Sa'd, Shafi'i, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh, others among the Imams of the Muslims, both ancient and modern that is, to let pass as it has come, without saying how it is meant, without likening it to created things, without nullifying it: The literal meaning that occurs to the minds of anthropomorphists is negated of Allah, for nothing from His creation resembles Him: "There is nothing whatsoever like unto Him, He is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing" Ibn Kathir wrote a famous commentary on the Qur'an named Tafseer al-Qurʾān al-ʿAẓeem which linked certain hadith, or sayings of Muhammad, sayings of the sahaba to verses of the Qur'an, in explanation and avoided the use of Isra'iliyyats.
Many Sunni Muslims hold his commentary as the best after Tafsir al-Tabari and it is regarded among Salafi school of thought. Although Ibn Kathir claimed to rely on at-Tabari, he introduced new methods and differs in content, in attempt to clear Islam from any Isra'iliyyat, his suspicion on Isra'iliyyat derived from Ibn Taimiyya's influence, who discounted much of the exegetical tradition since then. Egyptian scholar Ahmad Muhammad Shakir edited Ibn Kathir's Tafsir as ʿUmdat at-Tafsīr in five volumes published during 1956–1958. Faḍāʾil al-Qurʾān was intended as an annex to the Tafsir, it is a brief textual history of its collection after the death of Muhammad. Tafseer al-Qurʾān al-ʿAẓeem is controversial in academic circles. Henri Laoust regards it primary as a philological work and "very elementary". Norman Calder describes it as narrow-minded and sceptical against the intellectuel achievements of former exegetes, his concern is limited to rate the Quranby the corpus of hadith and is the first, who flat rates jewish sources as lying, while use them, just as prophetic hadith, selectively to support his prefabricated opinion.
Otherwise, Jane Dammen McAuliffe regards this tafsir as, deliberately and selection, whose interpretation is unique to his own judgement to preserve, that he regards as best among his traditions. Al-Jāmi is a grand collection of hadith texts intended for encyclopedic use, it is an alphabetical listing of the Companions of the Prophet and the sayings that each transmitted, thus reconstructing the chain of authority for each hadith. Al-Baa'ith al-Hatheeth is an abridgement of the Muqaddimah by Ibn al-Salah in hadith terminology At-Takmil fi Ma`rifat Ath-Thiqat wa Ad-Du'afa wal Majdhil which Ibn Kathir collected from the books of his two Shaykhs Al-Mizzi and Adh-Dhahabi, he added several benefits regarding the subject of Al-Jarh and At-Ta'dil. Ibn Kathir wrote references from the Shafi'i school of fiqh. Al-Bidāya wa-n-Nihāya is a universal history of the world from the Creation to the end of time. Ibn Kathir's great ten-volume magnum opus contains accounts of the early nations of the world, the Prophets and their biographies and Islamic history up to his own time.
Within the Islamic literary corpus it is regarded for its great extent an
Medina transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia. At the city's heart is al-Masjid an-Nabawi, the burial place of the Islamic prophet, it is one of the two holiest cities in Islam, the other being Mecca. Medina was Muhammad's destination of his Hijrah from Mecca, became the capital of a increasing Muslim Empire, under Muhammad's leadership, serving as the power base of Islam, where Muhammad's Ummah, composed of both locals and immigrants from Muhammad's original home of Mecca, developed. Medina is home to three prominent mosques, namely al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Quba Mosque, Masjid al-Qiblatayn. Muslims believe that the chronologically final surahs of the Quran were revealed to Muhammad in Medina, are called Medinan surahs in contrast to the earlier Meccan surahs; the Arabic word al-Madīnah means'the city'. Before the advent of Islam, the city was known as Yathrib; the word Yathrib has been recorded in Surat al-Ahzab of the Quran.
The city has been called Taybah and Tabah. An alternative name is al-Madīnah an-Nabawiyyah or Madīnat an-Nabī; as of 2010, the city of Medina has a population of 1,183,205. Inhabitants of Yathrib during the era before Muhammad's arrival included Jewish tribes; the city's name was changed to Madīna-tu n-Nabī or al-Madīnatu'l-Munawwarah. Medina is celebrated for containing al-Masjid an-Nabawi and as the city which gave refuge to him and his followers, so ranks as the second holiest city of Islam, after Mecca. Muhammad was buried in Medina, under the Green Dome, as were the first two Rashidun caliphs, Abu Bakr and Umar, who were buried next to him in what used to be Muhammad's house. Medina is 210 miles north about 120 miles from the Red Sea coast, it is situated in the most fertile part of all the Hejazi territory, the streams of the vicinity tending to converge in this locality. An immense plain extends to the south; the historic city formed an oval, surrounded by a strong wall, 30 to 40 feet high, dating from the 12th century CE, was flanked with towers, while on a rock, stood a castle.
Of its four gates, the Bab-al-Salam, or Egyptian gate, was remarkable for its beauty. Beyond the walls of the city and south were suburbs consisting of low houses, yards and plantations; these suburbs had walls and gates. All of the historic city has been demolished in the Saudi era; the rebuilt city is centred on the vastly expanded al-Masjid an-Nabawi. The graves of Fatimah and Hasan, across from the mosque at Jannat al-Baqi', Abu Bakr, of Umar ibn Al-Khattab), the second caliph, are here; the mosque has been twice reconstructed. Because of the Saudi government's religious policy and concern that historic sites could become the focus for idolatry, much of Medina's Islamic physical heritage has been altered. Medina's importance as a religious site derives from the presence of al-Masjid an-Nabawi; the mosque was expanded by the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I. Mount Uhud is a mountain north of Medina, the site of the second battle between Muslim and Meccan forces. Quba Mosque, the first mosque built by Muhammad, is now located in the metropolitan area of Medina.
It was destroyed by lightning about 850 CE, the graves were forgotten. In 892, the place was cleared up, the graves located and a fine mosque built, destroyed by fire in 1257 CE and immediately rebuilt, it was restored by Qaitbay, the Egyptian ruler, in 1487. Masjid al-Qiblatain is another mosque historically important to Muslims, it is where the command was sent to Muhammad to change the direction of prayer from Jerusalem to Mecca, according to a hadith. Like Mecca, the city of Medina only permits Muslims to enter, although the haram of Medina is much smaller than that of Mecca, with the result that many facilities on the outskirts of Medina are open to non-Muslims, whereas in Mecca the area closed to non-Muslims extends well beyond the limits of the built-up area. Both cities' numerous mosques are the destination for large numbers of Muslims on their'Umrah. Hundreds of thousands of Muslims come to Medina annually while performing pilgrimage Hajj. Al-Baqi' is a significant cemetery in Medina where several family members of Muhammad and scholars are buried.
Islamic scriptures emphasise the sacredness of Medina. Medina is mentioned several times for example ayah. Medinan suras are longer than their Mecca counterparts. There is a book within the hadith of Bukhari titled'Virtues of Medina'. Sahih Bukhari says: Narrated Anas: The Prophet said, "Medina is a sanctuary from that place to that, its trees should not be cut and no heresy should be innovated nor any sin should be committed in it, whoever innovates in it an heresy or commits sins he will incur the curse of God, the angels, all the people." By the fourth century, Arab tribes began to encroach from Yemen, there were three prominent Jewish tribes that inhabited the city into the 7th century CE: the