Fakr ad-Din Mosque
The Fakr ad-Din Mosque known as Masjid Fakhr al-Din, is the oldest mosque in Mogadishu, Somalia. It is located in the oldest part of the city, it is believed to be the 7th oldest mosque in Africa. The mosque was built in 969 by the first Sultan of the Sultanate of Mogadishu; this ruling house was succeeded by the Muzaffar dynasty, the kingdom subsequently became linked with the Ajuran Sultanate. Stone, including Indian marble and coral, were the primary materials used in the construction of the masjid; the structure displays a compact rectangular plan, with a domed mihrab axis. Glazed tiles were used in the decoration of the mihrab, one of which bears a dated inscription. Photographs of the Fakr ad-Din mosque feature in drawings and images of central Mogadishu from the late 19th century onwards; the mosque can be identified amidst other buildings by its two cones, one round and the other hexagonal. Arba'a Rukun Mosque Masjid al-Qiblatayn Mosque of Islamic Solidarity Masjid Fakhr al-Din ArchNet - Masjid Fakhr al-Din
In Sunni Islam, the ulama, are the guardians and interpreters of religious knowledge, of Islamic doctrine and law. By longstanding tradition, ulama are educated in religious institutions; the Quran and Sunnah, are the sources of traditional Islamic law. Students did not associate themselves with a specific educational institution, but rather sought to join renowned teachers. By tradition, a scholar who had completed his studies was approved by his teacher. At the teacher's individual discretion, the student was given the permission for teaching and for the issuing of legal opinions; the official approval was known as the ijazat at-tadris wa'l-ifta. Through time, this practice established a chain of teachers and pupils who became teachers in their own time; the traditional place of higher education was the madrasa. The institution came up in Khurasan during the 10th century AD, spread to other parts of the Islamic world from the late 11th century onwards; the most famous early madrasas are the Sunni Niẓāmiyya, founded by the Seljuk vizir Nizam al-Mulk in Iran and Iraq in the 11th century.
The Mustansiriya, established by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mustansir in Baghdad in 1234 AD, was the first to be founded by a caliph, the first known to host teachers of all four major madhhab known at that time. From the time of the Persian Ilkhanate and the Timurid dynasty onwards, madrasas became part of an architectural complex which included a mosque, a Sufi ṭarīqa, other buildings of socio-cultural function, like baths or a hospital. Madrasas were places of learning, they provided boarding and salaries to a limited number of teachers, boarding for a number of students out of the revenue from religious endowments, allocated to a specific institution by the donor. In times, the deeds of endowment were issued in elaborate Islamic calligraphy, as is the case for Ottoman endowment books; the donor could specify the subjects to be taught, the qualification of the teachers, or which madhhab the teaching should follow. However, the donor was free to specify in detail the curriculum, as was shown by Ahmed and Filipovic for the Ottoman imperial madrasas founded by Suleiman the Magnificent.
As Berkey has described in detail for the education in medieval Cairo, unlike medieval Western universities, in general madrasas had no distinct curriculum, did not issue diplomas. The educational activities of the madrasas focused on the law, but included what Zaman called "Sharia sciences" as well as the rational sciences like philosophy, mathematics or medicine; the inclusion of these sciences sometimes reflect the personal interests of their donors, but indicate that scholars studied various different sciences. Early on in Islamic history, a line of thought developed around the idea of mysticism, striving for the perfection of worship. Originating out of Syria and Iraq rather than the Hijaz, the idea of Sufism was related to devotional practices of eastern Christian monasticism, although monastic life in Islam is discouraged by the Quran. During the first Islamic century, Ḥasan al-Baṣrī was one of the first Muslim scholars to describe, according to Albert Hourani "the sense of the distance and nearness of God... in the language of love".
During the 7th century, the ritual of Dhikr evolved as a "way of freeing the soul from the distractions of the world". Important early scholars who further elaborated on mysticism were Harith al-Muhasibi and Junayd al-Baghdadi; the early Muslim conquests brought about Arab Muslim rule over large parts of the Hellenistic world. During the time of the Umayyad Caliphate, at latest, the scholars of the emerging Islamic society had become familiar with the classical philosophical and scientific traditions of the world they had conquered; the collection of classical works and their translation into the Arabian language initiated a period, known today as the Islamic Golden Age. According to Hourani, the works of the classical scholars of antiquity were met with considerable intellectual curiosity by Islamic scholars. Hourani quotes al-Kindi, "the father of Islamic philosophy", as follows: "We should not be ashamed to acknowledge truth from whatever source it comes to us if it is brought to us by former generations and foreign peoples.
For him who seeks the truth there is nothing of higher value than truth itself." The works of Aristotle, in particular his Nicomachean Ethics, had a profound influence on the Islamic scholars of the Golden Age like Al-Farabi, Abu al-Hassan al-Amiri and Ibn Sīnā. In general, the Islamic philosophers saw no contradiction between philosophy and the religion of Islam. However, according to Hourani, al-Farabi wrote that philosophy in its pure form was reserved for an intellectual elite, that ordinary people should rely for guidance on the sharia; the distinction between a scholarly elite and the less educated masses "was to become a commonplace of Islamic thought". As exemplified by the works of al-Razi, during times, philosophy "was carried on as a private activity by medical men, pursued with discretion, met with suspicion"; the founder of Islamic philosophical ethics is Ibn Miskawayh He combined Aristotelian and Islamic ethics, explicitly mentioning the Nicomachean Ethics and its interpretati
Aḥmad al-Badawī known as Al-Sayyid al-Badawī, or as al-Badawī for short, or reverentially as Shaykh al-Badawī by all those Sunni Muslims who venerate saints, was a 13th-century Moroccan Sunni Muslim mystic who became famous as the founder of the Badawiyyah order of Sufism. Hailing from Fes, al-Badawi settled for good in Tanta, Egypt in 1236, whence he developed a posthumous reputation as "Egypt's greatest saint." As al-Badawi is "the most popular of Muslim saints in Egypt", his tomb has remained a "major site of visitation" for Muslims in the region. According to several medieval chronicles, al-Badawi hailed from an Arab tribe of Syrian origin. A Sunni Muslim by persuasion, al-Badawi entered the Rifa'iyya spiritual order in his early life, being initiated into the order at the hands of a particular Iraqi teacher. After a trip to Mecca, al-Badawi is said to have travelled to Iraq, "where his sainthood manifested itself" through the miracles he is said to have performed. Al-Badawi went to Tanta, where settled for good in 1236.
According to the various traditional biographies of the saint's life, al-Badawi gathered forty disciples around him during this period, who are collectively said to have "dwelt on the city’s rooftop terraces," whence his spiritual order were informally christened the "roof men" in the vernacular. Al-Badawi died in Tanta in 1276; as with every other major Sufi order, the Badawiyya proposes an unbroken spiritual chain of transmitted knowledge going back to the Prophet Muhammad through one of his Companions, which in the Badawiyya's case is Ali. Ibrahim El-Desouki, a contemporary Sufi. Al-Imām Nūruddīn Al-Halabī Al-Ahmadī, Sīrah Al-Sayyid Ahmad Al-Badawī, Published by Al-Maktabah Al-Azhariyyah Li Al-Turāth, Cairo. Mayeur-Jaouen, Catherine, Al-Sayyid Ahmad Al-Badawi: Un Grand Saint De L'islam egyptien, Published by Institut francais d'archeologie orientale du Caire Pilgrimage/Carnival photos by BBC A short Egyptian documentary on the Mawlid of Al-Sayyid Ahmad al-Badawi A short biography Egypt: Handbook for Travellers: Part First, Lower Egypt, with the Fayum and the Peninsula of Sinai by Karl Baedeker
The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran. They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language, as well as related languages; the ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the ancient Iranian population that entered the territory of modern-day Iran by the early 10th century BC. Together with their compatriot allies, they established and ruled some of the world's most powerful empires, well-recognized for their massive cultural and social influence covering much of the territory and population of the ancient world. Throughout history, the Persians have contributed to various forms of art and science, own one of the world's most prominent literatures. In contemporary terminology, people of Persian heritage native to present-day Afghanistan and Uzbekistan are referred to as Tajiks, whereas those in the eastern Caucasus, albeit assimilated, are referred to as Tats; however the terms Tajik and Persian were synonymous and were used interchangeably, many of the most influential Persian figures hailed from outside Iran's present-day borders to the northeast in Central Asia and Afghanistan and to a lesser extent to the northwest in the Caucasus proper.
In historical contexts in English, "Persians" may be defined more loosely to cover all subjects of the ancient Persian polities, regardless of ethnic background. The English term Persian derives from Latin Persia, itself deriving from Greek Persís, a Hellenized form of Old Persian Pārsa. In the Bible, it is given as Parás —sometimes Paras uMadai —within the books of Esther, Daniel and Nehemya. A Greek folk etymology connected the name to a legendary character in Greek mythology. Herodotus recounts this story, devising a foreign son, from whom the Persians took the name; the Persians themselves knew the story, as Xerxes I tried to use it to suborn the Argives during his invasion of Greece, but failed to do so. Although Persis was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, varieties of this term were adopted through Greek sources and used as an official name for all of Iran for many years. Thus, in the Western world, the term Persian came to refer to all inhabitants of the country; some medieval and early modern Islamic sources used cognates of the term Persian to refer to various Iranian peoples, including the speakers of the Khwarezmian language, the Mazanderani language, the Old Azeri language.
10th-century Iraqi historian Al-Masudi refers to Pahlavi and Azari as dialects of the Persian language. In 1333, medieval Moroccan traveler and scholar Ibn Battuta referred to the people of Kabul as a specific sub-tribe of Persians. Lady Mary Sheil, in her observation of Iran during the Qajar era, describes Persians and Leks to identify themselves as "descendants of the ancient Persians". On March 21, 1935, the former king of Iran, Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty, issued a decree asking the international community to use the term Iran, the native name of the country, in formal correspondence. However, the term Persian is still used to designate the predominant population of the Iranian peoples living in the Iranian cultural continent; the earliest known written record attributed to the Persians is from the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, an Assyrian inscription from the mid-9th century BC, found at Nimrud. The inscription mentions Parsua as a tribal chiefdom in modern-day western Iran; the ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the Iranian population that, in the early 10th century BC, settled to the northwest of modern-day Iran.
They were dominated by the Assyrians for much of the first three centuries after arriving in the region. However, they played a major role in the downfall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire; the Medes, another branch of this population, founded the unified empire of Media as the region's dominant cultural and political power in c. 625 BC. Meanwhile, the Persian dynasty of the Achaemenids formed a vassal state to the central Median power. In c. 552 BC, the Achaemenids began a revolution which led to the conquest of the empire by Cyrus II in c. 550 BC. They spread their influence to the rest of what is called the Iranian Plateau, assimilated with the non-Iranian indigenous groups of the region, including the Elamites and the Mannaeans. At its greatest extent, the Achaemenid Empire stretched from parts of Eastern Europe in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen; the Achaemenids developed the infrastructure to support their growing influence, including the creation of Pasargadae and the opulent city of Persepolis.
The empire extended as far as the limits of the Greek city states in modern-day mainland Greece, where the Persians and Athenians influenced each other in what is a reciprocal cultural exchange. Its legacy and impact on the kingdom of Macedon was notably huge for centuries after the withdrawal of the Persians from Europe following the Greco-Persian Wars; the empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, but reemerged shortly after as the Parthian Empire. During the Achaemenid era, Persian colonists settled in Asia Minor. In Lydia, near Sardis, there was the Hyrcanian plain, according to Strabo, got its name from the Persian settlers that were moved from Hyrcania. Near Sardis, there was the plain of Cyrus, which further signified the presence of numerous Persian settlements in
Al-Ashʿarī was an Arab Sunni Muslim scholastic theologian and eponymous founder of Ashʿarism or Asharite theology, which would go on to become "the most important theological school in Sunni Islam". According to scholar Jonathan A. C. Brown, although "the Ash'ari school of theology is called the Sunni'orthodoxy,'" "the original ahl al-hadith, early Sunni creed from which Ash'arism evolved has continued to thrive alongside it as a rival Sunni'orthodoxy' as well." According to Brown this competing orthodoxy exists in the form of the "Hanbali/über-Sunni orthodoxy". Al-Ashʿarī was notable for taking an intermediary position between the two diametrically opposed schools of theological thought prevalent at the time: He opposed both the Muʿtazilites, who advocated the extreme use of reason in theological debate, the Zahirites and Muhaddithin, who were opposed to the use of reason or kalam, condemned any theological debate altogether. Al-Ashʿari's school won "wide acceptance within Sunni Islam, the official theological creed of which came to be defined by Ashʿarī principles."
Due to his efforts, Al-Ashʿarī came to be revered by Sunni Muslims for having "integrated the rationalist methodology of the speculative theologians into the framework of orthodox Islam." He continues to be honored by Imām ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʿah. Al-Ash'ari was born in Basra and was a descendant of the famous companion of Muhammad, Abu Musa al-Ashari; as a young man he studied under al-Jubba'i, a renowned teacher of Muʿtazilite theology and philosophy. He remained a Muʿtazalite until his fortieth year when al-Ash'ari saw Muhammad in a dream 3 times in Ramadan. Muhammad told him to support, that is, the traditions. After this experience, he left the Muʿtazalites and became one of its most distinguished opponents, using the philosophical methods he had learned. Al-Ash'ari spent the remaining years of his life engaged in developing his views and in composing polemics and arguments against his former Muʿtazalite colleagues, he is said to have written up to three hundred works, of which only four or five are known to be extant.
After leaving the Muʿtazili school, joining the side of Traditionalist theologians al-Ash'ari formulated the theology of Sunni Islam. He was followed in this by a large number of distinguished scholars, most of whom belonged to the Shafi'i school of law; the most famous of these are Abul-Hassan Al-Bahili, Abu Bakr Al-Baqillani, al-Juwayni, Al-Razi and Al-Ghazali. Thus Al-Ash'ari’s school became, together with the Maturidi, the main schools reflecting the beliefs of the Sunnah. In line with Sunni tradition, al-Ash'ari held the view that a Muslim should not be considered an unbeliever on account of a sin if it were an enormity such as drinking wine or theft; this opposed the position held by the Khawarij. Al-Ash'ari believed it impermissible to violently oppose a leader if he were disobedient to the commands of the sacred law. Al-Ash'ari spent much of his works opposing the views of the Muʿtazili school. In particular, he rebutted them for believing that the Qur'an was created and that deeds are done by people of their own accord.
He rebutted the Muʿtazili school for denying that Allah can hear and has speech. Al-Ash’ari confirmed all these attributes stating that they differ from the hearing and speech of creatures, including man, he was noted for his teachings on atomism. The 18th century Islamic scholar Shah Waliullah stated: A Mujadid appears at the end of every century: The Mujadid of the first century was Imam of Ahlul Sunnah, Umar bin Abdul Aziz; the Mujadid of the second century was Imam of Ahlul Sunnah Muhammad Idrees Shaafi. The Mujadid of the third century was the Imam of Abu al-Hasan al-Ash ` ari; the Mujadid of the fourth century was Abu Abdullah Hakim Nishapuri. Earlier major scholars held positive views of al-Ash'ari and his efforts, among them Qadi Iyad and Taj al-Din al-Subki; the Ashari scholar Ibn Furak numbers Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari's works at 300, the biographer Ibn Khallikan at 55. The three main ones are: Maqālāt al-islāmīyīn, it comprises not only an account of the Islamic sects but an examination of problems in kalām, or scholastic theology, the Names and Attributes of Allah.
Kitāb al-luma Kitāb al-ibāna'an usūl al-diyāna. The authenticity of this book has been called into question. For example, Richard McCarthy, in his Theology of Ash'ari, writes, "... I am unable to subscribe wholeheartedly to the proposition that the ibāna, in the form in which we have it, is a genuine work of al-Ash'ari," comparing the creed in that book to the creed found in al-Ash'ari's Maqālāt. However, George Makdisi and Ignác Goldziher consider this work as genuine, Salafists maintain that the book marks al-Ash'ari's late repentance and his return to the beliefs of the salaf. Salafists expound that the book was written after he recanted his earlier beliefs and accepted Athari beliefs, following his encounter with the Hanbalite scholar Al-Hasan ibn'Ali al-Barbahari, was an attempt to call his previous followers back to Islam. Professor Sherman Jackson recounts that Ibn Taymiyyah, citing the Ash'ari Historian Ibn `Asakir, presented Al-Ashari's words in the Ibāna as a defense during his trial on charges of anthropomorphism
Abu Zakaria Yahya Ibn Sharaf al-Nawawī, popularly known as al-Nawawī or Imam Nawawī, was a Sunni Shafi'ite jurist and hadith scholar. He authored numerous and lengthy works ranging from hadith, to theology and jurisprudence. Al-Nawawi never married. Nawawi adhered to the orthodox Sunni Ash'ari creed.. He did not interpret the mutashabihat, or'unapparent in meaning' verses and hadiths in a literal anthropomorphic way, he states in his commentary of a hadith that: This is one of the "hadiths of the attributes," about which scholars have two positions. The first is to have faith in it without discussing its meaning, while believing of Allah Most High that "there is nothing whatsoever like unto Him", that He is exalted above having any of the attributes of His creatures; the second is to figuratively explain it in a fitting way, scholars who hold this position adducing that the point of the hadith was to test the slave girl: Was she a monotheist, who affirmed that the Creator, the Disposer, the Doer, is Allah alone and that He is the one called upon when a person making supplication faces the sky--just as those performing the prayer face the Kaaba, since the sky is the qibla of those who supplicate, as the Kaaba is the qibla of those who perform the prayer--or was she a worshipper of the idols which they placed in front of themselves?
So when she said, In the sky, it was plain. He was born at Nawa near Syria; as with Arabic and other Semitic languages, the last part of his name refers to his hometown. Yasin bin Yusuf Marakashi, says: "I saw Imam Nawawi at Nawa. Other boys of his age used to force him to play with them, but Imam Nawawi would always avoid the play and would remain busy with the recitation of the Noble Qur'an; when they tried to domineer and insisted on his joining their games, he bewailed and expressed his no concern over their foolish action. On observing his sagacity and profundity, a special love and affection developed in my heart for young Nawawi. I approached his teacher and urged him to take exceptional care of this lad as he was to become a great religious scholar, his teacher asked whether I was an astrologer. I told him I am neither soothsayer nor an astrologer but Allah caused me to utter these words." His teacher conveyed this incident to Imam's father and he keeping in view the learning quest of his son, decided to dedicate the life of his son for the service and promotion of the cause of Islam.
He had no academic or scholarly atmosphere and there were no religious academies or institutes where one could earn excellence in religious learning, so his father took him to Damascus, considered the center of learning and scholarship, the students from far and wide gathered there for schooling. During that period, there were more than three hundred institutes and universities in Damascus. Imam Nawawi joined Madrasah Rawahiyah, affiliated with the Ummvi University; the founder and patron of this Madrasah was a trader named Zakiuddin Abul-Qassim, known as Ibn Rawahah. Madrasah was named after him. Noted and eminent teachers of the period taught in that Madrasah. Imam Nawawi says, "I studied in this institution for two years. During my stay in Madrasah Rawahiyah, I never had complete rest and lived on the limited food supplied by the institution." As a routine he used to sleep little at night. When it became irresistible as a human being, he would lean and slumber for a while against the support of books.
After a short duration he would again be hard at his scholastic pursuits. He studied in Damascus from the age of 18 and after making the pilgrimage in 1253 he settled there as a private scholar. From a young age he showed signs of great intelligence, so his father paid for a good education; as a judge, he was much sought after for adjudication of disputes. During his stay at Damascus, he studied from more than twenty teachers; these teachers were regarded as masters and authority of their subject field and disciplines they taught. Imam studied Hadith, Islamic Jurisprudence, its principles and Etymology. Abu Ibrahim Ishaq bin Ahmad AI-Maghribi, Abu Muhammad Abdur-Rahman bin Ibrahim Al-Fazari, Radiyuddin Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Abu Hafs Umar bin Mudar Al-Mudari, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Isa Al-Muradi, Abul-Baqa Khalid bin Yusuf An-Nablusi, Abul-Abbas Ahmad bin Salim Al-Misri, Abu Abdullah Al-Jiyani, Abul-Fath Umar bin Bandar, Abu Muhammad At-Tanukhi, Sharafuddin Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad Al-Ansari, Abul-Faraj Abdur-Rahman bin Muhammad bin Ahmad Al-Maqdisi, Abul-Fada'il Sallar bin Al-Hasan Al Arbali.
Nawawi drew the ire of Mamluk Sultan Rukn al-Din Baybars, when he petitioned on behalf of residents of Damascus who sought relief from heavy tax burdens during a drought that lasted many years. This prompted. To this, he responded:"As for myself, threats do not harm me or mean anything to me, they will not keep me from advising the ruler, for I believe that this is obligatory upon me and others." He died at Nawa at the young age of 44, having never married. An-Nawawi's lasting legacy is his contribution to hadith literature through his momentous works Forty Hadiths and Riyadh as-Saaliheen; this made him respected despite of him being of Shafi'i jurisprudence. According to Al-Dhahabi, Imam Nawawi's concentration and absorption in academic love gained proverbial fame, he had devoted all his time for scholarship. Other than reading and writing, he spent his time contemplating on the interacted and complex issues and in finding their solutions. Sheikh Mohiuddin expresses his impression about Imam Nawawi as thus: Imaam
Al-Ghazali was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians and mystics of Sunni Islam. He was of Persian origin. Islamic tradition considers him to be a Mujaddid, a renewer of the faith who, according to the prophetic hadith, appears once every century to restore the faith of the ummah, his works were so acclaimed by his contemporaries that al-Ghazali was awarded the honorific title "Proof of Islam". Al-Ghazali believed that the Islamic spiritual tradition had become moribund and that the spiritual sciences taught by the first generation of Muslims had been forgotten; that resulted in his writing his magnum opus entitled Ihya'ulum al-din. Among his other works, the Tahāfut al-Falāsifa is a significant landmark in the history of philosophy, as it advances the critique of Aristotelian science developed in 14th-century Europe; the believed date of al-Ghazali's birth, as given by Ibn al-Jawzi, is AH 450. Modern estimates place it at AH 448, on the basis of certain statements in al-Ghazali's correspondence and autobiography.
He was a Muslim scholar, law specialist and spiritualist of Persian descent. He was born in Tabaran, a town in the district of Tus, not long after Seljuk captured Baghdad from the Shia Buyid and established Sunni Caliphate under a commission from the Abbasid Dynasty in 1055 AD. A posthumous tradition, the authenticity of, questioned in recent scholarship, is that his father, a man "of Persian descent," died in poverty and left the young al-Ghazali and his brother Ahmad to the care of a Sufi. Al-Ghazali's contemporary and first biographer,'Abd al-Ghafir al-Farisi, records that al-Ghazali began to receive instruction in fiqh from Ahmad al-Radhakani, a local teacher, he studied under al-Juwayni, the distinguished jurist and theologian and "the most outstanding Muslim scholar of his time," in Nishapur after a period of study in Gurgan. After al-Juwayni's death in 1085, al-Ghazali departed from Nishapur and joined the court of Nizam al-Mulk, the powerful vizier of the Seljuq sultans, centered in Isfahan.
After bestowing upon him the titles of "Brilliance of the Religion" and "Eminence among the Religious Leaders," Nizam al-Mulk advanced al-Ghazali in July 1091 to the "most prestigious and most challenging" professorial at the time: in the Nizamiyya madrasa in Baghdad. He underwent a spiritual crisis in 1095, abandoned his career and left Baghdad on the pretext of going on pilgrimage to Mecca. Making arrangements for his family, he adopted an ascetic lifestyle. According to biographer Duncan B. Macdonald, the purpose of abstaining from scholastic work was to confront the spiritual experience and more ordinary understanding of "the Word and the Traditions." After some time in Damascus and Jerusalem, with a visit to Medina and Mecca in 1096, he returned to Tus to spend the next several years in'uzla. The seclusion consisted in abstaining from teaching at state-sponsored institutions, but he continued to publish, receive visitors and teach in the zawiya and khanqah that he had built. Fakhr al-Mulk, grand vizier to Ahmad Sanjar, pressed al-Ghazali to return to the Nizamiyya in Nishapur.
Al-Ghazali reluctantly capitulated in 1106, fearing rightly that he and his teachings would meet with resistance and controversy. He returned to Tus and declined an invitation in 1110 from the grand vizier of the Seljuq Sultan Muhammad I to return to Baghdad, he died on 19 December 1111. According to'Abd al-Ghafir al-Farisi, he had several daughters but no sons. Al-Ghazali contributed to the development of a systematic view of Sufism and its integration and acceptance in mainstream Islam; as a scholar of orthodox Islam, he belonged to the Shafi'i school of Islamic jurisprudence and to the Asharite school of theology. Al-Ghazali received many titles such as Zayn-ud-dīn and Ḥujjat-ul-Islām, he is viewed as the key member of the influential Asharite school of early Muslim philosophy and the most important refuter of the Mutazilites. However, he chose a slightly-different position in comparison with the Asharites, his beliefs and thoughts differ in some aspects from the orthodox Asharite school. A total of about 60 works can be attributed to Al-Ghazali.
His 11th century book titled The Incoherence of the Philosophers marks a major turn in Islamic epistemology. The encounter with skepticism led al-Ghazali to embrace a form of theological occasionalism, or the belief that all causal events and interactions are not the product of material conjunctions but rather the immediate and present Will of God. In the next century, Averroes drafted a lengthy rebuttal of al-Ghazali's Incoherence entitled The Incoherence of the Incoherence. Al-Ghazali gave as an example of the illusion of independent laws of cause the fact that cotton burns when coming into contact with fire. While it might seem as though a natural law was at work, it happened each and every time only because God willed it to happen—the event was "a direct product of divine intervention as any more attention grabbing miracle". Averroes, by contrast insisted while God created the natural law, humans "could more usefully say that fire caused cotton to burn—because creation had a pattern that they could discern."The Incoherence marked a turning point in Islamic philosophy in its