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Al Jazeera

Al Jazeera is a Qatari state-funded broadcaster in Doha, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network. Launched as an Arabic news and current-affairs satellite TV channel, Al Jazeera has since expanded into a network with several outlets, including the Internet and specialty television channels in multiple languages. Al Jazeera Media Network is a major global news organization, with 80 bureaus around the world; the original Al Jazeera Arabic channel's willingness to broadcast dissenting views, for example on call-in shows, created controversies in the Arab States of the Persian Gulf. The station gained worldwide attention following the outbreak of the war in Afghanistan, when its office there was the only channel to cover the war live. Al Jazeera Media Network is owned by the government of Qatar. Al Jazeera Media Network has stated that they are editorially independent from the government of Qatar as the network is funded through loans and grants rather than government subsidies. Critics have accused Al Jazeera of being a propaganda outlet for the Qatari government.

The network is sometimes perceived to have Islamist perspectives, promoting the Muslim Brotherhood, having a pro-Sunni and an anti-Shia bias in its reporting of regional issues. However, Al Jazeera insists. In June 2017, the Saudi, Emirati and Egyptian governments demanded the closure of the news station as one of thirteen demands made to Qatar during the 2017 Qatar Crisis. Other media networks have spoken out in support of the network. According to The Atlantic magazine, Al Jazeera presents a far more moderate, Westernized face than Islamic jihadism or rigid Sunni orthodoxy, though the network has been criticized as "an'Islamist' stalking horse" it features "very little religious content in its broadcasts". In Arabic, al-ǧazīrah means "the island". However, it refers here to the Arabian Peninsula, شبه الجزيرة العربية šibh al-ğazīrah al-ʿarabiyyah, abbreviated to الجزيرة العربية al-ğazīrah al-ʿarabiyyah. Algeciras. Al Jazeera Satellite Channel, now known as AJA, was launched on 1 November 1996 following the closure of the BBC's Arabic language television station, a joint venture with Orbit Communications Company.

The BBC channel had closed after a year and a half when the Saudi government attempted to suppress information, including a graphic report on executions and prominent dissident views. The Emir of Qatar, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa, provided a loan of QAR 500 million to sustain Al Jazeera through its first five years, as Hugh Miles detailed in his book Al Jazeera: The Inside Story of the Arab News Channel That Is Challenging the West. Shares were held by private investors as well as the Qatar government. Al Jazeera's first day on the air was 1 November 1996, it offered 6 hours of programming per day. It was broadcast to the immediate neighborhood as a terrestrial signal, on cable, as well as through satellites, although Qatar, many other Arab countries, barred private individuals from having satellite dishes until 2001. At the time of the Al Jazeera Media Network launch Arabsat was the only satellite broadcasting to the Middle East, for the first year could only offer Al Jazeera a weak C-band transponder that needed a large satellite dish for reception.

A more powerful Ku-band transponder became available as a peace-offering after its user, Canal France International, accidentally beamed 30 minutes of pornography into ultraconservative Saudi Arabia. Al Jazeera was not the first such broadcaster in the Middle East; the unfolding of Operation Desert Storm on CNN International underscored the power of live television in current events. While other local broadcasters in the region would assiduously avoid material embarrassing to their home governments, Al Jazeera was pitched as an impartial news source and platform for discussing issues relating to the Arab world. In presenting "The opinion and the other opinion", it did not take long for Al Jazeera to shock local viewers by presenting Israelis speaking Hebrew on Arab television for the first time. Lively and far-ranging talk shows a popular, confrontational one called The Opposite Direction, were a constant source of controversy regarding issues of morality and religion; this prompted a torrent of criticism from the conservative voices among the region's press.

It led to official complaints and censures from neighboring governments. Some expelled its correspondents. In 1999, the Algerian government cut power to several major cities in order to censor one broadcast. There were commercial repercussions: Saudi Arabia pressured advertisers to avoid the channel, to great effect. Al Jazeera was the only international news network to have correspondents in Iraq during the Operation Desert Fox bombing campaign in 1998. In a precursor of a pattern to follow, its exclusive video clips were prized by Western media. 1 January 1999 was Al Jazeera's first day of 24-hour broadcasting. Employment had more than tripled in one year to 500 employees, the agency had bureaux at a dozen si

Triangle (Israel)

The Triangle referred to as the Little Triangle, is a concentration of Israeli Arab towns and villages adjacent to the Green Line, located in the eastern Sharon plain among the Samarian foothills. The Triangle is further divided into the Southern Triangle. Umm al-Fahm and Tayibe are the social and economic centers for Arab residents of the region; the Triangle is a stronghold of the Islamic Movement in Israel and Raed Salah, the current leader of the movement's northern faction, is a former mayor of Umm al-Fahm. Prior to the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and Israel's establishment and sovereignty over the Kafr Qasim and Kafr Bara area, it was referred to as the "Little Triangle" to differentiate it from the larger "Triangle" region between Jenin and Nablus; the region was designated to fall under Jordanian jurisdiction, but while negotiating the 1949 Armistice Agreements, Israel insisted on having it within its side of the Green Line, due to military and strategic reasons. To achieve this, a territorial swap was negotiated, ceding the Israeli territory in the southern hills of Hebron in exchange for the Triangle villages in Wadi Ara.

The term was expanded to include the entire area around Wadi Ara and the "Little" appendage fell out of common use. The concept of stripping the citizens of the area of their citizenship of Israel has been mooted. Several Israeli politicians have suggested the Triangle should be transferred to a future Palestinian state in exchange for Israel retaining control over settlements in the West Bank; the idea is a major part of the Lieberman Plan put forward by Yisrael Beiteinu leader Avigdor Lieberman but is opposed by Israeli Arabs.. It is a key feature of the Trump peace plan. In a July 2000 survey conducted by Kul al-Arab among 1,000 residents of Umm al-Fahm, 83 percent of respondents opposed the idea of transferring their city to Palestinian jurisdiction. Arab localities in Israel

William Woodward Sr.

William Woodward Sr. was an American banker and major owner and breeder in thoroughbred horse racing. Born in New York City to William Woodward and Sarah Abagail Rodman, William came from a prominent and wealthy Maryland family that dates back to colonial times; the family made their fortune in selling textiles to the Confederate government, his father was the founder of the New York Cotton Exchange. He studied at Groton and at Harvard, graduating in 1898, Harvard Law School in 1901. In 1901, he was admitted to the bar. For the next two years Woodward lived in London, UK where he served as secretary to the United States ambassador to Britain, Joseph Choate. There, he joined with other members of the political and economic elite including King Edward VII, at fashionable events including thoroughbred horse races, the favorite pastime of English royalty and nobility. Upon his return to New York in 1903, Woodward was made vice president of Hanover National Bank in New York City by his uncle, James T. Woodward, president of the bank.

William Woodward Sr.'s father had helped James purchase a large portion of the bank years earlier before his death. In 1903, William Woodward met Elsie Ogden Cryder at Saratoga, New York, they were married at Grace Church in New York on October 24, 1904, they had William Woodward Jr. and four daughters. Following his uncle's death, William Woodward Sr. became president of the bank in 1910, serving in that capacity until a 1929 merger when he was appointed chairman of the new corporate entity called Central Hanover Bank & Trust. William Woodward inherited a controlling interest in Hanover National Bank plus the historic Belair Mansion and Stud in Collington, Maryland. Belair is a historic estate where Colonial Governor of Maryland, Samuel Ogle had brought the first thoroughbred horses imported to America from England in 1747. James T. Woodward acquired it in 1898 for an undisclosed sum of money. William Woodward built the Belair Stud into one of the dominant breeding and thoroughbred horse racing operations in the United States during the 1930s, 40s, 50s.

In 1925, Woodward joined Arthur B. Hancock to import the stallion Sir Gallahad into the United States to stand at Claiborne Farm. Sir Gallahad would become the four-time leading sire in North America and would sire 60 stakes winners, including nine for Woodward. Sir Gallahad's most famous offspring was Triple Crown winner Gallant Fox, who would in turn sire Triple Crown winner Omaha, both bred and raced by Woodward. Horses bred by Belair won every major Stakes race in the U. S.as well as The Oaks, St. Leger Stakes, 1,000 Guineas, other important races in Britain. Woodward's accomplishments in horse racing led to him making the August 7, 1939 cover of Time magazine. Woodward was elected to the United States Jockey Club in 1917 and served as its chairman from 1930 until 1950. One of the main efforts he pursued was the repeal of the Jersey Act, a regulation of the British Thoroughbred stud book that prevented most American-bred Thoroughbreds from being registered in the United Kingdom as purebred Thoroughbreds.

In 1950, Woodward was elected an honorary member of the British Jockey Club. He died in 1953, aged 77, leaving the estate to his son, William Woodward Jr. whose untimely death two years in 1955 saw the end of Belair Stud. Today the Belair Stable Museum in Bowie, highlights the work of William Woodward Sr. and others connected to the Belair Stud. The Woodward Stakes, a Grade I event now run at Saratoga, is named in his honor. In 2016, Woodward was inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame as a Pillar of the Turf. A brief biography of William Woodward at the U. K. National Horseracing Museum The Baltimore Museum of Art. Annual 1 The Museum: Its First Half Century, 58