CSS Alabama was a screw sloop-of-war built in 1862 for the Confederate States Navy at Birkenhead on the River Mersey opposite Liverpool, England by John Laird Sons and Company. Alabama served as a successful commerce raider, attacking Union merchant and naval ships over the course of her two-year career, during which she never docked at a Southern port, she was sunk in June 1864 by USS Kearsarge at the Battle of Cherbourg outside the port of Cherbourg, France. Alabama was built in secrecy in 1862 by British shipbuilders John Laird Sons and Company, in north west England at their shipyards at Birkenhead, opposite Liverpool; the construction was arranged by the Confederate agent Commander James Bulloch, who led the procurement of sorely needed ships for the fledgling Confederate States Navy. The contract was arranged through the Fraser Trenholm Company, a cotton broker in Liverpool with ties to the Confederacy. Under prevailing British neutrality law, it was possible to build a ship designed as an armed vessel, provided that it wasn't armed until after it sailed into international waters.
In light of this loophole, Alabama was built with reinforced decks for cannon emplacements, ammunition magazines below water-level, etc. but the builder stopped short of fitting her out with armaments or any "warlike equipment". Known as "hull number 290" to hide her identity, the ship was launched as Enrica on 15 May 1862 and secretly slipped out of Birkenhead on 29 July 1862. Union Captain Tunis A. M. Craven, commander of USS Tuscarora, was in Southampton and was tasked with intercepting the new ship, but was unsuccessful. Agent Bulloch arranged for a civilian crew and captain to sail Enrica to Terceira Island in the Azores. With Bulloch at his side, the new ship's captain, Raphael Semmes, left Liverpool on 13 August 1862 aboard the steamer Bahama to take command of the new cruiser. Semmes arrived at Terceira Island on 20 August 1862 and began overseeing the refitting of the new vessel with various provisions, including armaments, 350 tons of coal, brought there by Agrippina, his new ship's supply vessel.
After three days of back-breaking work by the three ship's crews, Enrica was equipped as a naval cruiser, designated a commerce raider, for the Confederate States of America. Following her commissioning as CSS Alabama, Bulloch returned to Liverpool to continue his secret work for the Confederate Navy. Alabama's British-made ordnance was composed of six muzzle-loading, broadside, 32-pounder naval smoothbores and two larger and more powerful pivot cannons; the pivot cannons were placed fore and aft of the main mast and positioned amidships along the deck's center line. From those positions, they could be rotated to fire across the port or starboard sides of the cruiser; the fore pivot cannon was a long-range 100-pounder, 7-inch bore Blakely rifled muzzle-loader. The new Confederate cruiser was powered by both sail and by two John Laird Sons and Company 300 horsepower horizontal steam engines, driving a single, Griffiths-type, twin-bladed brass screw. With the screw retracted using the stern's brass lifting gear mechanism, Alabama could make up to ten knots under sail alone and 13.25 knots when her sail and steam power were used together.
The ship was purposely commissioned about a mile off Terceira Island in international waters on 24 August 1862. All the men from Agripinna and Bahama had been transferred to the quarter deck of Enrica, where her 24 officers, some of them Southerners, stood in full dress uniform. Captain Raphael Semmes mounted a gun-carriage and read his commission from President Jefferson Davis, authorizing him to take command of the new cruiser. Upon completion of the reading, musicians that assembled from among the three ships' crews began to play the tune "Dixie" just as the quartermaster finished hauling down Enrica's British colors. A signal cannon boomed and the stops to the halliards at the peaks of the mizzen gaff and mainmast were broken and the ship's new battle ensign and commissioning pennant floated free on the breeze. With that the cruiser became Confederate States Steamer Alabama; the ship's motto: Aide-toi et Dieu t'aidera was engraved in the bronze of the great double ship's wheel. Captain Semmes made a speech about the Southern cause to the assembled seamen, asking them to sign on for a voyage of unknown length and destiny.
Semmes had only no crew to man his new command. When this did not succeed, Semmes changed his tack, he offered signing money and double wages, paid in gold, additional prize money to be paid by the Confederate congress for all destroyed Union ships. When the men began to shout "Hear! Hear!" Semmes knew he had closed the deal: 83 seamen, many of them British, signed on for service in the Confederate Navy. Confederate agent Bulloch and the remaining seamen returned to their respective ships for their return voyage to England. Semmes still needed another 20 or so men for a full crew complement, but enough had signed on to at least handle the new commerce raider; the rest would be recruited from among captured crews of raided ships or from friendly ports-of-call. Of the original 83 crewmen that signed on that day, many completed the full voyage. Under Captain Semmes, Alabama spent her first two months in the Eastern Atlantic, ranging southwest of the Azores and redoubling east and burning northern merchant ships.
After a difficult Atlantic crossing, she continued her path of destruction and devastation in the greater New England region. She sailed south, arriving in the West Indies where she raised more havoc before c
University of Alabama traditions
The University of Alabama is a school with many traditions. This article describes several of these traditions. According to a November 25, 1926 article in The Crimson White, football was first introduced at the University of Alabama in 1892 by W. G. Little of Livingston, a student at Andover, Massachusetts and "went to the University for the game." Alabama's first football game was played in Birmingham on Friday afternoon, November 11, 1892, at the old Lakeview Park. Alabama defeated a team composed of high schoolers 56-0; that Saturday, November 12, Alabama played the Birmingham Athletic Club, losing 5-4 when Ross, of B. A. C. Kicked a 65-yard field goal; this field goal was a collegiate record at the time. In 1896 the university's board of trustees passed a rule forbidding athletic teams from traveling off-campus; the following season only one game was played and in 1898 football was abandoned at Alabama. Student opposition to the ruling forced trustees to lift the travel ban and football was resumed in 1899.
The 1918 season was cancelled on account of World War I but the game was resumed the following year. Alabama first gained national recognition for football in 1922 when it defeated the University of Pennsylvania 9-7 in Philadelphia; the following season Wallace Wade became head coach and in 1925 led the Crimson Tide to its first undefeated and untied season and its first trip to Pasadena, with a Rose Bowl invitation. On January 1, 1926, in the Rose Bowl, Alabama came from behind to upset the University of Washington 20-19. Early newspaper accounts of the university's football squad referred to them as the "varsity" or the "Crimson White"; the first nickname popular with the media was the "Thin Red Line", used until 1906. Hugh Roberts, former sports editor of the Birmingham Age-Herald, is credited with coining the phrase "Crimson Tide" in an article describing the 1907 Iron Bowl played in Birmingham with Auburn a heavy favorite to win; the game was played in a sea of red mud. The headline for the article was "Crimson Tied", referring to the 6–6 tie Alabama had with Auburn, favored before the game.
There are two stories both true, about how Alabama's football squad became associated with the elephant, both dating to the coaching tenure of Wallace Wade. The earliest account attributes the Rosenberger's Birmingham Trunk Company for the elephant association. Owner J. D. Rosenberger, whose son was a student at the university, outfitted the undefeated 1926 team with "good luck" luggage tags for the trip to the 1927 Rose Bowl; the company's trademark, displayed on the tags, was a red elephant standing on a trunk. When the football team arrived in Pasadena, the reporters greeting them, including syndicated columnist Grantland Rice, associated their large size with the elephants on their luggage; when the 1930 team returned to the Rose Bowl, the company furnished leather suitcases, paid for by the Alumni Association, to each team member. Another story dates to 1930. Following the October 4 game against Ole Miss, Atlanta Journal sports writer and Hall of Fame former Georgia Tech back Everett Strupper wrote: At the end of the quarter, the earth started to tremble, there was a distant rumble that continued to grow.
Some excited fan in the stands bellowed,'Hold your horses, the elephants are coming,' and out stamped this Alabama varsity. It was the first time that I had seen it and the size of the entire eleven nearly knocked me cold, men that I had seen play last year looking like they had nearly doubled in size. Yet, despite the unofficial status as the Crimson Tide's mascot, the elephant was much part of the school's football traditions by the 1940s, it was in that decade that a live elephant mascot named "Alamite" was a regular sight on game days in Tuscaloosa. For several years it was traditional for the pachyderm to lead the homecoming parade and Alamite would bear that year's queen onto the field prior to the game. Sports writers continued to refer to Alabama as the "Red Elephants" afterward, referring to their crimson jerseys; the 1930 team shut out eight of ten opponents. The "Red Elephants" rolled up 217 points that season, including a 24-0 victory over Washington State in the Rose Bowl. Despite these early associations of the elephant to the University of Alabama, the university did not accept the elephant as university mascot until 1979.
Alabama's elephant mascot is known as "Big Al". The Million Dollar Band, the University of Alabama's marching band, was founded in 1912 with 14 members under the direction of Dr. Gustav Wittig. In 1917, the band became a military band and was led by students until 1927; the Million Dollar Band is the largest performing organization with around 400 + members. The September 1992 issue of Southern Living selected the Million Dollar Band as one of the top ten most outstanding bands in the South. In 2003 it became the twenty-second band to be honored with the Sudler Trophy, given by the Sousa Foundation to recognize "collegiate marching bands of particular excellence that have made outstanding contributions to the American way of life." Additionally, the Million Dollar Band has been nationally televised more than any other college marching band in the country. There are two stories to the naming of the Million Dollar Band; the main one is from a time. They were playing Georgia Tech and the coach of Georgia Tech stated, "Your football team isn't worth a nickel, but you have a million dollar band."
And so the name stuck. In the second story, W. C. "Champ" Pickens bestowed the name "Million Dollar Band" after the 1922 football game against Georgia Tech. Though accounts vary, it is reported that
Harvest (Neil Young album)
Harvest is the fourth studio album by Canadian musician Neil Young, released in February 1972, on Reprise Records, catalogue MS 2032. It featured the London Symphony Orchestra on two tracks and vocals by noted guests David Crosby, Graham Nash, Linda Ronstadt, Stephen Stills, James Taylor, it topped the Billboard 200 album chart for two weeks, spawned two hit singles, "Old Man", which peaked at #31 on the Billboard Hot 100, "Heart of Gold", which reached #1. It was the best-selling album of 1972 in the United States. After the members of Crosby, Nash & Young went their separate ways in 1970, Young recruited a group of country session musicians and recorded a country rock record, Harvest; the record was a massive hit, producing a US number one single in "Heart of Gold". Other songs returned to some usual Young themes. "The Needle and the Damage Done" was a lament for great artists, addicted to heroin, including Crazy Horse band mate Danny Whitten. "Alabama" was "an unblushing rehash of'Southern Man'".
Young wrote of "Alabama" in his autobiography Waging Heavy Peace, saying it "richly deserved the shot Lynyrd Skynyrd gave me with their great record. I don't like my words, they are accusatory and condescending, not thought out, too easy to misconstrue." "Words", the last song on the album, featured a lengthy guitar workout with the band. It has a typical Neil Young structure consisting of four chords during the multiple improvised solos; the song is notable for alternating between a standard 4/4 time signature for verses and choruses and an unusual 11/8 for interludes. The album's success caught Young off his first instinct was to back away from stardom, he would write that the record "put me in the middle of the road. Traveling there soon became a bore so I headed for the ditch. A rougher ride but I saw more interesting people there." "The Needle and the Damage Done" was taken from a live solo performance at UCLA on January 30, 1971. The recording of the remainder of Harvest was notable for the spontaneous and serendipitous way it came together.
The story is told in an article in Acoustic Guitar Magazine, which includes interviews with the producer, Elliot Mazer, among others. Young arrived in Nashville in early February 1971 to perform on a broadcast of Johnny Cash Show where Linda Ronstadt and James Taylor would appear. Mazer had opened Quadrafonic Sound Studios in Nashville, invited Young to dinner on Saturday, 6 February, to convince him to record his next project at the studio. Young admired the work of the local studio musicians known as Area Code 615 who had recorded there and was interested. Young had a batch of new songs that he had been performing on the road, as seen by the repertoire on Live at Massey Hall 1971, told Mazer that all he needed was a bassist and pedal steel guitarist. Young made the decision to start recording that evening. Since many of the Area Code 615 musicians were working on a Saturday night in Nashville, Mazer scrambled to find drummer Kenny Buttrey, bassist Tim Drummond, steel-guitarist Ben Keith; that night, they laid down the basic tracks for "Old Man", "Bad Fog of Loneliness", "Dance Dance Dance".
This version of "Bad Fog" was unreleased until its appearance on The Archives Vol. 1 1963–1972. "Dance Dance Dance" was left off the album but had appeared on the debut Crazy Horse album. According to liner notes in Archives Volume 1, "Heart of Gold" was not recorded until Monday, 8 February. However, other sources reported that after taping the Johnny Cash Show on the evening of Sunday 7 February, Young invited Ronstadt and Taylor to come back to the studio with him; the three sat on a couch and recorded the background vocals for "Heart of Gold" and "Old Man." Taylor overdubbed a part for the latter song on Young's banjo guitar. "A Man Needs a Maid" and "There's a World" were recorded by Jack Nitzsche with the London Symphony Orchestra in early March at Barking Assembly Hall in the wake of Young's appearance on the BBC and concert at the Royal Festival Hall in London. "Out on the Weekend", "Harvest" and "Journey Through the Past", along with overdubs by the session musicians James McMahon, John Harris, Teddy Irwin, were recorded in another session at Quadrafonic in April.
The electric-based songs were recorded in a barn at Young's ranch in California in September. Using a remote recording system, Mazer set up PA speakers in the barn for monitors rather than have the players wear headphones; this resulted in a lot of "leakage" as each microphone picked up sound from other instruments, but Young and Mazer liked the resulting sound. "Are You Ready for the Country", "Alabama", "Words" were recorded in these sessions with Buttrey, Keith, along with Nitzsche on piano and lap steel. Young named this band, which would accompany him on his tour in the winter of 1973, The Stray Gators. Background vocals by Crosby, Stills & Nash were recorded by Mazer in New York. Mixing was done both at Young's house. During playback at the ranch, Mazer ran the left channel into the PA speakers still in the barn and the right channel into speakers in the house. Young sat outside with Crosby and Nash sitting beside him listening to the mix (or Nash and Young were sitti
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state
The Alabama or Alibamu are a Southeastern culture people of Native Americans from Alabama. They were members of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, a loose trade and military organization of autonomous towns; the Alabama and allied Coushatta people migrated from Alabama and Mississippi to the area of Texas in the late 18th century and early 19th century, under pressure from European-American settlers to the east. They merged and shared reservation land. Although the tribe was terminated in the 1950s, it achieved federal recognition in 1987 as the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas, its 1,137 members have about 4,500 acres of reservation. The Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town is a federally recognized tribe, headquartered in Wetumka, Oklahoma; the Alabama language is part of the Muskogean language family. Alabama is related to Koasati and distantly to Hitchiti and Choctaw. Known as Alibamu, an estimated 100 speakers from Texas, still speak the language; the Alabama first encountered Europeans when Hernando de Soto arrived in 1540.
In the 18th century, the French arrived on the Gulf Coast and built a fort at what became Mobile, Alabama. The Alibamu and Koasati tribes were part of the Creek Confederacy, they had less contact with British settlers. They were the first to leave when British settlers swarmed into the area by the middle of the 18th century, after the land was ceded by the French following the British victory in the Seven Years' War. Under pressure as well by Native American enemies, the Alabama and Coushatta tribes wanted to avoid the powerful Choctaw in present-day Mississippi, they moved into territories of future states, first into Louisiana and into Texas. Alabama and Coushatta towns were divided into "red" and "white" towns; the "white" towns were responsible for keeping the peace and for providing refuge, while the "red" towns were responsible for conducting military campaigns. Though they had "red" and "white" towns, the Alabama-Coushattas thought of themselves as a peace-loving people. In 1795, the Coushatta arrived in the Big Thicket area of East Texas.
In 1805, nearly 1,000 Alabama came to Tyler County's Peach Tree Village in East Texas. The two tribes developed a strong friendship as they hunted their new land together. In the early 19th century, the Texas Congress granted each tribe two strips of land along the Trinity River, their land was soon taken over by European-American settlers. Sam Houston, the governor of Texas, recommended that the state purchase 1,280 acres for the Alabamas. Either through marriage or special permission, many Coushatta went to live on the land given to the Alabama. Other Coushatta had stayed in an area in southern Louisiana near the Red River. Many of their descendants are enrolled members of the federally recognized Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana. By 1820, there were three main Alabama towns and three large Coushatta towns in east Texas, in the region known as the Big Thicket. In 1854, the Alabama were given 1,280 acres in Polk County; the following year, 640 acres in Polk County, were given to the Coushattas. The Coushatta claim was disputed by white settlers in 1859.
When the Coushatta lost the land claim, the Alabama invited them to live on their land claim. The federal government approved a large grant in 1928 to purchase additional land near the reservation. Since that time, the reservation has been known as "Alabama-Coushatta". Origin myths focus on the interconnectedness of the tribes. One myth states. Another legend was recorded in 1857 from one of the oldest Creeks in Indian Territory, he said that the tribes "sprang out of the ground between the Cohawba and Alabama Rivers." The symbol of the Alabama-Coushatta tribe comes from pre-contact Mississippian culture: two intertwined woodpeckers, now symbolic of the connection between the two tribes. The obtusifolium subspecies of the plant Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium is used in a compound decoction for nervousness and sleepiness, in a decoction as a face wash for nerves and insomnia. A full list of their ethnobotany can be found at http://naeb.brit.org/uses/tribes/3/. The Alabama who relocated to Texas supported Texas independence.
In gratitude, Governor Sam Houston recommended that Texas purchase land for the tribe when their existing land was overtaken by settlers. The two tribes share many cultural characteristics. In a hearing before the Indian Claims Commission in 1974, Dr. Daniel Jacobson suggested that the Alabama and Coushatta tribes were culturally related because of intermarriage; the Handbook of Texas reports that the languages come from the same stock though there could be some word variance. They merged with the Coushatta to become the present-day Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas. Although long under state trusteeship because the state controlled public lands, the tribe achieved Federal recognition in 1987 by an act of Congress, rather than by administrative process of the Department of Interior; the law that restored the tribe's federal relationship prohibited such gaming as was prohibited under state laws. The current tribal lands are in eastern Polk Texas; the Alabama-Coushatta Indian Reservation, Texas' oldest reservation, located at 30°42′50″N 94°40′26″W, has 18.484 km2 of land.
The land purchased by the state and assigned to the Alaba
Division (10 Years album)
Division is 10 Years's fourth studio album and second major label release, released May 13, 2008. The first single was "Beautiful", it has so far sold over 250,000 copies in the US. Additionally, an acoustic version of "Beautiful" is available for download with purchases through retailer f.y.e. 10 Years added the second single, So Long, Good-Bye. A rock version was added to their Myspace page, released on October 7, 2008 and was made available on iTunes on December 16, 2008; the third single, Actions & Motives, was released as a digital bundle with the song, an acoustic version of "Russian Roulette", the video Actions & Motives on iTunes on May 26, 2009. Jesse Hasek – Vocals Ryan "Tater" Johnson – Guitar Matt Wantland – Guitar Lewis "Big Lew" Cosby – Bass Brian Vodinh – Drums Joe Carolus – Piano on "Proud of You" Alaina Alexander – Background vocals on "Proud of You" and spoken word on "Planets 2" Travis Wyrick – Co-wrote "Beautiful" and "Picture Perfect" Dean DeLeo – Co-wrote "Focus"
University of Alabama
The University of Alabama is a public research university in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. It is the flagship of the University of Alabama System. Established in 1820, the University of Alabama is the oldest and largest of the public universities in Alabama; the university offers programs of study in 13 academic divisions leading to bachelor's, master's, Education Specialist, doctoral degrees. The only publicly supported law school in the state is at UA. Other academic programs unavailable elsewhere in Alabama include doctoral programs in anthropology and information sciences, metallurgical engineering, Romance languages, social work; as one of the first public universities established in the early 19th century southwestern frontier of the United States, the University of Alabama has left a cultural imprint on the state and nation over the past two centuries. The school was a center of activity during the Civil Rights Movement; the University of Alabama varsity football program, inaugurated in 1892, ranks as one of 10 winningest programs in US history.
In a 1913 speech then-president George H. Denny extolled the university as the "capstone of the public school system in the state," lending the university its current nickname, The Capstone; the University of Alabama has been ranked as one of the top 50 public universities in the nation by the U. S. News & World Report. In addition, The University of Alabama has produced a total of 51 Goldwater Scholars, 15 Rhodes Scholars, 16 Truman Scholars, 32 Hollings Scholars and 11 Boren Scholars. In 1818, U. S. Congress authorized the newly created Alabama Territory to set aside a township for the establishment of a "seminary of learning"; when Alabama was admitted to the Union on December 14, 1819, a second township was added to the land grant, bringing it to a total of 46,000 acres. The General Assembly of Alabama established the seminary on December 18, 1820, named it "The University of the State of Alabama", created a Board of Trustees to manage the construction and operation of the university; the board chose as the site of the campus a place, just outside the city limits of Tuscaloosa, the state capital at the time.
The new campus was designed by William Nichols the architect of the newly completed Alabama State Capitol building and Christ Episcopal Church. Influenced by Thomas Jefferson's plan at the University of Virginia, the Nichols-designed campus featured a 70-foot wide, 70-foot high domed Rotunda that served as the library and nucleus of the campus; the university's charter was presented to the first university president in the nave of Christ Episcopal Church. UA opened its doors to students on April 1831, with the Reverend Alva Woods as President. An academy-style institution during the Antebellum period, the university emphasized the classics and the social and natural sciences. There were around 100 students per year at UA in the 1830s. However, as Alabama was a frontier state and a sizable amount of its territory was still in the hands of various Native American tribes until the 1840s, it lacked the infrastructure to adequately prepare students for the rigors of university education. Only a fraction of students who enrolled in the early years remained enrolled for long and fewer graduated.
Those who did graduate, however had distinguished careers in Alabama and national politics. Early graduates included Alexander Meek; as the state and university matured, an active literary culture evolved in Tuscaloosa. UA had one of the largest libraries in the country on the eve of the Civil War with more than 7,000 volumes. There were several thriving literary societies, including the Erosophic and the Phi Beta Kappa societies, which had lectures by such distinguished politicians and literary figures as United States Supreme Court Justice John A. Campbell, novelist William Gilmore Simms, Professor Frederick Barnard; the addresses to those societies reveal a vibrant intellectual culture in Tuscaloosa. Discipline and student behavior was a major issue at the university from the day it opened. Early presidents attempted to enforce strict rules regarding conduct. Students were prohibited from drinking, making unauthorized visits off-campus, or playing musical instruments outside a one-hour time frame.
Yet riots and gunfights were not an uncommon occurrence. To combat the severe discipline problem, president Landon Garland lobbied and received approval from the legislature in 1860 to transform the university into a military school. Many of the cadets who graduated from the school went on to serve as officers in the Confederate Army during the Civil War; as a consequence of that role, Union troops burned down the campus on April 4, 1865, unrelated to Sherman's March to the Sea several months earlier and farther east, in Georgia. Despite a call to arms and defense by the student cadet corps, only four buildings survived the burning: the President's Mansion, Gorgas House, Little Round House, Old Observatory; the university reopened in 1871 and in 1880, Congress granted the university 40,000 acres of coal land in partial compensation for $250,000 in war damages. The University of Alabama allowed female students beginning in 1892; the Board of Trustees allowed female students due to Julia S. Tutwiler, with the condition that they be over eighteen, would be allowed to enter the sophomore class after comple