Falls of Clyde (ship)
Falls of Clyde is the last surviving iron-hulled, four-masted full-rigged ship, and the only remaining sail-driven oil tanker. Designated a U. S. National Historic Landmark in 1989, she is now a museum ship in Honolulu and she is currently not open to the public. In September 2008, ownership was transferred to a new organization, the Friends of Falls of Clyde. Efforts to raise $1.5 million to get the ship into drydock have not succeeded as of 2015, an additional $30 million may be needed to fully restore the ship. In August,2016, the Harbors Division of the State of Hawaii impounded the ship, efforts are underway to convince the Governor to preserve the ship, including an online petition. Falls of Clyde was built in 1878 by Russell and Company in Port Glasgow, Scotland, launched as the first of nine iron-hulled four-masted ships for Wright and Breakenridges Falls Line. She was named after the Falls of Clyde, a group of waterfalls on the River Clyde and her maiden voyage took her to Karachi, now in Pakistan, and her first six years were spent engaged in the India trade.
She became a tramp pursuing general cargo such as lumber, jute and wheat from ports in Australia, India, New Zealand, and the British Isles. To economize on crew, Matson rigged Falls of Clyde down as a barque, at the same time, he added a deckhouse and rearranged the after quarters to accommodate paying passengers. From 1899 to 1907, she made over sixty voyages between Hilo and San Francisco, carrying general merchandise west, sugar east and she developed a reputation as a handy and commodious vessel, averaging 17 days each way on her voyages. In 1907, the Associated Oil Company bought Falls of Clyde, ten large steel tanks were built into her hull, and a pump room and generator fitted forward of an oil-tight bulkhead. In this configuration she brought kerosene to Hawaii and returned to California with molasses for cattle feed, in 1927, she was sold to the General Petroleum Company, her masts cut down, and converted into a floating fuel depot in Alaska. In 1959 she was purchased by William Mitchell, who towed her to Seattle, Washington, in 1963, the bank holding the mortgage on Falls of Clyde decided to sell her to be sunk as part of a breakwater at Vancouver, British Columbia.
Kortum and Klebingat aroused interest in the ship in Hawaii, at the end of October 1963, Falls of Clyde was taken under tow bound for Honolulu. Falls of Clyde was given to the Bishop Museum and opened to the public in 1968, in 1970 the grandson of original 19th century designer William Lithgow was engaged to assist in her restoration as a full-rigged ship. Support came from Sir William Lithgow, the shipbuilder and industrialist, whose Port Glasgow shipyard donated new steel masts, in 1973 the ship was entered into the National Register of Historic Places, and declared a U. S. National Historic Landmark in 1989. The ship is now in poor condition, causes of the deterioration of the ship are multiple. The ship has not been dry docked for a long time, preventive maintenance was not performed, although it would have been relatively inexpensive
Kathleen and May
The Kathleen and May is the last remaining British built wooden hull three masted top sail schooner. Registered in Bideford, North Devon, but presently based in Liverpool and she was built in 1900 by Ferguson and Baird at their Connahs Quay, Flintshire yard, for local shipping company Coppack Bros. Constructed with a frame of oak, these were covered by 3 inches thick seasoned pitch pine planks, fastened to the frames with treenails. Launched in April 1900 under Captain John Coppack, she was named Lizzie May after the Captain’s daughters, fleming modified her, adding before World War I both a longer lower yard to lengthen the middle sail, and a martingale fitted to the bowsprit. She now plied her trade between Youghal and the ports of the Bristol Channel, as a coal lugger, in 1931 she was sold to Captain Jewell of Appledore, North Devon. On arrival in her new port, she was fitted with an 80 brake horsepower Beardmore diesel engine. After surviving the storms of February 1936, in 1937 she experienced engine trouble in sight of Youghal’s lighthouse, in 1943, her engine was upgraded to a 125 brake horsepower Deutz diesel.
After the death of Captain Jewell in 1945, she passed to his son Tommy, in 1947 he had the martingale removed, but continued to ply her on the Irish Sea coal trade, which was now in severe decline. He sold most of his collection of vintage and veteran motor cars to raise the money to buy her, with a crew of one, Paul sailed her around the coast to Appledore, where she was berthed on the mud in the estuary outside the port. The Duke of Edinburgh in a bid to preserve a number of examples of Britains decaying maritime heritage set up the Maritime Trust in London, the Trust moved her to Gloucester Docks, and began restoring her as a typical West Country schooner. But failed to secure a £2 million National Lottery Heritage Fund grant, businessman Steve Clarke from Bideford, Devon bought her. Towed by sea to Bideford, in February 1999 she was hauled out of the water by two 1,000 tonnes heavy lift mobile cranes, and placed on to the disused Brunswick Wharf at East-the-Water. 70% of the planking was stripped from the frames, enabling most of her internal timbers to be refitted.
While the stern of the ship was stripped down to the keels, once the frames were refitted, the surviving parts of the original frames were steam cleaned at 3000psi, to kill fungal spores. The ship was fitted with a 400 brake horsepower Detroit diesel ex-lifeboat engine, the ship now carries enough fuel to do 2,000 miles under engine power alone. Redecked with new seasoned timbers, she was given a refit, with all masts. On completion, she underwent a rigorous MCA CAT2 inspection, as a result of his efforts in restoring Kathleen and May, Councillor Steve Clarke was awarded the OBE in 2008. Based in Bideford on the River Torridge, since her restoration Kathleen & May now regularly sails across the Bristol Channel and she has returned to Youghal, attended various festivals, and sailed across the Bay of Biscay to Bilbao as the paid guest of the Guggenheim museum
Lady Elizabeth (1879)
Lady Elizabeth was an iron barque of 1,155 tons built by Robert Thompson Jr. of Southwick and launched on 4 June 1879. Robert Thompson Jr. was one of the sons of Robert Thompson Sr. who owned and operated the family ran shipyard J. L. Thompson & Sons, Thompson Jr. eventually left the family business in 1854 to start his own shipbuilding business in Southwick, Sunderland. The ship was built for John Wilson as a replacement for the 658-ton, 1869-built barque Lady Elizabeth which sank off Rottnest Island, the builders of the second Lady Elizabeth had built the first ship. The ship had three masts and was just under average size compared to barques built by Robert Thompson, the Lady Elizabeth was still the seventh largest ship the firm built. John Wilson remained owner of Lady Elizabeth and was captained by Alexander Findley from Montrose until 15 March 1884 when he took out a number of loans from G. Oliver, eventually John Wilson declared bankruptcy and all of his ships, including Lady Elizabeth were sold off.
The new owner was George Christian Karran who purchased the ship a few months later, Karrans family owned a number of ships but this was George Christian Karrans first ship. George Christian Karran captained the ship for a few years, after owning the ship for a few years, Georges elder brother Robert Gick Karran died leading George to take command of Manx King. However, he remained owner of Lady Elizabeth until 1906, in 1906 Lady Elizabeth was purchased by the Norwegian company Skibasaktieselskabet for £3,250. The company was managed by L. Lydersen and Lady Elizabeth was captained by Peter Julius Hoigh, on 23 February 1884, Lady Elizabeth suffered substantial damage from a hurricane. She sustained damage to the front of the deck after it was stoved in. Many of her sails were lost or severely damaged, despite the damage, the ship was able to make it to port in Sydney, Australia where six crew members jumped ship. Another death occurred on the voyage when William Leach fell from aloft and this was the third voyage under the command of Captain Karran.
On 10 May 1890, Captain George Christian Karran stepped down as captain after six voyages, lever took command as the new captain of Lady Elizabeth. In January 1906, Lady Elizabeth was sold to the Norwegian company Skibasaktieselskabet of Sundet, during Captain Julius Hoigh’s command of the ship, two crew members went missing after suffering from malarial fever. Lady Elizabeth left Callao, Peru with a crew that included several Finns on 26 September, just after leaving port, one of the Finns, a man named Granquiss, became ill. Captain Hoigh diagnosed his condition as malarial fever, a few days later, another Finnish crewman, Haparanta by name, became ill with malarial fever. A third crew member complained of feeling ill, but not as severely, the captain prescribed some remedies to help the sick crew members, and they were allowed to walk the deck to get fresh air. A short time later, Granquiss went missing and the crew were unable to locate him on the ship, around 7,00 pm, Captain Hoigh discovered the other sick Finnish crewmember was missing
Florida /ˈflɒrᵻdə/ is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, and the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and is the largest city by area in the contiguous United States, the Miami metropolitan area is Floridas most populous urban area. The city of Tallahassee is the state capital, much of the state is at or near sea level and is characterized by sedimentary soil. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south, the American alligator, American crocodile, Florida panther, and manatee can be found in the Everglades National Park. It was a location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, the states economy relies mainly on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, the Kennedy Space Center, Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, and continues to attract celebrities and athletes. It is internationally known for golf, auto racing, by the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee, the Timucua, the Ais, the Tocobaga, the Calusa and the Tequesta. Florida was the first part of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans, the earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2,1513 and he named the region La Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is a myth, in May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land. He described seeing a wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet.
Very soon, many smokes appeared along the whole coast, billowing against the sky, the Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Spanish language, and more to Florida. Both the Spanish and French established settlements in Florida, with varying degrees of success, in 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561. Spain maintained tenuous control over the region by converting the tribes to Christianity. The area of Spanish Florida diminished with the establishment of English settlements to the north, the English attacked St. Augustine, burning the city and its cathedral to the ground several times. Florida attracted numerous Africans and African-Americans from adjacent British colonies who sought freedom from slavery, in 1738, Governor Manuel de Montiano established Fort Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose near St
Charles W. Morgan (ship)
Charles W. Morgan is an American whaling ship built in 1841 whose active service period was during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Ships of this type were used to harvest the blubber of whales for whale oil. The ship has served as a ship since the 1940s. She is the worlds oldest surviving merchant vessel, and the surviving wooden whaling ship from the 19th century American merchant fleet. She was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1966, Charles Waln Morgan chose Jethro and Zachariah Hillmans shipyard in New Bedford, Massachusetts to construct a new ship. Charles W. Morgans live oak keel was laid down in February 1841, the bow and stern pieces of live oak were secured to the keel by an apron piece. The sturdy stern post was strengthened with hemlock root and white oak, yellow pine shipped from North Carolina was used for the ships beams and hemlock or hackmatack was used for the hanging knees. Construction of Charles W. Morgan proceeded until April 19,1841, the strike gathered support until it encompassed the shipyard, the oil refineries, and the cooper shops, Morgan was appointed chairman of the employers and given the task of resolving the strike.
Morgan opposed their demands, and a meeting with four master mechanics ended in failure, on May 6, an agreement was reached when the workers accepted a ten-and-a-half-hour workday. Work resumed on the ship without incident and she was launched on July 21,1841, the ship was registered as a caravel of 106 1⁄2 feet in length,27 feet 2 1⁄2 inches inches in breadth, and 13 feet 7 1⁄4 inches in depth. The ship was outfitted at Rotchs Wharf for the two months while preparations were made for its first voyage. The eponymous name, Charles W. Morgan, was rejected by her namesake builder before being used. Captain Thomas Norton sailed Charles W. Morgan into the Atlantic alongside Adeline Gibbs, a stop was made at Porto Pim on Faial Island to gather supplies before crossing the Atlantic. The ship passed Cape Horn, charted a course to the north, on December 13, the men launched in their whaling boats and took their first whale and killing it with the thrust of a lance under the side fin. Charles W. Morgan entered the port of Callau in early February, in 1844, the ship sailed to the Kodiak Grounds before sailing for home on August 18.
Charles W. Morgan returned to her port in New Bedford on January 2,1845.56. In her 80 years of service from her port of New Bedford, Massachusetts. Charles W. Morgan, in total, brought home 54,483 barrels of sperm and she sailed in the Indian and South Atlantic Oceans, surviving ice and snow storms
Gloucester /ˈɡlɒstər/ is a city on Cape Ann in Essex County, Massachusetts, in the United States. It is part of Massachusetts North Shore, the population was 28,789 at the 2010 U. S. Census. The boundaries of Gloucester originally included the town of Rockport, in an area dubbed Sandy Bay and that village separated formally on February 27,1840. In 1873, Gloucester was reincorporated as a city, Gloucester was founded at Cape Ann by an expedition called the Dorchester Company of men from Dorchester chartered by James I in 1623. It was one of the first English settlements in what would become the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the first company of pioneers made landing at Half Moon Beach and settled nearby, setting up fishing stages in a field in what is now Stage Fort Park. This settlements existence is proclaimed today by a tablet, affixed to a 50-foot boulder in that park. Life in this first settlement was harsh and it was short-lived, around 1626 the place was abandoned, and the people removed themselves to Naumkeag, where more fertile soil for planting was to be found.
The meetinghouse was even disassembled and relocated to the new place of settlement, at some point in the following years – though no record exists – the area was slowly resettled. The town was incorporated in 1642. It is at time that the name Gloucester first appears on tax rolls. This new permanent settlement focused on the Town Green area, an inlet in the marshes at a bend in the Annisquam River and this area is now the site of Grant Circle, a large traffic rotary at which Massachusetts Route 128 mingles with a major city street. Here the first permanent settlers built a house and therefore focused the nexus of their settlement on the Island for nearly 100 years. Unlike other early coastal towns in New England, development in Gloucester was not focused around the harbor as it is today and this is evidenced by the placement of the Town Green nearly two miles from the harbor-front. The Town Green is where the built the first school. By Massachusetts Bay Colony Law, any town boasting 100 families or more had to provide a public schoolhouse and this requirement was met in 1698, with Thomas Riggs standing as the towns first schoolmaster.
The White-Ellery House was erected in 1710 upon the Town Green and it was built at the edge of a marsh for Gloucester’s first settled minister, the Reverend John White. Early industry included subsistence farming and logging, because of the poor soil and rocky hills, Cape Ann was not well suited for farming on a large scale. Small family farms and livestock provided the bulk of the sustenance to the population, for which the town is known today, was limited to close-to-shore, with families subsisting on small catches as opposed to the great bounties yielded in years
C.A. Thayer (1895)
Thayer is a schooner built in 1895 near Eureka, California. The schooner is now preserved at the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park and she is one of the last survivors of the sailing schooners in the West coast lumber trade to San Francisco from Washington and Northern California. She was added to the National Register of Historic Places on 13 November 1966 and this ship is used for many class field trips. Thayer was built by Danish-born Hans Ditlev Bendixsen in his shipyard, Bendixsen built the Wawona which was dismantled in 2009. Thayer was named for Clarence A. Thayer, a partner in the San Francisco-based E. K, woods mill in Grays Harbor, Washington, to San Francisco. But she carried lumber as far south as Mexico, and occasionally even ventured offshore to Hawaii, Thayer is typical of the sort of three-masted schooners often used in the west coast lumber trade. She is 219 feet in length and has a capacity of 575,000 board feet. She carried about half of her load below deck, with the remaining lumber stacked 10 feet high on deck, in port, her small crew of eight or nine men were responsible for loading and unloading the ship.
Unloading 75,000 to 80,000 board feet was a days work. With the increase in the use of power for the lumber trade. Thayer was retired from the trade in 1912, and converted for use in the Alaskan salmon fishery. Early each April from 1912 to 1924, C. A, Thayer sailed from San Francisco for Western Alaska. On board she carried 28-foot gillnet boats, bundles of barrel staves, tons of salt, and she spent the summer anchored at a fishery camp such as Squaw Creek or Koggiung. While there, the fishermen worked their nets and the cannery workers packed the catch on shore, Thayer returned to San Francisco each September, carrying barrels of salted salmon. Vessels in the trade usually laid up during the winter months. Thayer carried Northwest fir and Mendocino redwood to Australia and these off-season voyages took about two months each way. Her return cargo was coal, but sometimes hardwood or copra. Thayer made yearly voyages from Poulsbo, Washington, to Alaskas Bering Sea cod-fishing waters, in addition to supplies, she carried upwards of thirty men north, including fourteen fishermen and twelve dressers
SS Great Britain
SS Great Britain is a museum ship and former passenger steamship, which was advanced for her time. She was the longest passenger ship in the world from 1845 to 1854 and she was designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel for the Great Western Steamship Companys transatlantic service between Bristol and New York. While other ships had been built of iron or equipped with a screw propeller and she was the first iron steamer to cross the Atlantic, which she did in 1845, in the time of 14 days. The ship is 322 ft in length and has a 3 and she was powered by two inclined 2 cylinder engines of the direct-acting type, with twin 88 in bore, 6-foot stroke cylinders. She was provided with secondary sail power, the four decks provided accommodation for a crew of 120, plus 360 passengers who were provided with cabins and promenade saloons. When launched in 1843, Great Britain was by far the largest vessel afloat, in 1852 she was sold for salvage and repaired. Great Britain carried thousands of immigrants to Australia from 1852 until converted to sail in 1881, three years later, she was retired to the Falkland Islands where she was used as a warehouse, quarantine ship and coal hulk until scuttled in 1937.
In 1970, following a donation by Sir Jack Hayward that paid for the vessel to be towed back to the UK. Now listed as part of the National Historic Fleet, she is a visitor attraction and museum ship in Bristol Harbour. After the initial success of its first liner, SS Great Western of 1838, the same engineering team that had collaborated so successfully on Great Western—Isambard Brunel, Thomas Guppy, Christopher Claxton and William Patterson—was again assembled. This time however, whose reputation was at its height, construction was carried out in a specially adapted dry dock in Bristol, England. Two chance encounters were to affect the design of Great Britain. In late 1838, John Lairds 213-foot English Channel packet ship Rainbow—the largest iron-hulled ship in service—made a stop at Bristol, Brunel despatched his associates Christopher Claxton and William Patterson to make a return voyage to Antwerp on Rainbow to assess the utility of the new building material. Both men returned as converts to iron-hulled technology, and Brunel scrapped his plans to build a wooden ship, Great Britains builders recognised a number of advantages of iron over the traditional wooden hull.
Wood was becoming more expensive, while iron was getting cheaper, Iron hulls were not subject to dry rot or woodworm, and they were lighter in weight and less bulky. The chief advantage of the hull was its much greater structural strength. The practical limit on the length of a ship is about 300 feet. Iron hulls are far less subject to hogging, so that the size of an iron-hulled ship is much greater
RRS Discovery was the last traditional wooden three-masted ship to be built in Britain. Designed for Antarctic research, it was launched as a Royal Research Ship in 1901 and it is now the centrepiece of visitor attraction in its home, Dundee. In charge of her design was W. E. Smith, one of the naval architects at the Admiralty, while the ships engine, boilers. The main compass was mounted amidships and there were to be no steel or iron fittings within 30 feet of this point. For the same reason the boiler and engines were mounted towards the stern of the ship, the yard was previously owned by Alexander Stephen and Sons and had built the Terra Nova in 1884. 1m in modern currency. At her economical cruising speed of 6 knots she only carried enough coal for 7700 miles of steaming, at 8 knots she could steam only 5100 miles. She was rigged as a barque and the total sail area was 12,296 square feet. Following the practice of the most modern sailing ships of the time, the ship was rigged to carry several large staysails and the funnel was hinged at the base so it could be laid on the deck when the large mizzen staysail was rigged once at sea.
At the time of her launch Discovery was widely held to be the strongest wooden ship ever built, the hull frames, placed much closer together than was normal, were made of solid sections of oak up to 11 inches thick. The outer hull was formed from two layers - one 6 inches thick and an outer skin some 5 inches thick, a third lining was laid inside the frames, forming a double bottom and skin around almost the entire hull. This meant that in places the hull was over 2 feet thick, providing not only formidable strength, the construction meant that it was impossible to install portholes so the crew relied on mushroom vents on the deck to allow air and light into the interior. The outer hull is made of English Elm and Greenheart, oak beams run across the hull forming three decks - the lower deck beams are 11 inches square in cross-section and are placed less than three feet apart along the ships length. Seven transverse bulkheads, of wood, provide additional strength, to prevent damage from ice floes or crushing the two-blade propeller could be hoisted out of the way and the rudder could be easily detached and stored aboard.
Iron-shod bows were severely raked so that when ramming the ice they would ride up over the margin, the coal bunkers on each side contained a steel tank, each of which could hold 60 tons of fresh water. On the long trip to and from New Zealand these tanks could hold additional coal. The metal tanks contributed to the strength of the hull around the boiler. She was launched into the Firth of Tay on 21 March 1901 by Lady Markham, the British National Antarctic Expedition departed the UK less than five months after the Discovery was launched and only a week after the ship left Dundee
City of Adelaide (1864)
City of Adelaide is a clipper ship, built in Sunderland and launched on 7 May 1864. The ship was commissioned in the Royal Navy as HMS Carrick between 1923 and 1948 and, after decommissioning, was known as Carrick until 2001. At a conference convened by HRH The Duke of Edinburgh in 2001, the decision was made to revert the name to City of Adelaide. City of Adelaide was built by William Pile, Hay and Co. for transporting passengers, between 1864 and 1887 the ship made 23 annual return voyages from London and Plymouth to Adelaide, South Australia. During this period she played an important part in the immigration of Australia, on the return voyages she carried passengers and copper from Adelaide and Port Augusta to London. From 1869 to 1885 she was part of Harrold Brothers Adelaide Line of clippers, after 1887 the ship carried coal around the British coast, and timber across the Atlantic. In 1893 she became a hospital in Southampton, and in 1923 was purchased by the Royal Navy. Converted as a ship, she was renamed HMS Carrick to avoid confusion with the newly commissioned HMAS Adelaide.
HMS Carrick was based in Scotland until 1948 when she was decommissioned and donated to the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Club, Carrick remained on the River Clyde until 1989 when she was damaged by flooding. In order to safeguard the vessel she was protected as a listed building, Carrick was recovered by the Scottish Maritime Museum the following year, and moved to a private slipway adjacent to the museums site in Irvine. Restoration work began, but funding ceased in 1999, and from 2000 the future of the ship was in doubt, in 2010, the Scottish Government decided that the ship would be moved to Adelaide, to be preserved as a museum ship. In September 2013 the ship moved by barge from Scotland to the Netherlands to prepare for transport to Australia. In late November 2013, loaded on the deck of a ship, City of Adelaide departed Europe bound for Port Adelaide, Australia. City of Adelaide is the worlds oldest surviving clipper ship, of two that survive — the other is Cutty Sark. With Cutty Sark and HMS Gannet, City of Adelaide is one of three surviving ocean-going ships of composite construction to survive.
City of Adelaide is one of three surviving sailing ships, and the only of these a passenger ship, to have taken emigrants from the British Isles, City of Adelaide is the only surviving purpose-built passenger sailing ship. Adding to her significance as an emigrant ship, City of Adelaide is the last survivor of the trade between North America and the United Kingdom. Having been built in the prior to Lloyds Register publishing their rules for composite ships
Edwin Fox is the worlds second oldest surviving merchant sailing ship and the only surviving ship that transported convicts to Australia. She is unique in that she is the only intact hull of a wooden sailing ship built to British specifications surviving in the world outside the Falkland Islands. Edwin Fox carried settlers to both Australia and New Zealand and carried troops in the Crimean War, the ship is dry-docked at The Edwin Fox Maritime Centre at Picton in New Zealand. She was built of teak in Calcutta in 1853 and her voyage was to London via the Cape of Good Hope. She went into service in the Crimean War as a troop ship, on 14 February 1856 she began her first voyage to Melbourne, carrying passengers, moved to trading between Chinese ports. In 1858 she was chartered by the British Government as a ship bound for Fremantle. Conditions on board for the four to six-month voyage were harsh and luggage strictly limited, on arrival they often found conditions much harsher than expected, and were faced with being cut off from family and friends in distant Europe, sometimes for life.
Edwin Fox was overtaken by the age of steam, and in the 1880s she was refitted as a floating freezer hulk for the sheep industry in New Zealand. She was towed to Picton in the South Island on 12 January 1897 where she continued as a freezer ship. By this time she had long since lost her rigging and masts, and suffered holes cut in her sides, the ship was in use until 1950, abandoned to rot at her moorings. In 1965 she was bought by the Edwin Fox Society for the sum of one shilling. In 1967 she was towed to Shakespeare Bay where she remained for the next 20 years, after much further fundraising the ship was refloated and towed to her final home, a dry dock on the Picton waterfront. She floated in and the dock was drained to begin restoration, initially it was planned to restore the ship completely, replacing rigging and refurbishing the interior. It has since decided that this is not practical, not only for reasons of finance. She is thus preserved as a hull with an adjacent informative museum, the trust are looking for sponsors to continue their work on this unique vessel.
She has been given a category I registration from Heritage New Zealand, the Edwin Fox, New Zealand from H2G2
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Alabama is the 30th-most extensive and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. At nearly 1,500 miles, Alabama has one of the nations longest navigable inland waterways, Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the Heart of Dixie and the Cotton State, the state tree is the longleaf pine, and the state flower is the camellia. The largest city by population is Birmingham, which has long been the most industrialized city, the oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, like other southern states, Alabama legislators disenfranchised African Americans and many poor whites at the turn of the century. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the economy changed from one primarily based on agriculture to one with diversified interests.
The state economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education, retail, in the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo. The word Alabama is believed to have come from the Alabama language, the words spelling varies significantly among historical sources. As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the words meaning, some scholars suggest the word comes from the Choctaw alba and amo. The meaning may have been clearers of the thicket or herb gatherers, the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language, an 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant Here We Rest. This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek, experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation.
Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization, trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact. The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no links to Mesoamerican culture