Operation Eagle Pull
Operation Eagle Pull was the United States military evacuation by air of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, on 12 April 1975. At the beginning of April 1975, Phnom Penh, one of the last remaining strongholds of the Khmer Republic, was surrounded by the Khmer Rouge and dependent on aerial resupply through Pochentong Airport. With a Khmer Rouge victory imminent, the US government made contingency plans for the evacuation of US nationals and allied Cambodians by helicopter to ships in the Gulf of Thailand. Operation Eagle Pull took place on the morning of 12 April 1975 and was a tactical success carried out without any loss of life. Five days the Khmer Republic collapsed and the Khmer Rouge occupied Phnom Penh. At the beginning of 1975 the Khmer Republic, a United States-supported military government, controlled only the Phnom Penh area and a string of towns along the Mekong River that provided the crucial supply route for food and munitions coming upriver from South Vietnam; as part of their 1975 dry season offensive, rather than renewing their frontal attacks on Phnom Penh, the Khmer Rouge set out to cut off the crucial Mekong supply route.
On 12 January 1975 the Khmer Rouge attacked Neak Luong, a key Khmer National Armed Forces defensive outpost on the Mekong. On 27 January, seven vessels limped into Phnom Penh, the survivors of a 16-ship convoy that had come under attack over the 100 kilometres journey from the South Vietnamese border. On 3 February a convoy heading downriver hit naval mines laid by the Khmer Rouge at Phu My 74 kilometres from Phnom Penh; the FANK naval branch, the Khmer National Navy, had mine-sweeping capability, but due to the Khmer Rouge control of the riverbanks mine-sweeping was impossible or at best costly. The MNK had lost a quarter of its ships, 70 percent of its sailors had been killed or wounded. By 17 February, the Khmer Republic abandoned attempts to reopen the Mekong supply line. In future, all supplies for Phnom Penh would have to come in by air to Pochentong Airport; the United States mobilised an airlift of food and ammunition into Phnom Penh, but as US support for the Khmer Republic was limited by the Case–Church Amendment, BirdAir, a company under contract to the US Government, controlled the airlift with a mixed fleet of C-130 and DC-8 planes, flying 20 times a day into Pochentong.
On 5 March, Khmer Rouge artillery at Toul Leap, north-west of Phnom Penh, shelled Pochentong Airport, but FANK troops recaptured Toul Leap on 15 March and ended the shelling. Khmer Rouge forces continued to close in on the north and west of the city and were soon able to fire on Pochentong again. On 22 March rockets hit two supply aircraft, forcing the US Embassy to announce on 23 March a suspension of the airlift until the security situation improved; the Embassy, realizing that the Khmer Republic would soon collapse without supplies, reversed the suspension on 24 March and increased the number of aircraft available for the airlift. On 1 April the Khmer Rouge overran Neak Luong and Ban-am, the last remaining FANK positions on the Mekong; the Communists could now concentrate all their forces on Phnom Penh. Premier Lon Nol went into exile; the evacuation plan was developed and refined by the US Military as Khmer Rouge forces closed in on Phnom Penh, starting as early as 1973. On 27 June 1973 the Seventh Air Force published Contingency Plan 5060C "Eagle Pull" covering the evacuation of Phnom Penh.
Conplan 5060C had three options: Option 1: the evacuation of Embassy personnel, US citizens and designated Cambodians by regular or chartered civilian airlift from Pochentong Airport. Option 2: if Khmer Rouge action forced the cancellation of civilian flights from Pochentong Airport, security police from the 56th Security Police Squadron at Nakhon Phanom Royal Thai Air Force Base would be flown in to provide security for the evacuation of 600 Embassy personnel, US citizens and designated Cambodians by USAF fixed wing aircraft. Option 3: if Pochentong was closed to traffic the 56th Security Police Squadron would be landed to secure landing zones in central Phnom Penh for use by CH-53 helicopters of 21st Special Operations Squadron and HH-53 helicopters of the 40th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron with airborne mission command performed by C-130 King aircraft of the 56th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron. Option 3 was revised to provide for the use of USMC helicopters together with USAF helicopters and C-130 Airborne Mission Command based in Thailand, for the ground security force to be made up of marines rather than air force security police.
The LZs were to be adjacent to the US Embassy in Phnom Penh. On 6 January 1975, CINCPAC placed the 31st Marine Amphibious Unit on 96-hour alert to move the evacuation fleet into position off Kampong Som in the Gulf of Thailand for the implementation of Operation Eagle Pull. On 6 February the reaction time was reduced to 48 hours, meaning that the evacuation fleet had to maintain a 48-hour cruising radius from Kampong Som; this was further reduced on 28 February to 24 hours meaning that the fleet had to remain within the Gulf of Thailand. On 21 March the Embassy predicted there would be 3,600 evacuees, far exceeding the original estimate of 400; this necessitated the development of a new evacuation plan whereby Marines would secure Pochentong Airport, while helicopters would ferry evacuees from central Phnom Penh to Pochentong from where they would be flown on C-130 planes to Thailand. However, this plan was overtaken by events as the supply C-130s coming into Pochentong were used for evacuees on the return journey redu
Dith Pran was a Cambodian photojournalist. He was a refugee and survivor of the Cambodian genocide and the subject of the film The Killing Fields. Dith was born in Cambodia near Angkor Wat, his father worked as a public works official. He taught himself English; the United States Army hired him as a translator but after his ties with the United States were severed, Dith worked with a British film crew for the film Lord Jim and as a hotel receptionist. In 1975, Dith and The New York Times reporter Sydney Schanberg stayed behind in Cambodia to cover the fall of the capital Phnom Penh to the Communist Khmer Rouge. Schanberg and other foreign reporters were allowed to leave the country. Due to persecution of intellectuals during the genocide, he hid the fact that he was educated or that he knew Americans, he pretended that he had been a taxi driver; when Cambodians were forced to work in labour camps, Dith had to endure four years of starvation and torture before Vietnam overthrew the Khmer Rouge in December 1978.
He coined the phrase "killing fields" to refer to the clusters of corpses and skeletal remains of victims he encountered during his 40-mile escape. His three brothers and one sister were killed in Cambodia. Dith travelled back to Siem Reap; the Vietnamese had made him village chief but he feared they would discover his US ties and escaped to Thailand on 3 October 1979. After Schanberg learned that Dith had made it to Thailand, Schanberg flew halfway around the world, they had a joyful reunion there. Schanberg brought Dith back to the United States to reunite him with his family, in 1980 Dith joined his paper, The New York Times, where he worked as a photojournalist, he gained worldwide recognition after the 1984 release of the film The Killing Fields about his experiences under the Khmer Rouge. He was portrayed in the film by first-time actor Haing S. Ngor, who won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance, he campaigned for recognition of the Cambodian genocide victims as founder and president of the Dith Pran Holocaust Awareness Project.
He was a recipient of an Ellis Island Medal of Honor in 1998 and the Award of Excellence of the International Center. In 1986, he became a US citizen with his wife Ser Moeun Dith, whom he divorced, he married Kim DePaul but they divorced. On 30 March 2008, Dith died, aged 65, in New Brunswick, New Jersey, having been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer just three months earlier, he was living in New Jersey. Dith Pran at Find a Grave "Dith Pran Biography". Retrieved 2008-03-31; the Dith Pran Holocaust Awareness Project at the Wayback Machine The Last Word of Dith Pran New York Times. March 30, 2008. Video Interview of Dith Pran. Obituaries: The Times, 31 March 2008 The Daily Telegraph, 1 April 2008 The Independent, 1 April 2008 The Guardian, 1 April 2008
Marshal Lon Nol was a Cambodian politician and general who served as Prime Minister twice, as well as serving as Defense Minister. He led the military coup of 1970 against Prince Norodom Sihanouk and became the self-proclaimed President of the U. S.-backed Khmer Republic, ruling until 1975. He was the founder and leader of the short-lived Social Republican Party, commander-in-chief of the Khmer National Armed Forces. After the Khmer Rouge took power, Lon Nol fled to the United States, remained there until his death in 1985. Nol was born in Prey Veng Province on November 1913, to a family of mixed Khmer-Chinese descent, his father Lon Hin was the son of a Khmer Krom from Tay Ninh Province who served as a district chief in Siem Reap and Kampong Thom, after making a name for himself'pacifying' bandit groups in Prey Veng. His maternal grandfather was a Chinese immigrant from Fujian province who became the governor of Prey Veng. Nol was educated in the privileged surroundings of the Lycée Chasseloup-Laubat in Saigon, followed by the Cambodian Royal Military Academy.
Nol found employment with the French colonial civil service in 1937. He became a magistrate, soon proved himself as an efficient enforcer of French rule against a series of anti-colonial disturbances in 1939. By 1946, he had risen to the post of Governor of Kratie Province, he became an associate of King Norodom Sihanouk, by the late 1940s, when he set up a right-wing, pro-independence political group, was becoming involved in the developing Cambodian political scene. Joining the army in 1952, he carried out military operations against the Viet Minh. After independence, Nol's nationalist Khmer Renovation party became the core of the Sangkum, the organisation set up by Sihanouk to participate in the 1955 elections. Sangkum won Sihanouk became Prime Minister. Nol was appointed the Army Chief of Staff in 1955, commander-in-chief of the armed forces in 1960, as well as serving as Defence Minister. At the time, he was a trusted supporter of Sihanouk, his police being instrumental in the suppression of the small, clandestine communist movement in Cambodia.
He was appointed deputy Premier in 1963. While Sihanouk – in an attempt to distance his country from the effects of the Vietnam War – was pursuing a foreign policy of "extreme neutrality", which involved association with China and toleration of North Vietnamese activity on the eastern borders, Nol remained friendly towards the United States, indicated that he regretted the ending of US aid after 1963; the 1966 parliamentary elections represented a major shift in the balance of power towards Lon Nol and the rightist elements of the Sangkum, as conservative and right-wing candidates were overwhelmingly elected. Lon Nol became Prime Minister, the following year troops carried out a savage repression of a leftist-inspired revolt, the Samlaut Uprising, in Battambang Province. Nol was injured in a car crash in 1967, temporarily retired from politics. In 1968, however, he returned as Minister of Defence and in 1969 became Prime Minister a second time, appointing the vocally anti-Sihanouk, pro-US politician Prince Sisowath Sirik Matak as his deputy.
Sihanouk claimed that the 1970 coup against him was the result of an alliance between his longstanding enemy, exiled politician Son Ngoc Thanh and Sirik Matak, with CIA support and planning. Although there are indications that Lon Nol approached the US during 1969 to gauge the likelihood of military support for a coup against Sihanouk, there is no concrete evidence of CIA involvement, though it remains possible some military intelligence agents may have had partial responsibility, it seems that in setting in motion the events leading up to the coup, Lon Nol intended to strengthen his position against the North Vietnamese with the ultimate aim of preventing their troops from operating within Cambodian borders, wished to apply pressure on Sihanouk to achieve this. However, events developed far beyond the original plan, with the encouragement of Sirik Matak – who wished to see Sihanouk deposed as Head of State – Lon Nol was to engineer Sihanouk's removal. While Sihanouk was abroad during March 1970, there were anti-Vietnamese riots in Phnom Penh.
On 12 March, Lon Nol and Sirik Matak closed the port of Sihanoukville, through which weapons were being smuggled to the Viet Cong, to the North Vietnamese and issued an ultimatum: all North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces were to withdraw from Cambodian soil within 72 hours or face military action. Lon Nol refused to countenance Sihanouk being deposed as Head of State. However, the Prime Minister remained uncertain as to whether to instigate a vote in the National Assembly. On the night of 17 March, Sirik Matak, accompanied by three army officers, went to the Prime Minister's residence and compelled a weeping Lon Nol to sign the necessary documents at gunpoint. A vote was taken in the National Assembly on 18 March. General Lon Nol assumed the powers of the Head of State on an emergency basis. On 28 and 29 March there were large-scale popular demonstrations in favour of Sihanouk in several provincial cities, but Lon Nol's forces suppressed them, causing several hundred deaths; the Khmer Republic was formally declared that October, Sihanouk – who had formed a government-in-exile, the GRUNK, incorporating th
Albert Arnold Gore Jr. is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th vice president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Gore was Bill Clinton's running mate in their successful campaign in 1992, the pair was re-elected in 1996. Near the end of Clinton's second term, Gore was selected as the Democratic nominee for the 2000 presidential election but lost the election in a close race after a Florida recount. After his term as vice-president ended in 2001, Gore remained prominent as an author and environmental activist, whose work in climate change activism earned him the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007. Gore was an elected official for 24 years, he was a representative from 1985 to 1993 served as one of the state's senators. He served as vice president during the Clinton administration from 1993 to 2001; the 2000 presidential election was one of the closest presidential races in history. Gore won the popular vote, but after a controversial election dispute over a Florida recount, he lost the election to Republican opponent George W. Bush in the Electoral College.
Gore is the founder and current chair of the Alliance for Climate Protection, the co-founder and chair of Generation Investment Management and the now-defunct Current TV network, a member of the Board of Directors of Apple Inc. and a senior adviser to Google. Gore is a partner in the venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, heading its climate change solutions group, he has served as a visiting professor at Middle Tennessee State University, Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, Fisk University, the University of California, Los Angeles. He served on the Board of Directors of World Resources Institute. Gore has received a number of awards that include the Nobel Peace Prize, a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for his book An Inconvenient Truth, a Primetime Emmy Award for Current TV, a Webby Award. Gore was the subject of the Academy Award-winning documentary An Inconvenient Truth in 2006. In 2007, he was named a runner-up for Time's 2007 Person of the Year. Gore was born on March 31, 1948, in Washington, D.
C. the second of two children of Albert Gore Sr. a U. S. Representative who served for 18 years as a U. S. Senator from Tennessee, Pauline Gore, one of the first women to graduate from Vanderbilt University Law School. Gore is a descendant of Scots-Irish immigrants who first settled in Virginia in the mid-17th-century and moved to Tennessee after the Revolutionary War, his older sister Nancy LaFon Gore died of lung cancer. During the school year he lived with his family in The Fairfax Hotel in the Embassy Row section in Washington D. C. During the summer months, he worked on the family farm in Carthage, where the Gores grew tobacco and hay and raised cattle. Gore attended St. Albans School, an independent college preparatory day and boarding school for boys in Washington, D. C. from 1956 to 1965, a prestigious feeder school for the Ivy League. He was the captain of the football team, threw discus for the track and field team, participated in basketball and government, he applied to Harvard and was accepted.
Gore met Mary Elizabeth "Tipper" Aitcheson at his St. Albans senior prom in 1965, she was from the nearby St. Agnes School. Tipper followed Gore to Boston to attend college, they married at the Washington National Cathedral on May 19, 1970, they have four children—Karenna Gore, Kristin Carlson Gore, Sarah LaFon Gore, Albert Arnold Gore III. In June 2010, the Gores announced in an e-mail to friends that after "long and careful consideration", they had made a mutual decision to separate. In May 2012, it was reported. Gore enrolled in Harvard College in 1965. On his second day on campus, he began campaigning for the freshman student government council and was elected its president. Gore was an avid reader who fell in love with scientific and mathematical theories, but he did not do well in science classes and avoided taking math. During his first two years, his grades placed him in the lower one-fifth of his class. During his sophomore year, he spent much of his time watching television, shooting pool, smoking marijuana.
In his junior and senior years, he became earning As and Bs. In his senior year, he took a class with oceanographer and global warming theorist Roger Revelle, who sparked Gore's interest in global warming and other environmental issues. Gore earned an A on his thesis, "The Impact of Television on the Conduct of the Presidency, 1947–1969", graduated with an A. B. cum laude in June 1969. Gore was in college during the era of anti-Vietnam War protests, he was against that war. He thought that it was silly and juvenile to use a private university as a venue to vent anger at the war, he and his friends did not participate in Harvard demonstrations. John Tyson, a former roommate, recalled that "We distrusted these movements a lot... We were a pretty traditional bunch of guys, positive for civil rights and women's rights but formal, transformed by the social revolution to some extent but not buying into something we considered detrimental to our country." Gore helped his father write an anti-war address to the Democratic National Convention of 1968 but stayed with hi
The Vietnam War known as the Second Indochina War, in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union and other communist allies; the war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U. S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975. American military advisors began arriving in what was French Indochina in 1950 to support the French in the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh. Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U. S. After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military responsibility for the South Vietnamese state.
The Việt Cộng known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF, a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, initiated a guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government in 1959. U. S. involvement escalated in 1960, continued in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963. By 1964, there were 23,000 U. S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U. S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U. S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000. Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam known as the North Vietnamese Army engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces; every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.
U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces and airstrikes. The U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Tet Offensive of 1968, proved to be the turning point of the war; the Tet Offensive showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war. The unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders. S. forces. Gradual withdrawal of U. S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.
S. Congress; the capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war, North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians, 20,000–62,000 Laotians, 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict, a further 1,626 remain missing in action. The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and confllict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War; the end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.
Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements, which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s. Various names have been applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most used name in English, it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this particular conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ, but less formally as'Cuộc chiến tranh Mỹ', it is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam. The primary military organizations involved in the war were as follows: One side consisted of th
Frank Shepard Fairey is an American contemporary street artist, graphic designer, activist and founder of OBEY Clothing who emerged from the skateboarding scene. He first became known for his "Andre the Giant Has a Posse" sticker campaign while attending the Rhode Island School of Design, which appropriated images from the comedic supermarket tabloid Weekly World News, he became known during the 2008 U. S. presidential election for his Barack Obama "Hope" poster. The Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston has described him as one of the best known and most influential street artists, his work is included in the collections at The Smithsonian, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, the Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego, the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D. C. the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts in Richmond, the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. Shepard Fairey was raised in Charleston, South Carolina, his father, Strait Fairey, is a doctor, his mother, Charlotte, a realtor.
He attended Wando High School in Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina, transferred to high school at Idyllwild Arts Academy in Idyllwild, California where he graduated in 1988. Fairey became involved with art in 1984, when he started to place his drawings on skateboards and T-shirts. In 1992 he earned a Bachelor of Fine Arts in Illustration from the Rhode Island School of Design. Fairey created the "André the Giant Has a Posse" sticker campaign in 1989, while attending the Rhode Island School of Design; this evolved into the "Obey Giant" campaign, which has grown via an international network of collaborators replicating Fairey's original designs. Fairey intended the Obey Giant to inspire curiosity and cause people to question their relationship with their surroundings. According to the Obey Giant website, "The sticker has no meaning but exists only to cause people to react, to contemplate and search for meaning in the sticker"; the website says, by contrast, that those who are familiar with the sticker find humor and enjoyment from it and that those who try to analyze its meaning only burden themselves and may condemn the art as an act of vandalism from an evil, underground cult.
Intending the sticker campaign to gain fame among his classmates and college peers, Fairey says, At first I was only thinking about the response from my clique of art school and skateboard friends. The fact that a larger segment of the public would not only notice, but investigate, the unexplained appearance of the stickers was something I had not contemplated; when I started to see reactions and consider the sociological forces at work surrounding the use of public space and the insertion of a eye-catching but ambiguous image, I began to think there was the potential to create a phenomenon. In a manifesto he wrote in 1990, since posted on his website, he links his work with Heidegger's concept of phenomenology, his "Obey" Campaign is from the John Carpenter movie They Live which starred pro wrestler Roddy Piper, taking a number of its slogans, including the "Obey" slogan, as well as the "This is Your God" slogan. Fairey has spun off the OBEY clothing line from the original sticker campaign.
He uses the slogan "The Medium is the Message" borrowed from Marshall McLuhan. Shepard Fairey has stated in an interview. After graduation, he founded a small printing business in Providence, Rhode Island, called Alternate Graphics, specializing in T-shirt and sticker silkscreens, which afforded Fairey the ability to continue pursuing his own artwork. While residing in Providence in 1994, Fairey met American filmmaker Helen Stickler, who had attended RISD and graduated with a film degree; the following spring, Stickler completed a short documentary film about Shepard and his work, titled "Andre the Giant has a Posse". The film premiered in the 1995 New York Underground Film Festival, went on to play at the 1997 Sundance Film Festival, it has been seen in more than 70 museums internationally. Fairey was a founding partner, along with Dave Kinsey and Phillip DeWolff, of the design studio BLK/MRKT Inc. from 1997 to 2003, which specialised in guerrilla marketing, "the development of high-impact marketing campaigns".
Clients included Pepsi and Netscape. In 2003 he founded the Studio Number One design agency with his wife Amanda Fairey; the agency produced the cover work for The Black Eyed Peas' album Monkey Business and the poster for the film Walk the Line. Fairey has designed the covers for The Smashing Pumpkins' album Zeitgeist, Flogging Molly's CD/DVD Whiskey on a Sunday, Led Zeppelin's compilation Mothership and movie Celebration Day, Anthrax's The Greater Of Two Evils. Along with Banksy and others Fairey created work at a warehouse exhibition in Alexandria, for Semi-Permanent in 2003. 1,500 people attended. In 2004, Fairey joined artists Robbie Conal and Mear One to create a series of "anti-war, anti-Bush" posters for a street art campaign called "Be the Revolution" for the art collective "Post Gen". "Be the Revolution" kicked off with a night of performances featuring Z-Trip and David J at the Avalon in Hollywood. Fairey co-founded Swindle Magazine along with Roger Gastman. In 2005 he collaborated for a second time with Z-Trip on a limited edition 12-inch featuring Chuck D entitled "Shock and Awe".
In 2005 Fairey collaborated with DJ Shadow on a box set, with T-shirts, prints, a mix CD by Shadow. In 2005 he showed abroad, for instance in Paris at the Magda Danysz Gallery, was a resident artist at the Honolulu Museum of Art Spal
Phnom Penh known as Krong Chaktomuk or Krong Chaktomuk Serimongkul, is the capital and most populous city in Cambodia. Phnom Penh has been the national capital since French colonization of Cambodia, has grown to become the nation's economic and cultural center. Once known as the "Pearl of Asia," it was considered one of the loveliest French-built cities in Indochina in the 1920s. Phnom Penh, along with Siem Reap and Sihanoukville, are significant global and domestic tourist destinations for Cambodia. Founded in 1434, the city is noted for attractions. There are a number of surviving French colonial buildings scattered along the grand boulevards. Situated on the banks of the Tonlé Sap and Bassac rivers, the Phnom Penh metropolitan area is home to about 1.5 million of Cambodia's population of over 14.8 million. Phnom Penh takes its name from the present Wat Phnom. Legend has it that in 1372, a wealthy widow named Lady Penh found a Koki tree floating down the Tonle Sap river after a storm. Inside the tree were four bronze Buddha statues and a stone statue of Vishnu.
Daun Penh ordered villagers to raise the height of the hill northeast of her house and used the Koki wood to build a temple on the hill to house the four Buddha statues, a shrine for the Vishnu image lower down. The temple became known as Wat Phnom Daun Penh, now known as Wat Phnom, a small hill 27 metres in height. Phnom Penh's official name, in its short form, is Krong Chaktomok meaning "City of Four Faces". Krong Chaktomuk is an abbreviation of the full name, given by King Ponhea Yat, Krong Chaktomuk Mongkol Sakal Kampuchea Thipadei Serey Thereak Borvor Inthabot Borei Roth Reach Seima Maha Nokor; this loosely translates as "The place of four rivers that gives the happiness and success of Khmer Kingdom, the highest leader as well as unimpregnable city of the God Indra of the great kingdom". It is similar to the much more famous long name of Bangkok, which in both cases incorporates many words from Sanskrit. First recorded a century after it is said to have taken place, the legend of the founding of Phnom Penh tells of a local woman, living at Chaktomuk, the future Phnom Penh.
It was the late 14th century, the Khmer capital was still at Angkor near Siem Reap 350 km to the north. Gathering firewood along the banks of the river, Lady Penh spied a floating koki tree in the river and fished it from the water. Inside the tree she found four Buddha statues and one of Vishnu; the discovery was taken as a divine blessing, to some a sign that the Khmer capital was to be brought to Phnom Penh from Angkor. To house the new-found sacred objects, Penh raised a small hill on the west bank of the Tonle Sap River and crowned it with a shrine, now known as Wat Phnom at the north end of central Phnom Penh. "Phnom" is Khmer for "hill" and Penh's hill took on the name of the founder, the area around it became known after the hill. Phnom Penh first became the capital of Cambodia after Ponhea Yat, king of the Khmer Empire, moved the capital from Angkor Thom after it was captured and destroyed by Siam a few years earlier. There is a stupa behind Wat Phnom that houses the remains of Ponhea Yat and the royal family as well as the remaining Buddhist statues from the Angkorean era.
In the 17th century, Japanese immigrants settled on the outskirts of present-day Phnom Penh. A small Portuguese community survived in Phnom Penh until the 17th century, undertaking commercial and religious activity in the country. Phnom Penh remained the royal capital for 73 years, from 1432 to 1505, it was abandoned for 360 years by subsequent kings due to internal fighting between the royal pretenders. Kings moved the capital several times and established their royal capitals at various locations in Tuol Basan, Longvek, Lavear Em and Oudong, it was not until 1866, under the reign of King Norodom I, the eldest son of King Ang Duong, who ruled on behalf of Siam, that Phnom Penh became the permanent seat of government and capital of Cambodia, where the current Royal Palace was built. Beginning in 1870, the French colonial authorities turned a riverside village into a city where they built hotels, prisons, banks, public works offices, telegraph offices, law courts, health services buildings. In 1872, the first glimpse of a modern city took shape when the colonial administration employed the services of French contractor Le Faucheur to construct the first 300 concrete houses for sale and rental to Chinese traders.
By the 1920s, Phnom Penh was known as the "Pearl of Asia", over the next four decades, Phnom Penh continued to experience rapid growth with the building of railways to Sihanoukville and Pochentong International Airport. Phnom Penh's infrastructure saw major modernisation under the rule of Sihanouk. During the Vietnam War, Cambodia was used as a base by the North Vietnamese Army and the Viet Cong, thousands of refugees from across the country flooded the city to escape the fighting between their own government troops, the NVA/NLF, the South Vietnamese and its allies, the Khmer Rouge. By 1975, the population was 2 -- 3 million; the Khmer Rouge cut off supplies to the city f