Shia Islam is one of the two main branches of Islam. It holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor and the Imam after him, most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm, but was prevented from the caliphate as a result of the incident at Saqifah; this view contrasts with that of Sunni Islam, whose adherents believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor and consider Abu Bakr, who they claim was appointed Caliph through a Shura, i.e. community consensus in Saqifa, to be the first rightful Caliph after the Prophet. Unlike the first three Rashidun caliphs, Ali was from the same clan as Muhammad, Banu Hashim as well as being the prophet's cousin and being the first male to become Muslim. Adherents of Shia Islam are called Shias of Ali, Shias or the Shi'a as a collective or Shi'i or Shi'ite individually. Shia Islam is the second largest branch of Islam: as of the late 2000s, Shia Muslims constituted 10-15% of all Muslims. Twelver Shia is the largest branch of Shia Islam, with 2012 estimates saying that 85% of Shias were Twelvers.
Shia Islam is based on the Quran and the message of Muhammad attested in hadith, on hadith taught by their Imams. Shia consider Ali to have been divinely appointed as the successor to Muhammad, as the first Imam; the Shia extend this Imammah doctrine to Muhammad's family, the Ahl al-Bayt, some individuals among his descendants, known as Imams, who they believe possess special spiritual and political authority over the community and other divinely ordained traits. Although there are many Shia subsects, modern Shia Islam has been divided into three main groupings: Twelvers and Zaidis, with Twelver Shia being the largest and most influential group among Shia; the word Shia means followers and is the short form of the historic phrase shīʻatu ʻAlī, meaning "followers of Ali", "faction of Ali", or "party of Ali". Shi'a and Shiism are the forms used in English, while Shi'ite or Shiite, as well as Shia, refer to its adherents; the term for the first time was used at the time of Muhammad. At present, the word refers to the Muslims who believe that the leadership of the community after Muhammad belongs to Ali and his successors.
Nawbakhti states that the term Shia refers to a group of Muslims that at the time of Muhammad and after him regarded Ali as the Imam and Caliph. Al-Shahrastani expresses that the term Shia refers to those who believe that Ali is designated as the Heir and caliph by Muhammad and Ali's authority never goes out of his descendants. For the Shia, this conviction is implicit in the history of Islam. Shia scholars emphasize that the notion of authority is linked to the family of the prophets as the verses 3:33,34 shows: "Indeed, God chose Adam and Noah and the family of Abraham and the family of'Imran over the worlds – Descendants, some of them from others, and God is Hearing and Knowing." Shia Muslims believe that just as a prophet is appointed by God alone, only God has the prerogative to appoint the successor to his prophet. They believe God chose Ali to be Muhammad's successor, the first caliph of Islam; the Shias believe. Ali was Muhammad's first-cousin and closest living male relative as well as his son-in-law, having married Muhammad's daughter Fatimah.
Muhammad invited people to Islam in secret for three years. In the fourth year of Islam, when Muhammad was commanded to invite his closer relatives to come to Islam he gathered the Banu Hashim clan in a ceremony. At the banquet, he was about to invite them to Islam when Abu Lahab interrupted him, after which everyone left the banquet; the Prophet ordered Ali to invite the 40 people again. The second time, Muhammad invited them to join, he said to them, I offer thanks to God for His mercies. I praise God, I seek His guidance. I believe in Him and I put my trust in Him. I bear witness. God has commanded me to invite you to His religion by saying:. I, warn you, call upon you to testify that there is no god but God, that I am His messenger. O ye sons of Abdul Muttalib, no one came to you before with anything better than what I have brought to you. By accepting it, your welfare will be assured in the Hereafter. Who among you will support me in carrying out this momentous duty? Who will share the burden of this work with me?
Who will respond to my call? Who will become my vicegerent, my deputy and my wazir? Ali was the only one to answer Muhammad's call. Muhammad told him to sit down, saying, "Wait! Someone older than you might respond to my call." Muhammad asked the members of Banu Hashim a second time. Once again, Ali was the only one to respond, again, Muhammad told him to wait. Muhammad asked the members of Banu Hashim a third time. Ali was still the only volunteer; this time, Ali's offer was accepted by Muhammad. Muhammad "drew close, pressed him to his heart, said to the assembly:'This is my wazir, my successor and my vicegerent. Listen to him and obey his commands.'" In another narration, when Muhammad accepted Ali's eager offer, Muhammad "threw up his arms around the generous youth, pressed him to his bosom" and said, "Behold my brother, my vizir, my vicegerent... Let all listen to his words, obey him." Sir Richard Burton writes about the banquet in his 1898 book, saying, "It won for a proselyte worth a thousand sabers in the pers
Sahih Muslim is one of the Kutub al-Sittah in Sunni Islam. It is acclaimed by Sunni Muslims as well as Zaidi Shia Muslims, it is considered the second most authentic hadith collection after Sahih al-Bukhari. It was collected by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj known as Imam Muslim. Sahih Muslim, together with Sahih al-Bukhari is termed as Sahihayn; the collector of the Sahih Muslim, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, was born into a Persian family in 204 AH in Nishapur and died in 261 AH in the city of his birth. He traveled to gather his collection of ahadith, including to areas now in Iraq, the Arabian Peninsula and Egypt. Out of 300,000 hadith which he evaluated 4,000 were extracted for inclusion into his collection based on stringent acceptance criteria; each report in his collection was checked and the veracity of the chain of reporters was painstakingly established. Sunni Muslims consider it the second most authentic hadith collection, after Sahih al-Bukhari. Sahih Muslim is divided into 43 books. However, it is important to realize that Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj never claimed to collect all authentic traditions as his goal was to collect only traditions that all Muslims should agree on about accuracy.
According to Munthiri, there are a total of 2,200 hadiths in Sahih Muslim. According to Muhammad Amin, there are 1,400 authentic hadiths that are reported in other books the six major hadith collections. Many Muslims regard this collection as the second most authentic of the six major hadith collections, containing only sahih hadith, an honor it shares only with Sahih al-Bukhari, both being referred to as the Two Sahihs. Shia Muslims dismiss some of its contents as fabrications or untrustworthy due to the questionable reliability of some narrators. Despite the book's high stature, the consensus of scholars on that it is the second most valid categorized book of Hadith, after Sahih al-Bukhari, it is agreed upon that this does not mean that every element in it is true, in comparison to other Hadith books, but means that the book as a whole is valid; such as the preference of Sahih al-Bukhari to Sahih Muslim, which does not mean that every Hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari is more valid than every Hadith in Sahih Muslim, but that the total of what is contained Sahih al-Bukhari is more valid than the total of what is contained in Sahih Muslim, the validity of a certain Hadith form the two books of Hadith, over Hadith from other Sahih books, can not be inferred except after the correctness of that particular Hadith is shown.
Amin Ahsan Islahi, the noted Islamic scholar, has summarized some unique features of Sahih Muslim: Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj recorded only such narratives as were reported by two reliable successors from two Sahabah which subsequently travelled through two independent unbroken isnāds consisting of sound narrators. Muhammad al-Bukhari has not followed such a strict criterion. Scientific arrangement of themes and chapters; the author, for example, selects a proper place for the narrative and, next to it, puts all its versions. Muhammad al-Bukhari has not followed this method. Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj informs us. For example, he says: haddathanā fulān wa fulān wallafz lifulān, he mentions whether, in a particular hadīth, the narrators have differed over the wordings over a single letter of zero semantic significance. He informs the readers if narrators have differed over a specific quality, relation or any other fact about a narrator in the chain. Siyanah Sahih Muslim by Ibn al-Salah, of which only the beginning segment remains Al Minhaj Be Sharh Sahih Muslim by Al-Nawawi.
Fath al-Mulhim by Shabbir Ahmad Usmani. Takmilat Fath al-Mulhim by Muhammad Taqi Usmani. Summarized Sahih Muslim by Abd-al-Hamid Siddiqui; the text is used in the USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts. Sharh Sahih Muslim by Allama Ghulam Rasool Saeedi Tafsir al-gharib ma fi al-Sahihayn by Al-HumaydīTranslations of commentaries of Sahih Muslims are available in numerous languages including English, Bangla and Bosnian. Kutub al-Sittah Sahih al-Bukhari Jami al-Tirmidhi Sunan al-Sughra Either: Sunan ibn Majah, Muwatta Malik http://sunnah.com/muslim https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=66a9EKs0cu0 Life of Imam Muslim by Navaid Aziz https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PsMxmp3GSjY English translation with Arabic text English translation English translation with Arabic text pdf books English Translation of the Introduction to Sahih Muslim English translation with Arabic text English translation from Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement
The book Al-Kāfī is a Twelver Shīʿī ḥadīth collection compiled by Muhammad ibn Ya‘qūb al-Kulaynī. It is divided into three sections: Usūl al-Kāfī, concerned with epistemology, history, ethics and the Qurʾān, Furūʿ al-Kāfī, concerned with practical and legal issues, Rawdat al-Kāfī, which includes miscellaneous traditions, many of which are lengthy letters and speeches transmitted from the Imāms. In total, al-Kāfī comprises 16,199 narrations; the first eight books of al-Kāfī are referred to as Uṣūl al-kāfī. The first type-set edition of the al-Kāfī, published in eight volumes, placed Usūl al-kāfī in the first two volumes. Speaking, Usūl al-kāfī contains traditions that deal with epistemology, history, ethics and the Qurʾān. Furū al-Kāfī: Books 9 through 34 are referred to as Furūʿ al-kāfī and are found in volumes three through seven of the first type-set edition. Furūʿ al-kāfī contains traditions that deal predominantly with legal issues. Rawdat al-Kāfī: The final book stands alone as Rawḍah al-kāfī, found in volume eight.
Rawḍah al-kāfī contains nearly 600 miscellaneous traditions, many of which are lengthy letters and speeches, not arranged in any particular order. Most Shia scholars do not make any assumptions about the authenticity of a hadith book. Most believe that there are no "sahih" hadith books that are reliable. Hadith books are compiled by fallible people, thus realistically, they have a mixture of strong and weak hadiths. Kulayni himself stated in his preface that he only collected hadiths he thought were important and sufficient for Muslims to know, he left the verification of these hadiths up to scholars. Kulayni states, in reference to hadiths: "whatever agrees with the Book of God, accept it, and whatever contradicts it, reject it" According to the great Imami scholar Zayn al-Din al-`Amili, known as al-Shahid al-Thani, who examined the asnad or the chains of transmission of al-Kafi's traditions, 5,072 are considered sahīh. The author stated in his Preface of Al-Kafi:"You said that you would love to have a sufficient book containing enough of all the religious sciences to suffice the student.
God -- to whom belongs all praise -- has facilitated the compilation of. I hope it is as you desired." Imam Khomeini said: "Do you think it is enough for our religious life to have its laws summed up in al-Kāfī and placed upon a shelf?" The general idea behind this metaphor is that Khomeini objected to the laziness of many ignorant people of his day who kept al-Kafi on their shelf, ignored or violated it in their daily lives, assuming that they would somehow be saved from Hell just by possessing the book. Khomeini argued that Islamic law should be an integral part of everyday life for the believer, not just a stale manuscript to be placed on a shelf and forgotten; the irony of the allusion is telling. Khoei points this out in his "Mu‘jam Rijāl al-Hadīth", or "Collection of Men of Narrations", in which he states: أنّ الشيخ الصدوق: قدّس سرّه: لم يكن يعتقد صحّة جميع مافي الكافي "Shaykh as-Sadūq did not regard all of the traditions in al-Kāfī to be Sahih." The scholars have made these remarks, to remind the people that one cannot pick the book up, take whatever they like from it as truthful.
Rather, an exhaustive process of authentication must be applied, which leaves the understanding of the book in the hands of the learned. From the Shia point of view, any book other than the Qur'an, as well as individual hadiths or hadith narrators can be objectively questioned and scrutinized as to their reliability, none - not the Sahaba - are exempt from this; the main criticism of al-Kafi as the basis for Shia fiqh, comes from prominent Sunni writers who argue that finding some hadiths in al-Kafi proves that the entire Shi'ite school is wrong. Shi'ites in reality do not rest the basis of their entire faith on the complete authenticity of this book, they believe that anything that goes against held ideas must not be authentic. They do not automatically accept some hadiths from al-Kafi that have strong historical proofs; the Qur'an is far more important to Islamic belief than any hadith book, Shia scholars have long pointed this out. Kulayni himself stated in his preface that he only collected hadiths he thought were important and sufficient for Muslims to know, he left the verification of these hadiths up to scholars.
Kulayni states, in reference to hadiths: "whatever agrees with the Book of God
Sunan Abu Dawood
Sunan Abu Dawood is one of the Kutub al-Sittah, collected by Abu Dawood. Abu Dawood compiled twenty-one books related to Hadith and preferred those ahadith which were supported by the example of the companions of Muhammad; as for the contradictory ahadith, he states under the heading of'Meat acquired by hunting for a pilgrim': "if there are two contradictory reports from the Prophet, an investigation should be made to establish what his companions have adopted". He wrote in his letter to the people of Mecca "I have disclosed wherever there was too much weakness in regard to any tradition in my collection, but if I happen to leave a Hadith without any comment, it should be considered as sound, albeit some of them are more authentic than others". Hadith Mursal has been a matter of discussion among the traditionists. Abu Dawood states in his letter to the people of Mecca: "if a Musnad Hadith is not contrary to a Mursal or a Musnad Hadith is not found the Mursal Hadith will be accepted though it would not be considered as strong as a Muttasil Hadith".
The traditions in Sunan Abu Dawood are divided in three categories. The first category consists of those traditions that Muslim; the second type of traditions are those which fulfil the conditions of Muslim. At this juncture, it should be remembered that Bukhari said, "I only included in my book Sahih Bukhari authentic traditions, left out many more authentic ones than these to avoid unnecessary length". Abu Dawood included only 4,800 in this collection. Sunnis regard this collection as fourth in strength of their six major hadith collections, it took Abu Dawod 20 years to collect the hadiths. He made a series of journeys to meet most of the foremost traditionists of his time and acquired from them the most reliable hadiths, quoting sources through which it reached him. Since the author collected hadiths which no one had assembled together, his sunan has been accepted as a standard work by scholars from many parts of the Islamic world after Ibn al-Qaisarani's inclusion of it in the formal canonization of the six major collections.
Sunan Abu Dawood has been translated into numerous languages. The Australian Islamic Library has collected 11 commentaries on this book in Arabic and Indonesian. Sahih Bukhari Sahih Muslim Jami al-Tirmidhi Sunan al-Sughra Either: Sunan ibn Majah, Muwatta Malik Arabic Wikisource has original text related to this article: Sunan Abu Dawud Translation and Commentaries in English, Urdu and Indonesian Languages English translation of Sunan Abu Dawud
Ḥadīth in Islam are the record of the words and silent approval, traditionally attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Within Islam the authority of hadith as a source for religious law and moral guidance ranks second only to that of the Quran. Quranic verses enjoin Muslims to emulate Muhammad and obey his judgments, providing scriptural authority for hadith. While the number of verses pertaining to law in the Quran is few, hadiths give direction on everything from details of religious obligations, to the correct forms of salutations and the importance of benevolence to slaves, thus the "great bulk" of the rules of Sharia are derived from ahadith, rather than the Quran.Ḥadith is the Arabic word for speech, account, narrative. Unlike the Quran, not all Muslims believe. Hadiths were not written down by Muhammad's followers after his death but several generations when they were collected and compiled into a great corpus of Islamic literature. Different collections of hadith would come to differentiate the different branches of the Islamic faith.
A small minority of Muslims called. Because some ahadith include questionable and contradictory statements, the authentication of ahadith became a major field of study in Islam. In its classic form a hadith has two parts — the chain of narrators who have transmitted the report, the main text of the report. Individual hadith are classified by Muslim clerics and jurists into categories such as sahih, hasan or da'if. However, different groups and different scholars may classify a hadith differently. Among some scholars of Sunni Islam, the term hadith may include not only the supposed words, practices, etc. of Muhammad, but those of his companions. In Shia Islam, hadith is the embodiment of the sunnah, the words and actions of the Prophet and his family the Ahl al-Bayt. In Arabic, the noun ḥadīth means "report", "account", or "narrative", its Arabic plural is aḥādīth. Hadith refers to the speech of a person. In Islamic terminology, according to Juan Campo, the term hadith refers to reports of statements or actions of Muhammad, or of his tacit approval or criticism of something said or done in his presence.
Classical hadith specialist Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani says that the intended meaning of hadith in religious tradition is something attributed to Muhammad but, not found in the Quran. Scholar Patricia Crone includes reports by others than Muhammad in her definition of hadith: "short reports recording what an early figure, such as a companion of the prophet or Mohammed himself, said or did on a particular occasion, prefixed by a chain of transmitters", but she adds that "nowadays, hadith always means hadith from Mohammed himself."Other associated words possess similar meanings including: khabar refers to reports about Muhammad, but sometimes refers to traditions about his companions and their successors from the following generation. However, according to the Shia Islam Ahlul Bayt Digital Library Project, "... when there is no clear Qur’anic statement, nor is there a Hadith upon which Muslim schools have agreed.... Shi’a... refer to Ahlul-Bayt for deriving the Sunnah of Prophet." This means that in Shia Islam, the sunnah draws on the sayings and deeds of the Ahl al-Bayt, i.e. the Imams.
The word sunnah is used in reference to a normative custom of Muhammad or the early Muslim community. Joseph Schacht describes hadith as providing "the documentation" of the sunnah. Another source distinguishes between the two saying: Whereas the'Hadith' is an oral communication, derived from the Prophet or his teachings, the'Sunna' signifies the prevailing customs of a particular community or people.... A'Sunna' is a practice, passed on by a community from generation to generation en masse, whereas the Ahadith are reports collected by compilers centuries removed from the source.... A practice, contained within the Hadith may well be regarded as Sunna, but it is not necessary that a Sunna would have a supporting hadith sanctioning it; some sources limit hadith to verbal reports, with the deeds of Muhammad and reports about his companions being part of the sunnah, but not hadith. Joseph Schacht quotes a hadith by Muhammad, used "to justify reference" in Islamic law to the companions of Muhammad as religious authorities — "My companions are like lodestars."
According to Schacht, in the first generations after the death of Muhammad, use of hadith from Sahabah and Tabi‘un "was the rule", while use of hadith of Muhammad himself by Muslims was "the exception". Schacht credits Al-Shafi‘i — founder of the Shafi'i school of fiqh — with establishing the principle of the use of the ahadith of the Muhammad for Islami
Man La Yahduruhu al-Faqih
Man Lā Yahḍuruhū al-Faqīh is a Hadith collection by the famous Twelver Shia Hadith scholar Abu Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn ʿAli ibn Babawayh al-Qummi known as Ibn Babawayh or Sheikh al-Saduq. This work is included among the Four Books of Twelver Shia Islam; the book name means "Him who does not have a scholar in his presence". Some have translated the title as "Every man his own lawyer". In his introduction to the book the author explains the circumstances of its composition and the reason for its title; when he was at Ilaq near Balkh, he met Sharif al-Din Abu'Abd Allah known as Ni'mah. He brought a book compiled by Muhammad b. Zakharia al-Razi entitled Man la yahduruhu al-Tabeeb or Every man his own doctor to the attention of Shaikh al-Saduq, he asked him to compile a book on Fiqh, The Halal and the Haram and al-shara-i' wa-'l-ahkam which would draw on all the works which the Shaikh earlier had composed on the subject. This book would function as a work of reference. Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih is concerned with Furoo al-Din.
The book is meant to be a reference book to help ordinary Shia Muslims in the practise of the legal requirements of Islam. The Isnad's is absent. Thus, the book is a summary of the study of legal traditions. Shaikh al-Saduq himself said about his work: I compiled the book without Isnads so that the chains should not be too many and so that the book's advantages might be abundant. I did not have the usual intention of compilers to put forward everything which they narrate but my intention was to put forward those things by which I gave legal opinions and which I judged to be correct Shi'a regards this book as among the most reliable Hadith collections. Thus, the book is included in The Four Books of the Shi'a, together with Al-Kafi, Al-Istibsar and Tahdhib al-Ahkam; as with all Hadith collections, there is no guarantee of the authenticity of each individual hadith and the reliability of each must be separately assessed. List of Shia books The Four Books Al-Istibsar Kitab al-Kafi Tahdhib al-Ahkam
Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain
Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain is a five volume hadith collection written by Hakim al-Nishapuri. He wrote it in the year 393 AH, it contains 9045 hadith. He claimed all hadith in it were authentic according to the conditions of either Sahih al-Bukhari or Sahih Muslim or both; the statement of authenticity was not accepted by a number of prominent Sunni scholars. Al-Dhahabi, a 14th century Sunni Shafi'i Islamic scholar made an abridged version of the collection named Talkhis al-Mustadrak where he commented on its authenticity, it has become the habit of scholars today working in the field of hadîth, when compiling them and determining their authenticity, to say things like "It is authenticated by al-Hâkim and al-Dhahabî concurs". In doing so, they are referring to al-Dhahabi's Talkhîs, his abridgement of the Mustadrak, published along with it in its margins. Dhahabi wrote: The Mustadrak contains a good number of hadîth that conform to the conditions of authenticity of both as well as a number of hadîth conforming to the conditions of either one of them.
The total number of such hadîth comprises half the book. There is another quarter of the hadîth that have authentic chains of transmission, but that have something else about them or that have some defect; as for the rest, and, about a fourth, they are rejected and spurious narrations that are unauthentic. Some of those are fabrications. I came to know of them when I pointed them out. Al-Dhahabi lamented: It would have been better if al-Hakim had never compiled it." Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, a 15th century Sunni Islamic scholar states that Mawdu'at al-Kubra is as unreliable in its attributing the grade of being "forged" to certain ahadith as al-Hakim's Mustadrak is unreliable in its declaring the grade of "sound" or Sahih to many ahadith. Talkhis al-Mustadrak' is an abridged version of Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, written by al-Dhahabi. Al-Dhahabi in his Talkhis al-Mustadrak made an abridged version. In that version, he added his comments on 1182 hadith. Al-Dhahabî in his encyclopedic Târikh al-Islam "The History of Islam" says the following in his biographical entry on al-Hâkim, wherein he speaks about his Mustadrak: "Some of those are fabrications.
I came to know of them when I prepared an abridgement of the Mustadrak and pointed them out." Al-Dhahabî said of it: "It is a useful book. I had made an abridgement of it, in considerable need of work and editing." On at least three other occasions, al-Dhahabi citicised hadith he had not commented on in his Talkhîs. For example, when speaking about Mu`âwiyah b. Sâlih, he writes: "He is among those narrators whom Muslim accepts but not al-Bukhârî. You can see al-Hâkim relating this narrator's hadîth in his Mustadrak and say:'This is according to the conditions of al-Bukhârî.' He makes this mistake." However, when the same statement comes up in his Talkhîs, he says nothing about it. There have been many prominent scholars who have assumed that al-Dhahabî's silence in his Talkhîs indicates his tacit approval of al-Hâkim's ruling, scholars of the caliber of al-Suyuti in al-Nukat al-Badî`ât, al-Manâwî in Fayd al-Qadîr, al-Husaynî in al-Bayân wa al-Ta`rîf. Many contemporary scholars follow this view as well, but some question that stance