Swing music, or simply swing, is a form of American music that dominated in the 1930s and 1940s. The name swing came from the swing feel where the emphasis is on the off–beat or weaker pulse in the music, Swing bands usually featured soloists who would improvise on the melody over the arrangement. The danceable swing style of big bands and bandleaders such as Benny Goodman was the dominant form of American popular music from 1935 to 1946, the verb to swing is used as a term of praise for playing that has a strong groove or drive. Notable musicians of the era include Louis Armstrong, Cab Calloway, Benny Goodman, Duke Ellington, Glenn Miller, Count Basie, Woody Herman. Swing has roots in the late 1920s as larger ensembles began using written arrangements, a typical song played in swing style would feature a strong, anchoring rhythm section in support of more loosely tied wind and brass. The most common style consisted of having a soloist take center stage, Swing music began to decline in popularity during World War II because of several factors.
By the late 1940s, swing had morphed into traditional pop music, or evolved into new styles such as jump blues, Swing music saw a revival in the late 1950s and 1960s with pop vocalists such as Frank Sinatra, Nat King Cole, and Ella Fitzgerald. Swing blended with other genres to create new styles, in country music, artists such as Jimmie Rodgers, Moon Mullican and Bob Wills introduced many elements of swing along with blues to create a genre called western swing. Gypsy swing is an outgrowth of Venuti and Langs jazz violin swing, in the 1970s, and 1980s, fans of big band music attended swing music performances at supper clubs. In the late-1980s a trendier, more urban-styled swing-beat emerged called new jack swing, in the late 1990s and into the 2000s there was a swing revival, led by Squirrel Nut Zippers, Brian Setzer, Big Bad Voodoo Daddy, and Lavay Smith. In Canada, some of the early 2000s records by The JW-Jones Blues Band included swing revival elements, the 1920s saw parallel trends in jazz and popular music that would converge into the swing style.
New Orleans style jazz was based on a meter and contrapuntal improvisation led by a trumpet or cornet, typically followed by a clarinet. The rhythm section consisted of a tuba and drums, and sometimes a banjo, by the early 1920s guitars and pianos sometimes substituted for the banjo and a string bass sometimes substituted for the tuba. Further innovations in small ensemble playing led to development of the Chicago style identified with Louis Armstrong, a stint with the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra familiarized him with arranged ensemble playing that differed from the New Orleans style, in which saxophones became the dominant sound among the reeds. Armstrong brought those back to his smaller ensembles, the soloist played over an ensemble relegated to a supporting role in the background. The string bass lent itself to playing in a 4/4 rhythm rather than the 2/4 rhythm dictated by the tuba. The new format gave the soloist the opportunity to play with more rhythmic freedom, but playing with swing remained the province of the soloist, not the ensemble.
The late 1920s saw increasingly sophisticated arrangements used by bigger ensembles, some arrangements used call-response between horn sections to build the melody
Danbury is a city in northern Fairfield County, United States, approximately 70 miles from New York City. Danburys population at the 2010 census was 80,893, Danbury is the fourth most populous city in Fairfield County, and seventh among Connecticut cities. The city is within the New York metropolitan area, the city is named for Danbury, the place of origin of many of its early settlers. It is nicknamed the Hat City because of its prominent history in the hat industry, the mineral danburite is named for Danbury. Danbury is home to Danbury Hospital, Western Connecticut State University, Danbury Fair Mall, Danbury was settled by colonists in 1685, when eight families moved from what are now Norwalk and Stamford, Connecticut. The Danbury area was called Pahquioque by its namesake, the Pahquioque Native Americans, one of the original settlers was Samuel Benedict, who bought land from the Paquioques in 1685, along with his brother James Benedict, James Beebe, and Judah Gregory. Also called Paquiack by local Native Americans, the settlers chose the name Swampfield for their town, but in October 1687, the general court appointed a committee to lay out the new towns boundaries. A survey was made in 1693, and a formal patent was granted in 1702.
During the American Revolution, Danbury was an important military depot for the Continental Army. On April 26,1777, the British, under Major General William Tryon, the central motto on the seal of the City of Danbury is Restituimus, a reference to the destruction caused by the Loyalist army troops. The American General David Wooster was mortally wounded at the Battle of Ridgefield by the same British forces which had attacked Danbury and he is buried in Danburys Wooster Cemetery, the private Wooster School in Danbury was named in his honor. It is the first known instance of the expression in American legal or political writing, the letter is on display at the Unitarian-Universalist Congregation of Danbury. The first Danbury Fair was held in 1821, in 1869, it became a yearly event, the last edition was in 1981. The fairgrounds were cleared to make room for the Danbury Fair Mall, in 1835, the Connecticut Legislature granted a rail charter to the Fairfield County Railroad, which saw no construction as investment was slow.
In 1850, the plans were scaled back, and renamed the Danbury. Work moved quickly on the 23 mi railroad line, in 1852, it, the first railroad line in Danbury, with two trains making the 75-minute trip to Norwalk. The central part of Danbury was incorporated as a borough in 1822, the borough was reincorporated as the city of Danbury on April 19,1889. The city and town were consolidated on January 1,1965, the dam impounding the Kohanza Reservoir, one of many reservoirs built to provide water to the hat factories, broke on January 31,1869
Alton Glenn Miller was an American big band musician, arranger and bandleader in the swing era. He was the recording artist from 1939 to 1943, leading one of the best known big bands. While he was traveling to entertain U. S. troops in France during World War II, Miller was born in Clarinda, the son of Mattie Lou and Lewis Elmer Miller. He attended grade school in North Platte in western Nebraska, in 1915, Millers family moved to Grant City, Missouri. Around this time, Miller had finally made enough money from milking cows to buy his first trombone, Miller played cornet and mandolin, but he switched to trombone by 1916. In 1918, the Miller family moved again, this time to Fort Morgan, Colorado, in the fall of 1919, he joined the high school football team, which won the Northern Colorado Football Conference in 1920. He was named the Best Left End in Colorado, during his senior year, Miller became very interested in a new style of music called dance band music. He was so taken with it that he formed his own band with some classmates, by the time Miller graduated from high school in 1921, he had decided to become a professional musician.
He dropped out of school after failing three out of five classes one semester, and decided to concentrate on making a career as a professional musician and he studied the Schillinger technique with Joseph Schillinger, under whose tutelage he composed what became his signature theme, Moonlight Serenade. In 1926, Miller toured with groups, eventually landing a good spot in Ben Pollacks group in Los Angeles. He played for Victor Young, allowing him to be mentored by other professional musicians, in the beginning, he was the main trombone soloist of the band. But when Jack Teagarden joined Pollacks band in 1928, Miller found that his solos were cut drastically, from then, he realized that, rather than being a trombonist, his future lay in arranging or writing music. He had a songbook published in Chicago in 1928 entitled Glenn Millers 125 Jazz Breaks for Trombone by the Melrose Brothers copyrighted in 1927, during his stint with Pollack, Miller wrote several musical arrangements of his own. He co-wrote his first composition, Room 1411, written with Benny Goodman and released as a Brunswick 78,4013, in 1928, when the band arrived in New York City, he sent for and married his college sweetheart, Helen Burger.
He was a member of Red Nicholss orchestra in 1930, and because of Nichols, during the late 1920s and early 1930s, Miller managed to earn a living working as a freelance trombonist in several bands. On a March 21,1928, Victor session, Miller played alongside Tommy Dorsey, Benny Goodman, and Joe Venuti in the All-Star Orchestra, directed by Nat Shilkret. On November 14,1929, an original vocalist named Red McKenzie hired Miller to play on two records that are now considered to be classics, Lola and If I Could Be With You One Hour Tonight. Beside Miller were clarinetist Pee Wee Russell, guitarist Eddie Condon, drummer Gene Krupa, Miller composed the songs Annies Cousin Fanny, Dese Dem Dose, Harlem Chapel Chimes, and Tomorrows Another Day for the Dorsey Brothers Band in 1934 and 1935
Gordon Lee Tex Beneke was an American saxophonist and bandleader. His career is a history of associations with bandleader Glenn Miller and former musicians and his band is associated with the careers of Eydie Gorme, Henry Mancini and Ronnie Deauville. Beneke solos on the recording the Glenn Miller Orchestra made of their popular song In The Mood and sings on another popular Glenn Miller recording, jazz critic Will Friedwald considers Beneke to be one of the major blues singers who sang with the big bands of the early 1940s. Beneke was born in Fort Worth, Texas and he started playing saxophone when he was nine, going from soprano to alto to tenor saxophones and staying with the latter. His first professional work was with bandleader Ben Young in 1935, Beneke said, It seems that Gene Krupa had left the Goodman band and was forming his own first band. He was flying all over the country looking for new talent, Gene wound up taking two or three of our boys with him back to New York. Wanted to take but his sax section was already filled, Krupa knew that Glenn Miller was forming a band and recommended Beneke to Miller.
On the August 1,1939, recording made of the Joe Garland composition In The Mood, Millers 1941 recording of A String of Pearls has Beneke and Klink trading two-measure tenor solo phrases. Beneke appears with Miller and his band in the films Sun Valley Serenade and Orchestra Wives, Tex Beneke is listed in the personnel of the 1941 Metronome All-Star Band led by Benny Goodman. Chattanooga Choo Choo, catalogue number Bluebird 11230-B, was recorded by the Miller band at the Victor recording studios in Hollywood, hoping to repeat the success of Chattanooga the following year, songwriters Warren and Gordon composed Ive Got A Gal in Kalamazoo for the Orchestra Wives score. That arrangement featured Beneke, the Modernaires and band vocalist Marion Hutton in a not-too-dissimilar fashion, not surprisingly, Kalamazoo became another hit record for Miller and the band though not to the extent that Chattanooga had been the year before. When Miller broke up the band in August 1942 to join the Army Air Force, Beneke played very briefly with Horace Heidt before joining the Navy himself, leading a Navy band in Oklahoma.
While employed with Miller, Beneke was offered his own band, as Miller had done with colleagues and employees like Hal McIntyre, Claude Thornhill, Beneke wanted to come back to Miller after the war and learn more about leading a band before being given his own band. Beneke led two bands in the navy and kept in touch with Glenn Miller while they were serving in the military. By 1945, Beneke felt ready to lead his own orchestra, Glenn Miller went missing on December 15,1944 while flying to France from England. After World War Two, the United States Army Air Force decommissioned the Glenn Miller-led Army Air Force band, the Miller estate authorized an official Glenn Miller ghost band in 1946. This band was led by Tex Beneke who as time went on had more prominence in the bands identity and it had a make up similar to Glenn Millers Army Air Force Band, having a large string section. The orchestras official public début was at the Capitol Theatre on Broadway where it opened for an engagement on January 24,1946
Sun Valley Serenade
Sun Valley Serenade is a 1941 musical film starring Sonja Henie, John Payne, Glenn Miller, Milton Berle, and Lynn Bari.2 million. Ted Scott is a band pianist whose publicity manager decides that, for good press, the band goes to Ellis Island to meet the girl and soon discovers that the refugee isnt a 10-year-old child, but a young woman, Karen Benson. The surprise comes right before the band is to travel to Sun Valley, while on the ski slopes Ted soon falls for Karens inventive schemes to win the heart of her new sponsor, much to the chagrin of his girlfriend, Vivian Dawn, a soloist with the band. Vivian promptly quits the band out of jealousy, and Karen stages an elaborate ice show as a substitute, of particular note is the elaborate Chattanooga Choo Choo sequence. As the Miller band concludes their feature the camera left to reveal a railway station set. The band continues with the number and accompanies Dorothy Dandridge and The Nicholas Brothers in their song. Sun Valley Serenade is the first of the two movies featuring The Glenn Miller Orchestra.
Besides Chattanooga Choo Choo, other Glenn Miller tunes in the film are Moonlight Serenade, It Happened in Sun Valley, I Know Why, and In the Mood. An instrumental version of At Last was recorded by Glenn Miller and his Orchestra as well as a version with vocals by John Payne and Pat Friday, but these recordings would remain unused and unissued. At Last would appear in the 1942 follow-up movie Orchestra Wives performed by Glenn Miller and his Orchestra with vocals by Ray Eberle, Glenn Miller vocalist Pat Friday provided the pre-recorded vocal tracks that Lynn Bari lip synced in the film. Future Olympic gold medalist Gretchen Fraser was the skiing stand-in for Sonja Henie, Fraser was a member of the Olympic team in 1940 and 1948. Sun Valley Serenade was filmed in March 1941, by Darryl Zanuck, on spring snow in Sun Valley, the film became a Hollywood hit and served as a recruiting effort for the elite ski corps of the 10th Mountain Division stationed at Camp Hale in Colorado. Sun Valleys ski school director, Otto Lang, of St.
Anton, the musical numbers were recorded in multi-directional mono, placing microphones around different parts of the orchestra. Those were all mixed down to mono at the time the film was released, the parts of those recordings were found and mixed into true stereo. They have included in home video releases. The film is shown 24 hours a day on a television channel available to all rooms at the Sun Valley Lodge. Sun Valley Serenade was shown on Turner Classic Movies for the first time on Christmas Eve, the film was released in the VHS format in 1991 by 20th Century Fox. In 2007 Sun Valley Serenade was released on DVD by 20th Century Fox for Region 2 format and it remains unreleased on DVD for Region 1
Judy Holliday was an American actress and singer. She began her career as part of an act before working in Broadway plays. She appeared regularly in films during the 1950s and she was noted for her performance on Broadway in the musical Bells Are Ringing, winning a Tony Award for Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Musical and reprising her role in the 1960 film. In 1952, Holliday was called to testify before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee to answer claims she was associated with communism. Holliday was born Judith Tuvim in New York City, she was the child of Abe Tuvim and Helen Tuvim. Her father was the Executive Director of the Foundation for the Jewish National Fund of America and she grew up in Sunnyside, New York, and graduated from Julia Richman High School. Hollidays first job was as an assistant switchboard operator at the Mercury Theatre run by Orson Welles, Holliday began her show business career in 1938 as part of a night-club act called The Revuers. The other members of the group were Betty Comden, Adolph Green, Alvin Hammer, John Frank, the Revuers played engagements at various New York night clubs including the Village Vanguard, Spivys Roof, Blue Angel, Rainbow Room, and Trocadero in Hollywood, California.
The group disbanded in early 1944, in 1944, she played a small, but noticeable role as an airmans wife in the Twentieth Century Fox film version of the U. S. Army Air Forces hit play Winged Victory. She did not appear in the version, which toured the U. S. both before and after production of the film. Holliday made her Broadway debut on March 20,1945 at the Belasco Theatre in Kiss Them for Me and was one of the recipients that year of the Clarence Derwent Award, in 1946, she returned to Broadway as the scatterbrained Billie Dawn in Born Yesterday. Author Garson Kanin wrote the play for Jean Arthur, who played the role of Billie out-of-town, Kanin selected Holliday, two decades Arthurs junior, as her replacement. In his book Tracy and Hepburn, Kanin mentions that when Columbia bought the rights to the film Born Yesterday, along with George Cukor, Spencer Tracy, and Katharine Hepburn conspired to promote Holliday by offering her a key part in the 1949 film Adams Rib. She received rave reviews for her performance in Born Yesterday on Broadway, and Cohn offered her the chance to repeat her role for the film version, but only after she did a screen test.
In 1954, she starred opposite then-newcomer Jack Lemmon in his first two films, the popular comedies It Should Happen to You and Phffft. George Cukor said Holliday had, In common with the great comedians. that depth of emotion, that unexpectedly touching emotion, in 1950, Holliday was the subject of an FBI investigation looking into allegations she was a Communist. The investigation did not reveal positive evidence of any membership in the Communist Party and was concluded after three months, unlike many others tainted by the Communist investigation. In 1952, she was called to testify before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee to explain why her name had been linked to Communist front organizations and she was advised to play dumb, which she did very well
In the Mood
In the Mood is a popular big band-era #1 hit recorded by American bandleader Glenn Miller. It topped the charts for 13 straight weeks in 1940 in the U. S. the first recording of In the Mood was release by Edgar Hayes and his Orchestra in 1938 In 1983, the Glenn Miller recording from 1939 was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. In 1999, National Public Radio included the 1939 Glenn Miller recording on RCA Bluebird on the NPR100, in the Mood opens with a now-famous sax section theme based on repeated arpeggios that are rhythmically displaced and trombones add accent riffs. The arrangement has two sections, a tenor fight or chase solo—in the most famous recording, between Tex Beneke and Al Klink—and a 16-bar trumpet solo by Clyde Hurley. The arrangement is famous for its ending, a coda that climbs triumphantly, the final recording consisted of musical contributions by Joe Garland, Glenn Miller, Eddie Durham, and Chummy MacGregor in what can be termed a head arrangement. In the Mood was an arrangement by Joe Garland based on a pre-existing melody, Lyrics were added by Andy Razaf.
The main theme, featuring repeated arpeggios rhythmically displaced, previously appeared under the title of Tar Paper Stomp credited to jazz trumpeter and bandleader Wingy Manone, the recording was re-released in 1937 as a Decca 78 single as by Wingy Manone and his Orchestra. Don Redman recorded Hot and Anxious in 1932 on Brunswick Records, under copyright laws, a tune that had not been written down and registered with the copyright office could be appropriated by any musician with a good ear. Wingy Manone had brought up the issue of the similarity between Tar Paper Stomp and In the Mood to Joe Garland and to the company of the song, Bernstein. Manone discussed the issue in Down Beat magazine, Tar Paper Stomp was copyrighted on November 6,1941 as a pianoforte version by Peer International. In this recording there was a baritone sax duet rather than a tenor sax battle, the riff had appeared in a 1935 recording by the Mills Blue Rhythm Band entitled Theres Rhythm In Harlem released on Columbia Records which had been composed and arranged by Garland.
Before offering it to Glenn Miller, Garland sold the tune to Artie Shaw in 1938, however, he did perform the song in concert. The initial Artie Shaw performance was over six minutes in length with an audience response. The arranger of the Shaw version was Jerry Gray, who would join the Glenn Miller Orchestra in 1940, the band subsequently performed a shorter version. The Hayes recording was over three minutes in length to fit on one side of a 78 record, Joe Marsala released a song entitled Hot String Beans on Vocalion in 1938 that featured the riff from Tar Paper Stomp. Wingy Manone recorded a new song entitled Jumpy Nerves on April 26,1939 that incorporated the riff from “Tar Paper Stomp” which was released as a 78 single that year on RCA Bluebird. The tune was finally sold in 1939 to Glenn Miller, who played around with its arrangement for a while, although the arrangers of most of the Miller tunes are known, things are a bit uncertain for In the Mood. It is often thought that Eddie Durham, John Chalmers, Chummy MacGregor, according to the account by MacGregor, all they used of the original arrangement were the two front saxophone strains and another part that occurred on in the arrangement